Ceramic Materials in Oral Applications

A special issue of Ceramics (ISSN 2571-6131).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2023) | Viewed by 14648

Special Issue Editors

1. Institute of Endodontics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-075 Coimbra, Portugal
2. Center for Innovation and Research in Oral Sciences (CIROS), Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-075 Coimbra, Portugal
Interests: biomaterials; endodontics filers; endodontics; regenerative tissue; apexification; apical papilla; stem cells; calcium-silicate-based cements; cyclic fatigue resistance; dental materials; modified adhesives; bioactive materials; dental composites; mineral trioxide aggregate; nanotechnology; regenerative endodontics procedures; revascularization/revitalization
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
School of Dentistry, Institute of Clinical Sciences, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, 5, Mill Pool Way, Edgbaston, Birmingham B5 7EG, UK
Interests: bioceramics; hydraulic silicate cements; material characterization; endodontic materials; clinical application of dental materials; standardization of in vitro testing; clinical protocols
1. Center for Innovation and Research in Oral Sciences (CIROS), Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-075 Coimbra, Portugal
2. Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Endodontics, University of Coimbra, 3000-075 Coimbra, Portugal
Interests: endodontics; tooth discoloration; biomaterials in endodontics; dental adhesion; Minimally invasive Endodontics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are pleased to invite you to submit manuscripts to a Special Issue dedicated to one of the current hot topics in dentistry worldwide: “Ceramic Materials in Oral Applications”.

Contemporary dentistry largely involves the clinical application of ceramic materials. The evolution of these materials within oral medicine has been remarkable, as new techniques are steadily being introduced and materials constantly developing. This Special Issue focuses on the wide span of clinical applications of these unique materials.

Covered topics include, but are not limited to, the following ceramic materials applications: prosthetic rehabilitation; zirconia implants; bone regeneration; tissue-engineering scaffolds; regenerative endodontic procedures; apexification; vital pulp therapy; root-end filling; perforation repair; orthodontics; and materials’ characterization and development.

Innovative original research articles, case reports, and reviews are welcome, with translational research being highly encouraged.

We look forward to receiving your submissions.

Prof. Dr. Paulo J. Palma
Dr. Josette Camilleri
Dr. Joana A. Marques
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Ceramics is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • ceramics
  • prosthetic rehabilitation
  • fixed prosthodontics
  • glass ceramics
  • metal oxide ceramics
  • CAD/CAM
  • implantology
  • zirconia implants
  • endodontics
  • bioceramics
  • regenerative endodontic procedures
  • apexification
  • vital pulp therapy
  • root-end filling
  • apical surgery
  • perforation repair
  • ceramic bracket
  • physicochemical properties
  • mechanical properties
  • characterization techniques

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 7705 KiB  
Article
Effect of Ferrule Design on Stress Distribution of Maxillary Incisor Rehabilitated with Ceramic Crown and PEEK Post–Core Material: A 3D Finite Element Analysis
Ceramics 2023, 6(4), 2256-2268; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6040137 - 20 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1355
Abstract
Endodontic-treated teeth with massive degrees of coronal tissue loss usually require rehabilitation with post-retained unitary crowns. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of ferrule design on the stress distribution of maxillary incisors rehabilitated with zirconia crowns using finite element analysis. Six three-dimensional [...] Read more.
Endodontic-treated teeth with massive degrees of coronal tissue loss usually require rehabilitation with post-retained unitary crowns. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of ferrule design on the stress distribution of maxillary incisors rehabilitated with zirconia crowns using finite element analysis. Six three-dimensional models were generated according to the presence and location of ferrule (No Ferrule, Buccal Ferrule, Lingual Ferrule, Buccolingual Ferrule, and Full Ferrule). The post–core materials tested were Nickel–chromium (NiCr) and Polyetheretherketone (PEEK). A static load of 100 N at a 45-degree angle on the Lingual surface, in a region 2 mm below the incisive ridge, was applied. Von Mises stresses and contour plots of all of the models were collected and analyzed. A lower and more uniform stress distribution was observed in the Full Ferrule model compared with the remaining models. A reduction of 72% in the von Mises peak stresses was observed in the root when comparing the Full Ferrule and No Ferrule models, both with PEEK post–core material. In conclusion, the presence of an incomplete ferrule is beneficial to the stress distribution in restored post-retained crowns. The use of PEEK for post–core structures reduces the stress concentration on the posts, reducing the predisposition to irreparable root fracture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramic Materials in Oral Applications)
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16 pages, 3143 KiB  
Article
Biomechanical Behavior of Lithium-Disilicate-Modified Endocrown Restorations: A Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis
Ceramics 2023, 6(4), 2162-2177; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6040133 - 11 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1270
Abstract
This study aimed to assess the biomechanical behavior of endocrown-restored mandibular molars according to “margin design” and “coverage extent” using finite element analysis (FEA). Six 3D solid models were fabricated, namely, those with complete occlusal coverage: A (butt joint), B (anatomic margin); partial [...] Read more.
This study aimed to assess the biomechanical behavior of endocrown-restored mandibular molars according to “margin design” and “coverage extent” using finite element analysis (FEA). Six 3D solid models were fabricated, namely, those with complete occlusal coverage: A (butt joint), B (anatomic margin); partial coverage (two mesial cusps): C (butt joint), D (anatomic margin); and partial coverage with mesial class II cavity: E (butt joint), F (anatomic margin). All models received lithium disilicate endocrowns (2.0 mm thickness and 4.0 mm central retainer cavity depth). A 300 N vertical load was applied to the occlusal surface, while a 250 N oblique load was applied at 45° to the lingual inclined planes of the buccal cusps. The maximum von Mises stress (VMS) distribution patterns were calculated for the endocrown, tooth structure, and cement layer. The VMS on the prepared teeth and cement layer showed subtle differences between the tested models under vertical loads. The anatomic margin (partial and complete coverage) exhibited a more homogeneous stress distribution and offered a more adhesive area of the tooth structure. Under oblique loading, the anatomic margin (complete and partial), except Model D, exhibited the lowest VMS in the cement layer. An anatomically based endocrown could be a promising alternative to the butt joint design, providing better-devised endocrown restorations, which could potentially yield a more benign stress dissipation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramic Materials in Oral Applications)
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13 pages, 3521 KiB  
Article
Performance of Dental Cements Used for Bonding Zirconia Crowns with Titanium Implants Embedded in an Innovative Bi-Layered Artificial Bone
Ceramics 2023, 6(1), 651-663; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6010039 - 02 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1864
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate four dental adhesive cements and develop a new method for constructing a bi-layered bone holder for implant testing. HahnTM Tapered Titanium Implants (Glidewell Laboratories) were embedded in mono- and bi-layered holders, and the implant components were assembled. [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate four dental adhesive cements and develop a new method for constructing a bi-layered bone holder for implant testing. HahnTM Tapered Titanium Implants (Glidewell Laboratories) were embedded in mono- and bi-layered holders, and the implant components were assembled. First molar zirconia crowns and crowns for the tensile bond strength test were milled and sintered. Three self-adhesive resin cements (SARC) and one resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI, Glidewell Laboratories) cement were used to cement the crowns on the abutment. Tensile bond strength, compressive load, and oblique load tests were performed on the implants. The Glidewell Experimental SARC (GES, Glidewell Laboratories) and RMGI cements had the highest tensile bond strength after thermocycling. The implant assemblies with these two cements had the highest mean compressive strength after thermocycling. Under oblique load, the implants with Denali (Glidewell Laboratories) and GES had the highest strength before thermocycling. However, after thermocycling, Dencem (Dentex) and RMGI had the highest strength under an oblique load. The GES cement and RMGI cement had a better overall performance with zirconia crowns and titanium abutments. In addition, a novel technique for constructing an artificial, bi-layered bone holder was successfully developed to mimic the natural structure of the jawbone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramic Materials in Oral Applications)
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20 pages, 1468 KiB  
Article
Optical Properties of Five Esthetic Ceramic Materials Used for Monolithic Restorations: A Comparative In Vitro Study
Ceramics 2022, 5(4), 961-980; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics5040069 - 10 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2142
Abstract
Zirconia has generated tremendous interest in the esthetic materials used for dental restorations. However, using conventional zirconia has some limitations especially in highly esthetically demanding situations, as it lacks the translucency that other ceramic materials possess. This study aimed to evaluate and compare [...] Read more.
Zirconia has generated tremendous interest in the esthetic materials used for dental restorations. However, using conventional zirconia has some limitations especially in highly esthetically demanding situations, as it lacks the translucency that other ceramic materials possess. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the optical properties (shade, translucency, and opalescence) of three CAD-CAM monolithic multilayer zirconia ceramics (GNX; Ceramill Zolid® Gen-X, ZCP; IPS e.max® ZirCAD, and UPC; Upcera® Esthetic Explore Prime) and one CAD-CAM monolithic multilayer polymer-infiltrated hybrid ceramic (ENM; Vita® Enamic) with a CAD-CAM monolithic lithium disilicate ceramic as control (EMX; IPS e.max® CAD). 200 discs (GNX = 40, ZCP = 40, UPC = 40, ENM = 40, and EMX = 40) were cut, polished, and fully crystallized. Half of the samples for each group were subjected to hydrothermal aging. Descriptive analysis and ANOVA tests were used to compare the groups. Zirconia GNX, ZCP, and UPC groups showed significantly lower optical properties than ENM and EMX groups for both the non-aged and aged samples (p < 0.05). UPC and ENM groups showed a significant decrease in translucency and opalescence after aging (p < 0.05). The optical properties of monolithic multilayer zirconia ceramics were lower than monolithic multilayer polymer-infiltrated hybrid ceramic and lithium disilicate ceramic. Polymer-infiltrated hybrid ceramic was significantly affected by aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramic Materials in Oral Applications)
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7 pages, 736 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Different Bioceramic Root Canal Sealers
Ceramics 2022, 5(4), 901-907; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics5040065 - 01 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1695
Abstract
Bioceramic root canal sealers have been introduced in clinical dental use, but less is known about the antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, and Streptococcus sanguis. The purpose of the study is to compare new bioceramic sealers with a [...] Read more.
Bioceramic root canal sealers have been introduced in clinical dental use, but less is known about the antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, and Streptococcus sanguis. The purpose of the study is to compare new bioceramic sealers with a traditional zinc-oxide eugenol material considered as a control. The different bioceramic root canal sealants tested were FillRoot ST, BioRoot™RCS, Well-Root™ PT, and CeraSeal. In vitro antibacterial activity against Streptococci was assessed using the agar disc diffusion test at two different intervals, 24 h and 48 h. A non-parametric statistical analysis was performed to compare the inhibition zones for each of the different materials. Bioceramic root canal sealers showed mild antibacterial activity, while zinc-oxide eugenol-based material showed a stronger inhibition of Streptococci diffusion. No differences were detected for the measurements of inhibition zones between 24 h and 48 h except for FillRoot ST and BioRoot™RCS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramic Materials in Oral Applications)
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Review

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14 pages, 458 KiB  
Review
A Narrative Review of Recent Finite Element Studies Reporting References for Elastic Properties of Zirconia Dental Ceramics
Ceramics 2023, 6(2), 898-911; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6020052 - 03 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1449
Abstract
For fixed dentures, new generations of zirconia with diverse characteristics and design choices are of significant interest. Although in vitro studies and finite element analysis (FEA) studies have been published, comprehension of various new methods of material testing and analysis remains insufficient. Young’s [...] Read more.
For fixed dentures, new generations of zirconia with diverse characteristics and design choices are of significant interest. Although in vitro studies and finite element analysis (FEA) studies have been published, comprehension of various new methods of material testing and analysis remains insufficient. Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio of the desired materials must be available for investigators to validate FEA investigations that are accompanied by mechanical testing. The aim of this narrative review was to find recent FEA studies that report these values for newly developed commercial CAD/CAM zirconia restorative materials and compile them in a data list. A PubMed search was performed (English articles; 2018–2023; keywords: FEA, finite element, zirconia). Full-text articles (157) were examined, including studies (36) reporting the commercial materials’ names, Young’s modulus, and Poisson’s ratio. Only 21 studies had the source of their values referenced. A list of the materials and values used in these studies was compiled. Researchers are highly recommended to trace back references to determine the origins of these values for commercial materials. New research is encouraged to test the ever expanding list of new commercial esthetic monolithic CAD/CAM zirconia materials, as well as their different translucencies, to report their Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramic Materials in Oral Applications)
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10 pages, 964 KiB  
Review
Tooth-Derived Matrix Granules for Enhanced Bone Healing: Chemical Composition, Morphological Aspects, and Clinical Outcomes
Ceramics 2022, 5(4), 981-990; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics5040070 - 11 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1396
Abstract
Bone grafting has increasingly been used in surgical procedures for enhanced bone augmentation. Tooth-derived graft material has received considerable attention due to its chemical composition and autogenous source that can improve bone tissue healing. The main aim of this study was to provide [...] Read more.
Bone grafting has increasingly been used in surgical procedures for enhanced bone augmentation. Tooth-derived graft material has received considerable attention due to its chemical composition and autogenous source that can improve bone tissue healing. The main aim of this study was to provide a short and comprehensive review on the chemical composition, morphological aspects, and clinical outcomes of bone grafting using tooth-derived matrix granules. Dentin tissue has a chemical composition similar to that on bone tissues regarding the presence of hydroxyapatite, type I collagen, and different growth factors. Dentin-matrix granules are often processed at well-controlled size ranging from approximately 300 up to 1300 µm, while maintaining porosity and organic content. In addition, a dense collagen fiber network is still present after the milling and chemical treatment of dentin granules. Thus, dentin-matrix granules can improve the bone healing process considering their chemical composition, porous structure, and adequate size. However, further in vivo and in vitro studies should be performed taking into consideration different demineralization procedures, remnant organic content, porosity, and granule size. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramic Materials in Oral Applications)
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Other

Jump to: Research, Review

64 pages, 9074 KiB  
Systematic Review
Laboratory, Clinical-Related Processing and Time-Related Factors’ Effect on Properties of High Translucent Zirconium Dioxide Ceramics Intended for Monolithic Restorations a Systematic Review
Ceramics 2023, 6(1), 734-797; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6010045 - 16 Mar 2023
Viewed by 2183
Abstract
Because new zirconia materials are constantly being developed, the aim was to identify and qualitatively synthesize research on how processing and time-related factors affect the properties of high translucent (HT) zirconia intended for monolithic restorations. Cochrane Library, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and [...] Read more.
Because new zirconia materials are constantly being developed, the aim was to identify and qualitatively synthesize research on how processing and time-related factors affect the properties of high translucent (HT) zirconia intended for monolithic restorations. Cochrane Library, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and reference lists were searched for in vitro and clinical studies. Eligibility and risk of bias were assessed. A synthesis of 142 publications was performed. HT 3Y-TZP was the most common, followed by 5YSZ, 4YSZ, and multilayer. In the laboratory, HT 3Y-TZP should be sintered according to the manufacturer’s recommendation and polished before glazing to favour strength, roughness, and wear behaviour. In the clinic, polishing is necessary after grinding to favour roughness and aging resistance. Over time, when using hydrothermal aging, tm phase transformation and reduced translucency are expected, without affecting the strength and roughness. The strength of 4YSZ and 5YSZ is unaffected. However, the time-related methods are of questionable clinical significance. The evidence of all other factors’ effects on the properties of HT zirconia is lacking or limited; thus, these factors are of relevance for future research. There is a high heterogeneity of study designs and methods, and the results are brand-dependent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramic Materials in Oral Applications)
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