Next Issue
Volume 6, September
Previous Issue
Volume 6, March
 
 

Ceramics, Volume 6, Issue 2 (June 2023) – 34 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): A transparent nanostructured ceramic material (MgAl2O4) was fabricated using the SPS method. Commercial spinel nano-powders were sintered at different temperatures (1300 °C, 1350 °C and 1400 °C) during the fabrication process. This study demonstrates the significant impact of the SPS sintering temperature on the mechanical and optical properties of transparent spinel. Various techniques were employed for comprehensive characterization. The findings indicate that optimum transparency in the ceramics was attained when sintered at 1350 °C, along with a favorable combination of mechanical properties. These transparent ceramics hold great potential for a wide range of applications, including optical lenses and transparent armors. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
11 pages, 5772 KiB  
Article
Infrared and Terahertz Spectra of Sn-Doped Vanadium Dioxide Films
by Alexander Grebenchukov, Olga Boytsova, Alexey Shakhmin, Artem Tatarenko, Olga Makarevich, Ilya Roslyakov, Grigory Kropotov and Mikhail Khodzitsky
Ceramics 2023, 6(2), 1291-1301; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6020079 - 15 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1321
Abstract
This work reports the effect of tin (Sn) doping on the infrared (IR) and terahertz (THz) properties of vanadium dioxide (VO2) films. The films were grown by hydrothermal synthesis with a post-annealing process and then fully characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), [...] Read more.
This work reports the effect of tin (Sn) doping on the infrared (IR) and terahertz (THz) properties of vanadium dioxide (VO2) films. The films were grown by hydrothermal synthesis with a post-annealing process and then fully characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and temperature-controlled electrical resistivity as well as IR and THz spectroscopy techniques. Utilizing (NH4)2SnF6 as a Sn precursor allows the preparation of homogeneous Sn-doped VO2 films. Doping of VO2 films with Sn led to an increase in the thermal hysteresis width while conserving the high modulation depth in the mid-IR regime, which would be beneficial for the applications of VO2 films in IR memory devices. A further analysis shows that Sn doping of VO2 films significantly affects the temperature-dependent THz optical properties, in particular leading to the suppression of the temperature-driven THz transmission modulation. These results indicate Sn-doped VO2 films as a promising material for the development of switchable IR/THz dichroic components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Glasses and Glass-Ceramics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 5798 KiB  
Article
Investigation of the Quartz Distribution in Electro-Porcelain Materials
by Fanni Senze, Sören Höhn, Björn Matthey, Jan Schulte-Fischedick and Mathias Herrmann
Ceramics 2023, 6(2), 1277-1290; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6020078 - 14 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1010
Abstract
Analysis of the microstructure of electro-porcelain is important to better understand its influence on mechanical, electrical and aging behavior. The microstructures of two electro-porcelain materials with low and high quartz contents were analyzed with respect to the distribution of quartz. Using an adequate [...] Read more.
Analysis of the microstructure of electro-porcelain is important to better understand its influence on mechanical, electrical and aging behavior. The microstructures of two electro-porcelain materials with low and high quartz contents were analyzed with respect to the distribution of quartz. Using an adequate evaluation of EDS (energy dispersive spectroscopy) mapping data, a reproducible analysis of the size distribution and quantity of quartz was achieved. The method allows the analysis of large areas (12.5 mm2). Therefore, the probability of occurrence for a few large quartz grains could be determined. Independent of the overall amount of quartz in the materials, a wide distribution of the grain size was observed. The size of the large detected quartz grains in both materials was very similar. Around the large quartz particles, microcrack systems with lengths of several 100 µm were observed. They are linearly correlated with the equivalent circle diameter of the quartz grains. The evaluation of the cracks allowed us to determine the critical size below which no cracks around the quartz particles are formed. This size is approximately 10 µm. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 2880 KiB  
Article
Revealing the Individual Effects of Firing Temperature and Chemical Composition on Raman Parameters of Celadon Glaze
by Lan Zhao and Yunjun Zhang
Ceramics 2023, 6(2), 1263-1276; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6020077 - 14 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1132
Abstract
The Raman polymerization index (or IP value) is often used as a positive indicator of the firing temperature of the glazes of ancient ceramics. Previous studies have also reported that the IP value was negatively correlated with the chemical composition of [...] Read more.
The Raman polymerization index (or IP value) is often used as a positive indicator of the firing temperature of the glazes of ancient ceramics. Previous studies have also reported that the IP value was negatively correlated with the chemical composition of the glaze. However, these findings were derived from data on the potential integrative effects of temperature and composition. To explore their individual effects, we prepared celadon glaze samples with controlled composition and firing temperatures. Particularly, according to the typical content of K2O and CaO in celadon glaze, four categories, or, in total, fifteen compositional formulations, were designed, and each formulation was fired at multiple temperatures (from 1180 to 1250 °C by 10 °C). The chemical compositions and the glassy matrix of samples were analyzed by an energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. A positive correlation between firing temperature and IP value (correlation coefficient = 0.56) was detected only in the samples with low contents of K2O and CaO. However, no significant correlation was found when combining the samples with broad variation in chemical composition. Additionally, both the K2O content and CaO content were negatively related to the IP value, with regression coefficients of −9.645 and −5.332, respectively. Our results help to clarify the technology of ancient ceramic production and to improve its preservation. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 3223 KiB  
Article
Fe Doping in TiO2 via Anodic Dissolution of Iron: Synthesis, Characterization, and Electrophoretic Deposition on a Metal Substrate
by Sara Chatrnoor, Amirhossein Taghaddosi, Sayed Ali Ahmad Alem, Fatemeh Taati-Asil, Babak Raissi, Reza Riahifar and Maziar Sahba Yaghmaee
Ceramics 2023, 6(2), 1251-1262; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6020076 - 13 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1039
Abstract
The tailored physical properties of TiO2 are of significant importance in various fields and, as such, numerous methods for modifying these properties have been introduced. In this study, we present a novel method for doping Fe into TiO2 via the anodic [...] Read more.
The tailored physical properties of TiO2 are of significant importance in various fields and, as such, numerous methods for modifying these properties have been introduced. In this study, we present a novel method for doping Fe into TiO2 via the anodic dissolution of iron. The optimal conditions were determined to be an application of 200 V to acetylacetone (acac)/EtOH medium for 10 min, followed by the addition of TiO2 to the solution, sonication for 30 min, stirring at 80 °C, and drying. The resulting powder was calcined at 400 °C for 3 h, and characterization was conducted using XRD, FTIR, TEM, and UV-vis. The synthesized powder revealed the successful doping of Fe into the TiO2 structure, resulting in a decrease in the optical band gap from 3.22 to 2.92 eV. The Fe-TiO2 was then deposited on a metal substrate via the electrophoretic (EPD) technique, and the weight of the deposited layer was measured as a function of the applied voltage and exposure time. FESEM images and EDX analysis confirmed that the deposited layer was nanostructured, with Fe evenly distributed throughout the structure. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

13 pages, 13425 KiB  
Article
Comparative Study of Mechanical Performance of AlCrSiN Coating Deposited on WC-Co and cBN Hard Substrates
by Jing Liang, Marc Serra, Sandra Gordon, Jonathan Fernández de Ara, Eluxka Almandoz, Luis Llanes and Emilio Jimenez-Piqué
Ceramics 2023, 6(2), 1238-1250; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6020075 - 9 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1419
Abstract
The objective of this study is to explore and compare the mechanical response of AlCrSiN coatings deposited on two different substrates, namely, WC-Co and cBN. Nano-indentation was used to measure the hardness and elastic modulus of the coatings, and micro-indentation was used for [...] Read more.
The objective of this study is to explore and compare the mechanical response of AlCrSiN coatings deposited on two different substrates, namely, WC-Co and cBN. Nano-indentation was used to measure the hardness and elastic modulus of the coatings, and micro-indentation was used for observing the contact damage under Hertzian contact with monotonic and cyclic (fatigue) loads. Microscratch and contact damage tests were also used to evaluate the strength of adhesion between the AlCrSiN coatings and the two substrates under progressive and constant loads, respectively. The surface damages induced via different mechanical tests were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A focused ion beam (FIB) was used to produce a cross-section of the coating–substrate system in order to further detect the mode and extent of failure that was induced. The results show that the AlCrSiN coating deposited on the WC-Co substrate performed better in regard to adhesion strength and contact damage response than the same coating deposited on the cBN substrate; this is attributed to the lower plasticity of the cBN substrate as well as its less powerful adhesion to the coating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramic Coatings for High-Temperature Applications)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

11 pages, 4067 KiB  
Article
Structural-Phase Change of Multilayer Ceramics Zr-Y-O/Si-Al-N under High Temperature
by Marina Fedorischeva, Mark Kalashnikov, Irina Bozhko, Tamara Dorofeeva and Victor Sergeev
Ceramics 2023, 6(2), 1227-1237; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6020074 - 8 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1109
Abstract
To increase the thermocyclic resistance of material, multilayer coatings with alternating layers of Zr-Y-O and Si-Al-N were obtained via magnetron sputtering. It was established that a coating layer based on Zr-Y-O has a columnar structure; the height of the columns is determined by [...] Read more.
To increase the thermocyclic resistance of material, multilayer coatings with alternating layers of Zr-Y-O and Si-Al-N were obtained via magnetron sputtering. It was established that a coating layer based on Zr-Y-O has a columnar structure; the height of the columns is determined by the thickness of the layer. The Si-Al-N-based layer is amorphous. There were monoclinic and tetragonal phases with a large lattice parameter in the composition of the Zr-Y-O-based coating layer. After high-temperature annealing, a tetragonal phase with a small lattice parameter appeared in the microscope column. In the “in situ” mode, a change in the structural state of the Zr-Y-O coating layer was detected in the temperature range of 450–500 °C; namely, a change in the grain size and coherent scattering regions, and an increase in internal elastic stresses. It was found that the thermocyclic resistance increased by more than two times for multilayer samples compared to the single-layer ones we studied earlier. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramic Coatings for High-Temperature Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 5032 KiB  
Article
Comparative Study of Physicochemical Properties of Finely Dispersed Powders and Ceramics in the Systems CeO2–Sm2O3 and CeO2–Nd2O3 as Electrolyte Materials for Medium Temperature Fuel Cells
by Marina V. Kalinina, Daria A. Dyuskina, Sergey V. Mjakin, Irina Yu. Kruchinina and Olga A. Shilova
Ceramics 2023, 6(2), 1210-1226; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6020073 - 4 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1133
Abstract
Finely dispersed (CeO2)1−x(Sm2O3)x (x = 0.05, 0.10, 0.20) and (CeO2)1−x(Nd2O3)x (x = 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25) powders were synthesized via liquid-phase techniques based on [...] Read more.
Finely dispersed (CeO2)1−x(Sm2O3)x (x = 0.05, 0.10, 0.20) and (CeO2)1−x(Nd2O3)x (x = 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25) powders were synthesized via liquid-phase techniques based on the co-precipitation of hydroxides and were used to obtain ceramic materials comprising fluorite-like solid solutions with CSR in the range 69–88 nm (upon annealing at 1300 °C) and open porosity in the range 0.6–6.2%. The physicochemical properties of the synthesized materials were comparatively characterized. In general, the prepared materials were found to possess a mixed type of electrical conductivity, but in the medium-temperature range, the ionic component was predominant (ion transfer numbers ti = 0.93–0.73 at 300–700 °C). The highest ionic conductivity was observed for CeO2-based samples containing 20 mol.% Sm2O3700°C = 3.3 × 10−2 S/cm) and 15 mol.% Nd2O3700°C = 0.48 × 10−2 S/cm) was in the temperature range 500–700 °C. The physicochemical properties (density, open porosity, type and mechanism of electrical conductivity) of the obtained ceramic materials make them promising as solid oxide electrolytes for medium temperature fuel cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composite Nanopowders: Synthesis and Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 84491 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Behavior of Transparent Spinel Fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering
by Khadidja Hoggas, Salim Benaissa, Abdelbaki Cherouana, Sofiane Bouheroum, Abdenacer Assali, Mohamed Hamidouche and Gilbert Fantozzi
Ceramics 2023, 6(2), 1191-1209; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6020072 - 31 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1574
Abstract
In this work, a transparent nanostructured ceramic magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl2O4) was fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) from commercial spinel nano-powders at different temperatures (1300, 1350 and 1400 °C). The sintered samples were thoroughly examined to assess their [...] Read more.
In this work, a transparent nanostructured ceramic magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl2O4) was fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) from commercial spinel nano-powders at different temperatures (1300, 1350 and 1400 °C). The sintered samples were thoroughly examined to assess their microstructural, optical, and mechanical properties. Various techniques such as SEM, AFM, spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere, instrumented Vickers indenter, Pin-on-Disk tribometer, scratch tester, and sandblasting device were employed to characterize the sintered samples. The results indicated the significant impact of the sintering temperature on the properties of the spinel samples. Particularly, the samples sintered at T = 1350 °C exhibited the highest Real In-line Transmission (RIT = 72% at 550 nm and 80% at 1000 nm). These samples demonstrated the highest hardness value (HV = 16.7 GPa) compared to those sintered at 1300 °C (HV = 15.6 GPa) and 1400 °C (HV = 15.1 GPa). The measured fracture toughness of the sintered samples increased substantially with increasing sintering temperature. Similarly, the tribological study revealed that the friction coefficient of the sintered spinel samples increased with the sintering temperature, and the spinel sintered at 1350 °C exhibited the lowest wear rate. Additionally, sandblasting and scratch tests confirmed the significant influence of the sintering temperature on the mechanical properties of the fabricated spinels. Overall, the spinel sintered at 1350 °C presented the best compromise in terms of all the evaluated properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transparent Ceramics—a Theme Issue in Honor of Dr. Adrian Goldstein)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 21504 KiB  
Article
Comparative Fracture Resistance Analysis of Translucent Monolithic Zirconia Dioxide Milled in a CAD/CAM System
by Cristian Abad-Coronel, Ángeles Paladines, Ana Liz Ulloa, César A. Paltán and Jorge I. Fajardo
Ceramics 2023, 6(2), 1179-1190; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6020071 - 31 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1808
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the fracture resistance of definitive zirconia dioxide restorations obtained using a computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system. Methods: Two groups of ten samples were analyzed for each material (n: 20); the first group [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the fracture resistance of definitive zirconia dioxide restorations obtained using a computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system. Methods: Two groups of ten samples were analyzed for each material (n: 20); the first group was Zolid Gen X Amann Girrbach (ZGX) and the second group was Cercon HT Dentsply Sirona (CDS). The restorations were designed with identical parameters and milled with a CAD/CAM system. Each specimen was load tested at a speed of 0.5 mm/min, with a direction parallel to the major axis of the tooth and with an initial preload of 10 N until fracture using a universal testing machine (Universal/Tensile Testing Machine, Autograph AGS-X Series) equipped with a 20 kN load cell. The results obtained were recorded in Newtons (N), using software connected to the testing machine. Results: Statistically significant differences were found, and the fracture resistance of the monolithic zirconia crowns was lower in the CDS group (1744.84 ± 172.8 N) compared to the ZGX group (2387.41 ± 516 N). Conclusions: The monolithic zirconia CAD-CAM zirconia crowns showed sufficient fracture resistance when used in posterior molar and premolar zones with either material, as they withstood fracture loads greater than the maximum masticatory force. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 5304 KiB  
Article
Study of the Mechanisms of Polymorphic Transformations in Zirconium Dioxide upon Doping with Magnesium Oxide, as Well as Establishing the Relationship between Structural Changes and Strength Properties
by Alisher E. Kurakhmedov, Aidar K. Morzabayev, Islam Tleubay, Askhat Berguzinov and Artem L. Kozlovskiy
Ceramics 2023, 6(2), 1164-1178; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6020070 - 24 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1152
Abstract
The aim of this work is to study the mechanisms of polymorphic transformations in ZrO2 ceramics doped with MgO with different concentrations during thermal isochronous annealing, as well as the effect of the phase composition of ceramics on the change in strength [...] Read more.
The aim of this work is to study the mechanisms of polymorphic transformations in ZrO2 ceramics doped with MgO with different concentrations during thermal isochronous annealing, as well as the effect of the phase composition of ceramics on the change in strength properties and resistance to mechanical stress. Solving the problem of polymorphic transformations in zirconium dioxide by doping them with MgO will increase the resistance of ceramics to external influences, as well as increase the mechanical strength of ceramics. According to the data of X-ray phase analysis, it was found that the addition of the MgO dopant to the composition of ceramics at the chosen thermal annealing temperature leads to the initialization of polymorphic transformation processes, while changing the dopant concentration leads to significant differences in the types of polymorphic transformations. In the case of an undoped ZrO2 ceramic sample, thermal annealing at a temperature of 1500 °C leads to structural ordering due to the partial removal of deformation distortions of the crystal lattice caused by mechanochemical grinding. During the study of the effect of MgO doping and polymorphic transformations in ZrO2 ceramics on the strength properties, it was found that the main hardening effect is due to a change in the dislocation density during the formation of a ZrO2/MgO type structure. At the same time, polymorphic transformations of the m—ZrO2 → t—ZrO2 type have a greater effect on hardening at low dopant concentrations than t—ZrO2 → c—ZrO2 type transformations. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 2022 KiB  
Article
Uranium Retention in Silica-Rich Natural Glasses: Nuclear Waste Disposal Aspect
by Valeri V. Poluektov, Vladislav A. Petrov, Michael I. Ojovan and Sergey V. Yudintsev
Ceramics 2023, 6(2), 1152-1163; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6020069 - 18 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1720
Abstract
Uranium-containing glass samples with an age of 140–145 million years were collected within the volcanic rocks of the largest volcanic-related uranium ore deposit in the world. Main features of their composition are high concentrations of silica and uranium, the largest for the rocks [...] Read more.
Uranium-containing glass samples with an age of 140–145 million years were collected within the volcanic rocks of the largest volcanic-related uranium ore deposit in the world. Main features of their composition are high concentrations of silica and uranium, the largest for the rocks of this type. In contrast to this, the ages of fresh (unaltered) low-silica natural glasses of a basic composition (basalts) usually do not exceed a few million years. The volcanic low-silica glass is unstable at longer times and in older ancient rocks is transformed into a crystalline mass. The geochemistry of uranium including the behavior in solids and solutions is similar to that of long-lived transuranic actinides such as radioactive Np and Pu from high-level radioactive waste. This allows uranium to be used as a simulant of these long-lived hazardous radionuclides both at the synthesis and for the study of various nuclear wasteforms: glasses, glass crystalline materials and crystalline ceramics. The data obtained on long-term behavior of natural glasses are of importance for prognosis and validation of stability of nuclear wasteforms disposed of in geological disposal facilities (GDF). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Glasses and Glass-Ceramics)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

13 pages, 9412 KiB  
Article
Obtaining Foamed Glass-Ceramics from Diamond Concentration Tailings
by Olga V. Suvorova, Nadezhda K. Manakova, Andrey I. Novikov and Dmitriy V. Makarov
Ceramics 2023, 6(2), 1139-1151; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6020068 - 18 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1441
Abstract
The possibility of obtaining building foamed glass-ceramic using the diamond concentration tailings of the Lomonosov deposit in Arkhangelsk Region, Russia, is demonstrated here. The effect of the tailings’ particle size distribution, feed temperature, the addition of a foaming agent, and the content of [...] Read more.
The possibility of obtaining building foamed glass-ceramic using the diamond concentration tailings of the Lomonosov deposit in Arkhangelsk Region, Russia, is demonstrated here. The effect of the tailings’ particle size distribution, feed temperature, the addition of a foaming agent, and the content of oxidizer on the feed charge foaming is established. The process conditions for obtaining foamed glass-ceramic materials are described. The specifications of the materials with the optimal composition (tailings 50 wt.%, glass waste 50 wt.%, SiC 0.5 wt.%, Fe2O3 1 wt.%) foamed at 1020–1050 °C were as follows: apparent density 0.23–0.51 g/cm3, compression strength 0.58–2.40 MPa, water absorption (by volume) 8.7–19.0%. Based on the combination of the measured properties when used in dry conditions, the obtained materials can be considered heat-insulating foam materials. The thermal conductivity was 0.060–0.066 W/m·K. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 9048 KiB  
Article
Hafnium-Zirconium Carbonitride (Hf,Zr)(C,N) by One Step Mechanically Induced Self-Sustaining Reaction: Powder Synthesis and Spark Plasma Sintering
by Irina Khadyrova, Veronika Suvorova, Andrey Nepapushev, Dmitrii Suvorov, Kirill Kuskov and Dmitry Moskovskikh
Ceramics 2023, 6(2), 1129-1138; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6020067 - 17 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1459
Abstract
Nanostructured single-phase hafnium-zirconium carbonitride powders were synthesized using a simple and fast mechanochemical synthesis approach. The critical milling duration, after which a (Hf,Zr)(C,N) solid solution formation inside a jar occurred via mechanically induced self-sustained reaction (MSR), was 10 min. After 30 min of [...] Read more.
Nanostructured single-phase hafnium-zirconium carbonitride powders were synthesized using a simple and fast mechanochemical synthesis approach. The critical milling duration, after which a (Hf,Zr)(C,N) solid solution formation inside a jar occurred via mechanically induced self-sustained reaction (MSR), was 10 min. After 30 min of treatment, a solid-gas reaction was completed, and as a result, a homogeneous (Hf,Zr)(C,N) powder consisting of 10–500 nm submicron particles was obtained. The phase and structure evolution of the powders after different treatment durations allowed for the establishment of possible reaction mechanisms, which included the formation of Hf/Zr/C-layered composite particles, their interaction via MSR, and further grinding and nitridization. Spark plasma sintering (SPS) was used to produce bulk hafnium-zirconium carbonitride ceramics from nanostructured powder. The sample had higher values of relative density, hardness, and fracture toughness than those for binary compounds of a similar composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramic Processing and Sintering, Volume II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 12207 KiB  
Article
Water-Assisted Cold Sintering of Alumina Ceramics in SPS Conditions
by Anastasia A. Kholodkova, Maxim V. Kornyushin, Mikhail A. Pakhomov, Andrey V. Smirnov and Yurii D. Ivakin
Ceramics 2023, 6(2), 1113-1128; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6020066 - 17 May 2023
Viewed by 1756
Abstract
A developing energy-saving approach of cold sintering in a pure aqueous medium was applied to the preparation of α-Al2O3 ceramics and performed on spark plasma sintering equipment. The initial γ-Al(OH)3 and γ-AlOOH powders and the cold-sintered ceramics were studied [...] Read more.
A developing energy-saving approach of cold sintering in a pure aqueous medium was applied to the preparation of α-Al2O3 ceramics and performed on spark plasma sintering equipment. The initial γ-Al(OH)3 and γ-AlOOH powders and the cold-sintered ceramics were studied by X-ray diffraction analysis, infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, and scanning electron microscopy to reveal the chemical and structural transformations they experienced during the cold sintering. At 450 °C and 70 MPa, initially γ-AlOOH transformed into a fragile α-Al2O3 material. Porous α-Al2O3 ceramics with about 60% porosity were obtained after cold sintering of γ-Al(OH)3 in the same conditions combined with subsequent annealing at 1250 °C for 3 h. The role of water molecules in the studied processes was considered as the enhancement of structural mobility in the cold-sintered material due to its reversible hydroxylation similar to earlier investigated supercritical water actions on the precursors during α-Al2O3 formation. Further improvement of the cold sintering setup and regimens would open prospects in α-Al2O3 ceramics manufacturing by an ecologically benign route. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramic Processing and Sintering, Volume II)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

13 pages, 2330 KiB  
Article
Effect of Synthetic Approaches and Sintering Additives upon Physicochemical and Electrophysical Properties of Solid Solutions in the System (CeO2)1−x(Nd2O3)x for Fuel Cell Electrolytes
by Marina V. Kalinina, Daria A. Dyuskina, Irina G. Polyakova, Sergey V. Mjakin and Irina Yu. Kruchinina
Ceramics 2023, 6(2), 1100-1112; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6020065 - 11 May 2023
Viewed by 1203
Abstract
Finely dispersed (CeO2)1−x(Nd2O3)x (x = 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25) powders are synthesized via liquid-phase techniques based on the co-precipitation of hydroxides and co-crystallization of nitrates. The prepared powders are used to obtain ceramic [...] Read more.
Finely dispersed (CeO2)1−x(Nd2O3)x (x = 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25) powders are synthesized via liquid-phase techniques based on the co-precipitation of hydroxides and co-crystallization of nitrates. The prepared powders are used to obtain ceramic materials comprising fluorite-like solid solutions with the coherent scattering region (CSR) of about 88 nm (upon annealing at 1300 °C) and open porosity in the range of 1–15%. The effect of the synthesis procedure and sintering additives (SiO2, ZnO) on physicochemical and electrophysical properties of the resulting ceramics is studied. The prepared materials are found to possess a predominantly ionic type of electric conductivity with ion transfer numbers ti = 0.96–0.71 in the temperature range of 300–700 °C. The conductivity in solid solutions follows a vacancy mechanism with σ700 °C = 0.48 × 10−2 S/cm. Physicochemical properties (density, open porosity, type and mechanism of electrical conductivity) of the obtained ceramic materials make them promising as solid oxide electrolytes for medium temperature fuel cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composite Nanopowders: Synthesis and Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 15036 KiB  
Article
Red and Black Paints on Prehistoric Pottery of the Southern Russian Far East: An Archaeometric Study
by Irina S. Zhushchikhovskaya, Igor Yu Buravlev, Aleksander A. Karpenko, Anastasia A. Lazina and Aleksander N. Fedorets
Ceramics 2023, 6(2), 1078-1099; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6020064 - 2 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2216
Abstract
This paper considers the results of an examination of painted pottery from prehistoric sites of the Prmor’ye region (Southern Russian Far East) in the northwestern part of the Sea of Japan basin. Red-painted and black-painted ceramic wares occur here only in the remains [...] Read more.
This paper considers the results of an examination of painted pottery from prehistoric sites of the Prmor’ye region (Southern Russian Far East) in the northwestern part of the Sea of Japan basin. Red-painted and black-painted ceramic wares occur here only in the remains of the Yankovskaya archaeological culture dated to the 1st mil. BCE. Red painting appears as a colored surface coating, and black painting is represented by very simple drawn patterns. Until recently painting decorations have not been intentionally studied. The objects of our investigation are a small series of red-painted and black-painted ceramic fragments originated from archaeological sites. The methods of optical microscopy, SEM-EDS, and Raman spectroscopy were applied to the study of research materials. As a result, the data on characteristics of texture and composition of red and black paints were obtained. Both were determined to be pre-firing paints. Red paint is a clayish substance mixed with natural ochre pigment containing the hematite coloring agent. Black paint is carbon-based. Black carbon and burnt bone are recognized as colorants. The presented materials are new evidence of pottery paint technologies in prehistoric Eurasia. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 2592 KiB  
Article
Digital Characteristics of Microstructure of Diamond—Silicon Carbide Composites
by Andrey G. Chekuryaev, Maxim M. Sychov, Sergey N. Perevislov and Vladimir N. Ulanov
Ceramics 2023, 6(2), 1067-1077; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6020063 - 1 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1457
Abstract
As an example of the implementation of digital materials science approaches based on statistical processing of electron micrographs with the analysis of fractal parameters, the digital characteristics of microstructure of diamond–silicon carbide ceramic composite material are calculated. The lacunarity parameter characterizing the non-uniform [...] Read more.
As an example of the implementation of digital materials science approaches based on statistical processing of electron micrographs with the analysis of fractal parameters, the digital characteristics of microstructure of diamond–silicon carbide ceramic composite material are calculated. The lacunarity parameter characterizing the non-uniform distribution of filler particles in the matrix is found. Based on lacunarity values calculated at different scales, scale invariance parameter characterizing the dependence of lacunarity on the scale is evaluated. Voronoi entropy characterizing the structure based on the quantity of information is also calculated and used to determine the average number of neighboring particles and average distance between them. For the composites with high mechanical properties, the number of nearest neighbors approaches six, indicating an almost closest packing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composite Nanopowders: Synthesis and Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 26680 KiB  
Article
On the Statistics of Mechanical Failure in Flame-Sprayed Self-Supporting Components
by Florian Kerber, Magda Hollenbach, Marc Neumann, Tony Wetzig, Thomas Schemmel, Helge Jansen and Christos G. Aneziris
Ceramics 2023, 6(2), 1050-1066; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6020062 - 25 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1495
Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the variability of flexural strength for flame-sprayed ceramic components and to determine which two-parametric distribution function was best suited to represent the experimental data. Moreover, the influence of the number of tested specimens was addressed. [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to investigate the variability of flexural strength for flame-sprayed ceramic components and to determine which two-parametric distribution function was best suited to represent the experimental data. Moreover, the influence of the number of tested specimens was addressed. The stochastic nature of the flame-spraying process causes a pronounced variation in the properties of potential components, making it crucial to characterise the fracture statistics. To achieve this, this study used two large data sets consisting of 1000 flame-sprayed specimens each. In addition to the standard Weibull approach, the study examined the quality of representing the experimental data using other two-parametric distribution functions (Normal, Log-Normal, and Gamma). To evaluate the accuracy of the distribution functions and their characteristic parameters, random subsamples were generated by resampling of the experimental data, and the results were assessed based on the sampling size. It was found that the experimental data were best represented by either the Weibull or Gamma distribution, and the quality of the fit was correlated with the number of positive and negative outliers. The Weibull fit was more sensitive to positive outliers, whereas the Gamma fit was more sensitive to negative outliers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramic Coatings for High-Temperature Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 1776 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Properties of Five Esthetic Ceramic Materials Used for Monolithic Restorations: A Comparative In Vitro Study
by Saleh N. Almohammed, Belal Alshorman and Layla A. Abu-Naba’a
Ceramics 2023, 6(2), 1031-1049; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6020061 - 24 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2491
Abstract
Monolithic zirconia and hybrid ceramic restorations have been widely used in the last decade for both anterior and posterior dental restorations. However, their use lacks sufficient scientific evidence in most cases, as the expeditious manufacturing of these versatile ceramic materials exceeds the limits [...] Read more.
Monolithic zirconia and hybrid ceramic restorations have been widely used in the last decade for both anterior and posterior dental restorations. However, their use lacks sufficient scientific evidence in most cases, as the expeditious manufacturing of these versatile ceramic materials exceeds the limits of in vitro and/or in vivo validation. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the mechanical properties (flexural strength, fracture toughness, Vickers hardness, and brittleness index) of three CAD-CAM monolithic multilayer zirconia ceramics (GNX—Ceramill Zolid® Gen-X, ZCP—IPS e.max® ZirCAD, and UPC—Upcera® Esthetic Explore Prime) and one CAD-CAM monolithic multilayer polymer-infiltrated hybrid ceramic (ENM—Vita® Enamic) with a CAD-CAM monolithic lithium disilicate ceramic as a control (EMX —IPS e.max® CAD). A total of 160 discs (GNX = 32, ZCP = 32, UPC = 32, ENM = 32, and EMX = 32) were cut, polished, and fully sintered (except for the ENM). Half of the samples for each group were subjected to hydrothermal aging. Descriptive analysis and ANOVA tests were used to compare the groups. The zirconia groups showed significantly higher mechanical properties than the EMX group for both the non-aged and aged samples (p < 0.05). The ENM group showed the lowest brittleness index, while EMX showed the highest. The mechanical properties of monolithic multilayer zirconia ceramics were generally better than those of monolithic multilayer polymer-infiltrated hybrid ceramic and lithium disilicate ceramic. All groups showed, to some extent, a change in their mechanical properties after aging, with the ENM being the most affected. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

14 pages, 9060 KiB  
Article
Preparation and Mechanical Characteristics of Multicomponent Ceramic Solid Solutions of Rare Earth Metal Oxides Synthesized by the SCS Method
by Victor Zhuravlev, Larisa Ermakova, Rina Samigullina and Alexey Ermakov
Ceramics 2023, 6(2), 1017-1030; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6020060 - 22 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1405
Abstract
A study into the use of the Solution Combustion Synthesis (SCS) method with glycine and citric acid to synthesize fine powders of multicomponent solid solutions of oxides of rare earth (RE) metals (Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, and Ho) for the preparation of [...] Read more.
A study into the use of the Solution Combustion Synthesis (SCS) method with glycine and citric acid to synthesize fine powders of multicomponent solid solutions of oxides of rare earth (RE) metals (Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, and Ho) for the preparation of ceramic materials is presented. Synthesis parameters of 4-, 5-, and 6-component entropy-stabilized rare earth oxides (REOs) with a C-type cubic structure are determined. The stability of entropy-stabilized oxides (ESOs) with a C-type structure is shown to depend not only on heavy RE metal quantity, but also on the rate of heating/cooling of the samples. The temperature of the polymorphic transformation of C-type REO structures into B-type (monoclinic) or H-type (hexagonal) structural variants can be described by the equation T (°C) = 0.0214Vcr2 − 62.737Vcr + 46390, where Vcr is the unit cell volume of an oxide with a C-type structure regardless of the number of cations in the solid solution. High-temperature thermal analysis up to 1250 °C revealed that dispersed powders, which contain impurities of basic carbonates along with hydroxocarbonates of RE metals and X-ray amorphous carbon formed during SCS reactions, also react with air moisture during storage. The influence of the ESO phase and cationic composition on the morphology, porosity and microhardness of ceramics was studied. Higher-entropy oxides form samples with higher density, microhardness and a smaller size of particle agglomerates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramic Processing and Sintering, Volume II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 2867 KiB  
Review
Non-Oxide Ceramics for Bone Implant Application: State-of-the-Art Overview with an Emphasis on the Acetabular Cup of Hip Joint Prosthesis
by Consiglio M. Paione and Francesco Baino
Ceramics 2023, 6(2), 994-1016; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6020059 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1648
Abstract
A rapidly developing area of ceramic science and technology involves research on the interaction between implanted biomaterials and the human body. Over the past half century, the use of bioceramics has revolutionized the surgical treatment of various diseases that primarily affect bone, thus [...] Read more.
A rapidly developing area of ceramic science and technology involves research on the interaction between implanted biomaterials and the human body. Over the past half century, the use of bioceramics has revolutionized the surgical treatment of various diseases that primarily affect bone, thus contributing to significantly improving the quality of life of rehabilitated patients. Calcium phosphates, bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics are mostly used in tissue engineering applications where bone regeneration is the major goal, while stronger but almost inert biocompatible ceramics such as alumina and alumina/zirconia composites are preferable in joint prostheses. Over the last few years, non-oxide ceramics—primarily silicon nitride, silicon carbide and diamond-like coatings—have been proposed as new options in orthopaedics in order to overcome some tribological and biomechanical limitations of existing commercial products, yielding very promising results. This review is specifically addressed to these relatively less popular, non-oxide biomaterials for bone applications, highlighting their potential advantages and critical aspects deserving further research in the future. Special focus is also given to the use of non-oxide ceramics in the manufacturing of the acetabular cup, which is the most critical component of hip joint prostheses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 7946 KiB  
Article
Surface Modification of Silica Nanoparticles with Ethyl Oleate for the Purpose of Stabilizing Nanolubricants Used for Tribological Tests
by Álmos Dávid Tóth, Nóra Mike-Kaszás, Gábor Bartus, Hajnalka Hargitai and Ádám István Szabó
Ceramics 2023, 6(2), 980-993; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6020058 - 13 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1874
Abstract
Long-term sustainability and decreasing amount of fossil oil reserves require a partial or complete transformation of traditional lubricating oils. The use of silica nanoparticles as a lubricant additive has a huge tribological potential, which has already been discussed in numerous articles. Nanosized silica [...] Read more.
Long-term sustainability and decreasing amount of fossil oil reserves require a partial or complete transformation of traditional lubricating oils. The use of silica nanoparticles as a lubricant additive has a huge tribological potential, which has already been discussed in numerous articles. Nanosized silica shows excellent results in reducing friction and preventing wear, but they quickly aggregate and settle after homogenization in oils. For long-term stable dispersion of lubricating oils containing nanoceramics, the surface of the particles was modified with ethyl oleate. The surface modification, the ethyl oleate applied to the surface of the nanosilica, was confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Group III based lubricating oil was prepared using the surface-modified nanosilica. The particle size of the nanoparticles in the lubricating oil dispersion was examined by dynamic light scattering. Oscillating tribometer measurements were performed with different concentrations (0.1; 0.2; 0.3 wt%) of nanolubricants. Based on the tribological results, the friction coefficient of the surface-modified nanosilica is more stable, its wear is 15% lower compared to the reference. There is no significant change in the magnitude of the friction coefficient. It can be concluded that the ethyl oleate surface modification method may be suitable for tribological investigations of the acting mechanisms of nanoparticles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramics for Decarbonization of the Global Industry)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 6637 KiB  
Article
Phase Instability, Oxygen Desorption and Related Properties in Cu-Based Perovskites Modified by Highly Charged Cations
by Roman A. Shishkin, Alexey Yu. Suntsov and Mikhael O. Kalinkin
Ceramics 2023, 6(2), 968-979; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6020057 - 11 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1306
Abstract
The rock-salt ordered A2CuWO6 (A = Sr, Ba) with I4/m space group and disordered SrCu0.5M0.5O3−δ (M = Ta, Nb) with Pm3m space group perovskites were successfully obtained via a solid-state reaction [...] Read more.
The rock-salt ordered A2CuWO6 (A = Sr, Ba) with I4/m space group and disordered SrCu0.5M0.5O3−δ (M = Ta, Nb) with Pm3m space group perovskites were successfully obtained via a solid-state reaction route. Heat treatment of Ba2CuWO6 over 900 °C in air leads to phase decomposition to the barium tungstate and copper oxide. Thermogravimetric measurements reveal the strong stoichiometric oxygen content and specific oxygen capacity (ΔWo) exceeding 2.5% for Ba2CuWO6. At the same time, oxygen content reveals Cu3+ content in SrCu0.5Ta0.5O3−δ. Under the following reoxidation of Ba2CuWO6, step-like behavior in weight changes was observed, corresponding to possible Cu+ ion formation at 900 °C; in contrast, no similar effect was detected for M5+ cations. The yellow color of Ba2CuWO6 enables to measure the band gap 2.59 eV. SrCu0.5Ta0.5O3−δ due to high oxygen valance concentration has a low thermal conductivity 1.28 W·m−1·K−1 in the temperature range 25–400 °C. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 4059 KiB  
Article
Oxygen–Ion Conductivity, Dielectric Properties and Spectroscopic Characterization of “Stuffed” Tm2(Ti2−xTmx)O7−x/2 (x = 0, 0.1, 0.18, 0.28, 0.74) Pyrochlores
by Nikolay Gorshkov, Egor Baldin, Dmitry Stolbov, Viktor Rassulov, Olga Karyagina and Anna Shlyakhtina
Ceramics 2023, 6(2), 948-967; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6020056 - 10 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1538
Abstract
Tm2(Ti2−xTmx)O7−x/2 (x = 0, 0.1, 0.18, 0.28, 0.74) solid electrolytes have been investigated as potential electrolyte materials for solid oxygen fuel cells (SOFCs), operating in the medium temperature range (600–700 °C). The [...] Read more.
Tm2(Ti2−xTmx)O7−x/2 (x = 0, 0.1, 0.18, 0.28, 0.74) solid electrolytes have been investigated as potential electrolyte materials for solid oxygen fuel cells (SOFCs), operating in the medium temperature range (600–700 °C). The design of new oxygen-conducting materials is of importance for their possible utilization in the solid oxide fuel cells. The oxygen–ion conductivity of the Tm2(Ti2−xTmx)O7−x/2 (x = 0, 0.1, 0.18, 0.28, 0.74) “stuffed” pyrochlores ceramics was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (two-probe AC) in dry and wet air. The synthesis of precursors via co-precipitation and the precipitate decomposition temperature have been shown to be of key importance for obtaining dense and highly conductive ceramics. At ~770 °C, the highest total conductivity, ~3.16 × 10−3 S/cm, is offered by Tm2Ti2O7. The conductivity of the fluorite-like solid solution Tm2(Ti2−xTmx)O7−x/2 (x = 0.74) is an order of magnitude lower. However, for the first time a proton contribution of ~5 × 10−5 S/cm at 600 °C has been found in Tm2(Ti2−xTmx)O7−x/2 (x = 0.74) fluorite. Until now, compositions with proton conductivity were not known for the intermediate and heavy rare earth titanates Ln2(Ti2−xLnx)O7−x/2 (Ln = Ho − Lu) systems. The use of X-ray diffraction (structural analysis with Rietveld refinement), optical spectroscopy and dielectric permittivity data allowed us to follow structural disordering in the solid solution series with increasing thulium oxide content. High and low cooling rates have been shown to have different effects on the properties of the ceramics. Slow cooling initiates’ growth of fluorite nanodomains in a pyrochlore matrix. The fabrication of such nanostructured dense composites is a promising direction in the synthesis of highly conductive solid electrolytes for SOFCs. We assume that high-temperature firing of nanophase precursors helps to obtain lightly doped “stuffed” pyrochlores, which also provide the high oxygen–ion conductivity. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 4288 KiB  
Article
Drying Behaviour of Al2O3 Inks Containing Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) for Use in Colloidal Processing
by Bruno Medeiros da Silva, Ésoly Madeleine Bento dos Santos, Vinícius Zancanelli Bôsco de Souza, Manuel Fellipe Rodrigues Pais Alves, Carlos Maurício Vieira and Claudinei dos Santos
Ceramics 2023, 6(2), 935-947; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6020055 - 6 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1385
Abstract
One of the most important steps in the extrusion processing of ceramic inks is the initial drying of the ceramic parts. This study aimed to investigate the drying behaviour of an Al2O3-based ceramic ink optimised to be processed by [...] Read more.
One of the most important steps in the extrusion processing of ceramic inks is the initial drying of the ceramic parts. This study aimed to investigate the drying behaviour of an Al2O3-based ceramic ink optimised to be processed by extrusion processing methods, e.g., direct ink writing. Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) was singly added to a suspension of deionised water and Al2O3 (50:50 wt.%) to perform as a dispersing and plasticising agent. To assess moisture loss as a function of time, the ceramic inks were extruded into two types of polymeric moulds: one with a completely closed profile producing cylindrical samples (disks) and one with an open profile producing ceramic bars. After the injection of the inks, the moulds were exposed to different controlled temperatures (20 and 40 °C) for up to 180 h; moisture loss and warpage were periodically measured, and exponential mathematical expressions (moisture loss × drying time) were obtained. The Al2O3-bars dried for 24 h in open moulds at 20 and 40 °C presented longitudinal warpages of 4.5% and 9%, respectively, while the Al2O3 disks dried in closed moulds presented warpages of 3.5% and 7% in these same temperatures (20 and 40 °C, respectively). The samples were sintered at 1610 °C for 4 h and characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), relative density (Archimedes principle), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), presenting a relative density of 92.3 ± 0.5%, α-Al2O3 as crystalline phase and grain with equiaxed morphology varying between 1 and 5 μm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 3411 KiB  
Article
Influence of the Preparation Method on the Physico-Chemical and Sorption Properties of Montmorillonite
by Olga Yu. Golubeva, Elena Yu. Brazovskaya and Yulia A. Alikina
Ceramics 2023, 6(2), 922-934; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6020054 - 3 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1291
Abstract
Layered silicates with a montmorillonite structure are widely used in various fields related to adsorption, gas and water treatment, catalysis, cosmetology and medicine. Under conditions of directed hydrothermal synthesis, montmorillonites with the specified characteristics can be obtained. The influence of the preparation method [...] Read more.
Layered silicates with a montmorillonite structure are widely used in various fields related to adsorption, gas and water treatment, catalysis, cosmetology and medicine. Under conditions of directed hydrothermal synthesis, montmorillonites with the specified characteristics can be obtained. The influence of the preparation method for montmorillonites of two compositions (Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 H2O and Na1.5Al0.5Mg1.5Si4O10(OH)2 H2O) on their sorption properties, moisture absorption, porous textural characteristics and surface properties has been studied. The nature of the initial reagents, the pH of the reaction medium and the synthesis temperature were chosen as the variable synthesis parameters. It has been established that the synthesis conditions significantly affect the properties of montmorillonite, which, in turn, determines the possibilities of using the materials obtained in specific areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composite Nanopowders: Synthesis and Applications)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

10 pages, 1993 KiB  
Article
3D Printing of Ceramic Elements with Q-Surface Geometry for the Fabrication of Protective Barrier
by Semen V. Diachenko, Andrey S. Dolgin, Nikolai A. Khristyuk, Lev A. Lebedev, Lubov A. Nefedova, Sergey B. Pavlov, Kirill F. Merenkov, Vladimir I. Ivkov and Alla N. Dmitrieva
Ceramics 2023, 6(2), 912-921; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6020053 - 3 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1972
Abstract
The work proposes the use of aluminum oxide-based ceramic objects with a TPMS-Q-surface geometry as elements of armor structures. The samples were produced using the SLA-DLP 3D printing method. The main properties of the sample were determined using physical-chemical analysis methods: apparent density [...] Read more.
The work proposes the use of aluminum oxide-based ceramic objects with a TPMS-Q-surface geometry as elements of armor structures. The samples were produced using the SLA-DLP 3D printing method. The main properties of the sample were determined using physical-chemical analysis methods: apparent density ρap = 3.6 g/cm3, open porosity Popn = 8.5%, microhardness Hµ = 15.3 GPa, water absorption W = 2.4%, elastic modulus E = 405 GPa. The Stiglich criterion M = 1.72 EPa2·m3/kg, and the Shevchenko criterion K = 0.8. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composite Nanopowders: Synthesis and Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 458 KiB  
Review
A Narrative Review of Recent Finite Element Studies Reporting References for Elastic Properties of Zirconia Dental Ceramics
by Layla A. Abu-Naba’a
Ceramics 2023, 6(2), 898-911; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6020052 - 3 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1662
Abstract
For fixed dentures, new generations of zirconia with diverse characteristics and design choices are of significant interest. Although in vitro studies and finite element analysis (FEA) studies have been published, comprehension of various new methods of material testing and analysis remains insufficient. Young’s [...] Read more.
For fixed dentures, new generations of zirconia with diverse characteristics and design choices are of significant interest. Although in vitro studies and finite element analysis (FEA) studies have been published, comprehension of various new methods of material testing and analysis remains insufficient. Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio of the desired materials must be available for investigators to validate FEA investigations that are accompanied by mechanical testing. The aim of this narrative review was to find recent FEA studies that report these values for newly developed commercial CAD/CAM zirconia restorative materials and compile them in a data list. A PubMed search was performed (English articles; 2018–2023; keywords: FEA, finite element, zirconia). Full-text articles (157) were examined, including studies (36) reporting the commercial materials’ names, Young’s modulus, and Poisson’s ratio. Only 21 studies had the source of their values referenced. A list of the materials and values used in these studies was compiled. Researchers are highly recommended to trace back references to determine the origins of these values for commercial materials. New research is encouraged to test the ever expanding list of new commercial esthetic monolithic CAD/CAM zirconia materials, as well as their different translucencies, to report their Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramic Materials in Oral Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 2759 KiB  
Article
Ceramic ZnO-SnO2-Fe2O3 Powders and Coatings -Effective Photogenerators of Reactive Oxygen Species
by Larisa Khomutinnikova, Sergey Evstropiev, Igor Meshkovskii, Igor Bagrov and Valery Kiselev
Ceramics 2023, 6(2), 886-897; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6020051 - 2 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1495
Abstract
Ceramic ZnO-SnO2-Fe2O3 powders and transparent coatings on glasses prepared using the non-isothermal polymer-salt method demonstrate a strong ability to generate chemically active oxygen species under UV and visible irradiation. Crystal structures and morphologies of these materials were studied [...] Read more.
Ceramic ZnO-SnO2-Fe2O3 powders and transparent coatings on glasses prepared using the non-isothermal polymer-salt method demonstrate a strong ability to generate chemically active oxygen species under UV and visible irradiation. Crystal structures and morphologies of these materials were studied using the XRD and the SEM analysis. It was found that there are significant differences in the crystal structure of ceramic powders and thin coatings. The powders consist of randomly oriented oxide nanocrystals of size ~47 nm. The strong orientation of the ZnO nanocrystals due to their interaction with the glass substrate is observed in the coating structure. Experimental data show that thin ceramic coatings are transparent (~90%) in the visible spectral range and the band gap of the ceramic material is 3.44 eV. The band gap value of this multi-component ceramic material is described sufficiently using Verlag’s law. Ceramic powders and coatings demonstrate the intensive photogeneration of reactive oxygen species, both in liquid and air. High photocatalytic activity of ZnO-SnO2-Fe2O3 ceramic coatings and powders was observed upon the oxidation of the diazo dye, Chicago Sky Blue. In the presence of transparent photocatalytic coating, the value of the constant rate of the dye photodecomposition was high (k = 0.056 min−1). It was found that, in spite of their short life time, photogenerated reactive oxygen species demonstrate the ability to decompose dye molecules located up to a distance of 0.5 mm from the surface of ceramic coating. Obtained experimental results suggest that the prepared ceramic materials are promising for different practical applications of the photocatalytic materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composite Nanopowders: Synthesis and Applications)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

14 pages, 1033 KiB  
Article
The Influence of the Burning Environment on the Properties of Ceramic Products Based on Fusible Raw Materials
by Maratbek T. Zhuginissov, Ruslan E. Nurlybayev, Yelzhan S. Orynbekov, Zhanar O. Zhumadilova, Yerlan Y. Khamza and Maxat Z. Bulenbayev
Ceramics 2023, 6(2), 872-885; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6020050 - 29 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1301
Abstract
The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of the burning environment on the properties and phase composition of clinker-based ceramic specimens made from loam with diatomite and bentonite clay in order to develop technological parameters for the manufacture of clinker [...] Read more.
The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of the burning environment on the properties and phase composition of clinker-based ceramic specimens made from loam with diatomite and bentonite clay in order to develop technological parameters for the manufacture of clinker products. The main raw material used for the experiments was local fusible loam from the Almaty deposit, which is the basis for the production of 75 and 100 grade ceramic bricks. Diatomite from Utesai deposit (Aktobe region) and highly plastic bentonite clay from Darbazin deposit (Turkestan region) were used as additives. Loam and bentonite clay were applied after grinding and sieving through a 1 mm sieve. Diatomite was applied after grinding and milling until it had completely passed through a 0.315 mm sieve. The raw materials are mixed after dosing, and then water is added in the amount required until a pliable mass is obtained. To investigate the properties of the products, standard cylinder samples were prepared with a diameter of 50 mm and a height of 50 mm. The cylinder samples were pressed on a hydraulic press at a pressure of 2–4 kN. The samples were dried in a desiccator at 95–100 °C for 2 h. After drying, the products were burning in a muffle kiln. The analysis of the properties of the burned products showed that the optimum ratio in the ceramic mixture of loam and diatomite to loam and bentonite clay is 85%:15%. After burning in a slightly oxidising environment at 1170 °C, the ceramic specimens correspond to Class 2 for the medium-density and compressive strength grades M 400 and M 500 (GOST 530-2012 (Government standard). X-ray diffractometric analysis showed that the products contain augite, quartz and anorthite as crystalline phases, with the former predominating. After burning in a reducing atmosphere, at 1170 °C, the properties of the samples have higher values compared to the samples burning in a weakly oxidising atmosphere. The resulting properties, according to the regulations, are characteristic of clinker bricks (DIN V 105-1 (technical requirements for clinker façade bricks). After burning in a reducing environment, the phase composition of the products changes qualitatively; in addition to augite and quartz, albite, diopside, orthoclase and haematite are present in the samples. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop