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Trop. Med. Infect. Dis., Volume 3, Issue 3 (September 2018)

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Open AccessCase Report Revered but Poorly Understood: A Case Report of Dendroaspis polylepis (Black Mamba) Envenomation in Watamu, Malindi Kenya, and a Review of the Literature
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2018, 3(3), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed3030104
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 30 August 2018 / Accepted: 17 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
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Abstract
The black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis) ranks consistently as one of the most revered snakes in sub-Saharan Africa. It has potent neurotoxic venom, and envenomation results in rapid onset and severe clinical manifestations. This report describes the clinical course and reversal of
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The black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis) ranks consistently as one of the most revered snakes in sub-Saharan Africa. It has potent neurotoxic venom, and envenomation results in rapid onset and severe clinical manifestations. This report describes the clinical course and reversal of effects of black mamba envenomation in a 13-year-old boy in the Jimba area of Malindi. The victim presented to Watamu Hospital, a low resource health facility with labored breathing, frothing at the mouth, severe ptosis and pupils non-responsive to light. His blood pressure was unrecordable, heart rate was 100 beats per minute but thready, his temperature was 35.5 °C, and oxygen saturation was 83%. Management involved suction to clear salivary secretions, several hours of mechanical ventilation via ambu-bagging, oxygen saturation monitoring, and the use of South African Vaccine Producers (SAVP) polyvalent antivenom. Subcutaneous adrenaline was used to stave off anaphylaxis. The victim went into cardiac arrest on two occasions and chest compressions lasting 3–5 min was used to complement artificial ventilation. Hemodynamic instability was corrected using IV infusion of ringers lactate and normal saline (three liters over 24 h). Adequate mechanical ventilation and the use of specific antivenom remain key in the management of black mamba envenomation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Snakebite Envenoming: Prioritizing a Neglected Tropical Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Hospitalizations and Deaths Associated with Diarrhea and Respiratory Diseases among Children Aged 0–5 Years in a Referral Hospital of Mauritania
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2018, 3(3), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed3030103
Received: 29 July 2018 / Revised: 30 August 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 17 September 2018
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Abstract
Diarrhea and respiratory diseases are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among <5-year-olds worldwide, but systematic data are not available from Mauritania. We conducted a hospital-based retrospective study. Data on admissions to Mauritania’s National Referral Hospital (the main pediatric referral center in
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Diarrhea and respiratory diseases are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among <5-year-olds worldwide, but systematic data are not available from Mauritania. We conducted a hospital-based retrospective study. Data on admissions to Mauritania’s National Referral Hospital (the main pediatric referral center in the country), due to diarrhea and respiratory diseases, during 2011–2014, were analyzed. A total of 3695 children <5 years were hospitalized during this period; 665 (18.0%) due to respiratory diseases, and 829 (22.4%) due to diarrhea. Case fatality rates in the respiratory diseases and diarrhea groups were 18.0% (120/665) and 14.1% (117/829), respectively. The highest frequency of deaths due to diarrhea occurred in the age group 2–5 years (16/76; 21.0%), and due to respiratory diseases in the age group 6–12 months (32/141; 22.6%). We conclude that case fatality rates caused by respiratory diseases and diarrhea are extremely high in children hospitalized at the National Referral Hospital. These data call for intensified efforts to reduce deaths among hospitalized Mauritanian children, and also for integrated control measures to prevent and reduce the burden of both diseases. Additional studies are needed to show the effectiveness of the introduction of vaccination programs for pneumococcal diseases and rotavirus infection in the child population, which were launched in November 2013 and December 2014, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication The Development of a Mobile Application to Support Peripheral Health Workers to Diagnose and Treat People with Skin Diseases in Resource-Poor Settings
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2018, 3(3), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed3030102
Received: 27 July 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 10 September 2018 / Published: 15 September 2018
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Abstract
The high prevalence of skin diseases in resource-poor settings, where health workers with sufficient knowledge of skin diseases are scarce, calls for innovative measures. Timely diagnosis and treatment of skin diseases, especially neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) that manifest with skin lesions, such as
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The high prevalence of skin diseases in resource-poor settings, where health workers with sufficient knowledge of skin diseases are scarce, calls for innovative measures. Timely diagnosis and treatment of skin diseases, especially neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) that manifest with skin lesions, such as leprosy, is crucial to prevent disabilities as well as psychological and socioeconomic problems. Innovative technological methods like telemedicine and mobile health (mHealth) can help to bridge the gap between the burden of skin diseases and the lack of capable staff in resource-poor settings by bringing essential health services from central level closer to peripheral levels. Netherlands Leprosy Relief (NLR) has developed a mobile phone application called the ‘SkinApp’, which aims to support peripheral health workers to recognize the early signs and symptoms of skin diseases, including skin NTDs, and to start treatment promptly or refer for more advanced diagnostic testing or disease management when needed. Further research is needed to determine how greatly mHealth in general and the SkinApp in particular can contribute to improved health outcomes, efficiency, and cost-effectiveness. Full article
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Open AccessReview The Skin—A Common Pathway for Integrating Diagnosis and Management of NTDs
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2018, 3(3), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed3030101
Received: 9 August 2018 / Revised: 4 September 2018 / Accepted: 5 September 2018 / Published: 10 September 2018
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Abstract
Many of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) have major skin manifestations. These skin-related NTDs or ‘skin NTDs’ cause significant morbidity and economic hardship in some of the poorest communities worldwide. We draw attention to the collective burden of skin disease and suggest that
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Many of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) have major skin manifestations. These skin-related NTDs or ‘skin NTDs’ cause significant morbidity and economic hardship in some of the poorest communities worldwide. We draw attention to the collective burden of skin disease and suggest that the skin be used as a platform for the integration of control activities for NTDs. The opportunities for integration are numerous, ranging from diagnosis and disease mapping to mass drug administration and morbidity management. The dermatology community has an important role to play, and will be expected to support research and control activities globally. Full article
Open AccessArticle Melioidosis in the Philippines
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2018, 3(3), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed3030099
Received: 11 August 2018 / Revised: 2 September 2018 / Accepted: 3 September 2018 / Published: 5 September 2018
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Abstract
The first documented case of melioidosis in the Philippines occurred in 1948. Since then, there have been sporadic reports in the literature about travelers diagnosed with melioidosis after returning from the Philippines. Indigenous cases, however, have been documented rarely, and under-reporting is highly
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The first documented case of melioidosis in the Philippines occurred in 1948. Since then, there have been sporadic reports in the literature about travelers diagnosed with melioidosis after returning from the Philippines. Indigenous cases, however, have been documented rarely, and under-reporting is highly likely. This review collated all Philippine cases of melioidosis published internationally and locally, as well as unpublished case series and reports from different tertiary hospitals in the Philippines. In total, 25 papers and 41 cases were identified. Among these, 23 were indigenous cases (of which 20 have not been previously reported in the literature). The most common co-morbidity present was diabetes mellitus, and the most common presentations were pulmonary and soft tissue infections. Most of the cases received ceftazidime during the intensive phase, while trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was given during the eradication phase. The known mortality rate was 14.6%, while 4.9% of all cases were reported to have had recurrence. The true burden of melioidosis in the country is not well defined. A lack of awareness among clinicians, a dearth of adequate laboratories, and the absence of a surveillance system for the disease are major challenges in determining the magnitude of the problem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Burden and Challenges of Melioidosis)
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Open AccessReview Control Strategies for Scabies
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2018, 3(3), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed3030098
Received: 12 August 2018 / Revised: 3 September 2018 / Accepted: 3 September 2018 / Published: 5 September 2018
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Abstract
Scabies is a neglected tropical disease of the skin, causing severe itching and stigmatizing skin lesions. Further, scabies leads to impetigo, severe bacterial infections, and post-infectious complications. Around 200 million people are affected, particularly among disadvantaged populations living in crowded conditions in tropical
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Scabies is a neglected tropical disease of the skin, causing severe itching and stigmatizing skin lesions. Further, scabies leads to impetigo, severe bacterial infections, and post-infectious complications. Around 200 million people are affected, particularly among disadvantaged populations living in crowded conditions in tropical areas. After almost 50 years, research into scabies control has shown great promise, particularly in highly-endemic island settings, but these findings have not been widely adopted. Newer approaches, utilizing ivermectin-based mass drug administration, appear feasible and highly effective. Inclusion of scabies in the WHO portfolio of neglected tropical diseases in 2017 may facilitate renewed opportunities and momentum toward global control. However, further operational research is needed to develop evidence-based strategies for control in a range of settings, and monitor their impact. Several enabling factors are required for successful implementation, including availability of affordable drug supply. Integration with existing health programs may provide a cost-effective approach to control. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Young Adults in Endemic Areas: An Untreated Group in Need of School-Based Preventive Chemotherapy for Schistosomiasis Control and Elimination
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2018, 3(3), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed3030100
Received: 24 July 2018 / Revised: 16 August 2018 / Accepted: 31 August 2018 / Published: 5 September 2018
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Abstract
Parasitologic surveys of young adults in college and university settings are not commonly done, even in areas known to be endemic for schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths. We have done a survey of 291 students and staff at the Kisumu National Polytechnic in Kisumu,
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Parasitologic surveys of young adults in college and university settings are not commonly done, even in areas known to be endemic for schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths. We have done a survey of 291 students and staff at the Kisumu National Polytechnic in Kisumu, Kenya, using the stool microscopy Kato-Katz (KK) method and the urine point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) test. Based on three stools/two KK slides each, in the 208 participants for whom three consecutive stools were obtained, Schistosoma mansoni prevalence was 17.8%. When all 291 individuals were analyzed based on the first stool, as done by the national neglected tropical disease (NTD) program, and one urine POC-CCA assay (n = 276), the prevalence was 13.7% by KK and 23.2% by POC-CCA. Based on three stools, 2.5% of 208 participants had heavy S. mansoni infections (≥400 eggs/gram feces), with heavy S. mansoni infections making up 13.5% of the S. mansoni cases. The prevalence of the soil-transmitted helminths (STH: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm) by three stools was 1.4%, 3.1%, and 4.1%, respectively, and by the first stool was 1.4%, 2.4% and 1.4%, respectively. This prevalence and intensity of infection with S. mansoni in a college setting warrants mass drug administration with praziquantel. This population of young adults is ‘in school’ and is both approachable and worthy of inclusion in national schistosomiasis control and elimination programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prospects for Schistosomiasis Elimination)
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Open AccessReview Mycetoma: The Spectrum of Clinical Presentation
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2018, 3(3), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed3030097
Received: 4 August 2018 / Revised: 22 August 2018 / Accepted: 30 August 2018 / Published: 4 September 2018
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Abstract
Mycetoma is a chronic infection, newly designated by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a neglected tropical disease, which is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions. It follows implantation of infectious organisms, either fungi (eumycetomas) or filamentous bacteria (actinomycetomas) into subcutaneous tissue, from
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Mycetoma is a chronic infection, newly designated by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a neglected tropical disease, which is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions. It follows implantation of infectious organisms, either fungi (eumycetomas) or filamentous bacteria (actinomycetomas) into subcutaneous tissue, from where infection spreads to involve skin, bone and subcutaneous sites, leading to both health related and socioeconomic problems. In common with other NTDs, mycetoma is most often seen in rural areas amongst the poorest of people who have less access to health care. The organisms form small microcolonies that are discharged onto the skin surface via sinus tracts, or that can burrow into other adjacent tissues including bone. This paper describes the clinical features of mycetoma, as early recognition is a key to early diagnosis and the institution of appropriate treatment including surgery. Because these lesions are mostly painless and the majority of infected individuals present late and with advanced disease, simplifying early recognition is an important public health goal. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Acute Poisonings at a Regional Referral Hospital in Western Kenya
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2018, 3(3), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed3030096
Received: 22 July 2018 / Revised: 24 August 2018 / Accepted: 29 August 2018 / Published: 3 September 2018
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Abstract
The emergency department (ED) of the Jaramogi Oginga Odinga Teaching and Referral Hospital (JOOTRH) handles many cases of poisoning. However, there is scant information on the factors, agents, and outcomes of poisoning at the hospital. The aim of this work was to determine
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The emergency department (ED) of the Jaramogi Oginga Odinga Teaching and Referral Hospital (JOOTRH) handles many cases of poisoning. However, there is scant information on the factors, agents, and outcomes of poisoning at the hospital. The aim of this work was to determine the factors, agents, and outcomes of poisoning at JOOTRH. Records of patients who presented to JOOTRH with symptoms of poisoning between January 2011 and December 2016 were retrieved. Data on age, gender, offending agents, time, and season of exposure were collected. Information on the route of exposure, motive, and clinical symptoms of poisoning was also included. Other information included the laboratory evaluation, first aid measures, period of hospitalization, and outcome of poisoning. Mean, standard deviation, frequencies and bar graphs were used to describe the demographic factors of the study population. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the strength of association between risk factors and outcome of poisoning among patients. The level of significance for inferential analysis was set at 5%. There were 385 cases of poisoning: 57.9% (223/385) were male, 31.9% (123/385) were 13–24 years of age, and 83.9% (323/385) of exposures were in Kisumu County. The peak time of exposure was 6:00–00:00, and 23.6% (91/385) presented 1–4 h after exposure. About 62.9% (242/385) of the cases were due to accidental poisoning. Snakebites and organophosphates (OPPs) contributed to 33.0% (127/385) and 22.1% (85/385) of all cases, respectively. About 62.1% (239/385) of exposures were oral, and 63.9% (246/385) of all cases occurred in the rainy season. Additionally, 49.2% (60/122) of intentional poisoning was due to family disputes, and 16.1% (10/62) of pre-hospital first aid involved the use of tourniquets and herbal medicine. About 28.6% (110/385) of the victims were subjected to laboratory evaluation and 83.9% (323/385) were hospitalized for between 1–5 days. Other results indicated that 80.0% (308/385) responded well to therapy, while 7.3% (28/385) died, 68% (19/28) of whom were male. Furthermore, 39.3% (11/28) of the deaths were related to OPPs. Our findings suggest that the earlier the victims of poisoning get to the hospital, the more likely they are to survive after treatment is initiated. Similarly, victims of poisoning due to parental negligence are more likely to survive after treatment compared to other causes of poisoning, including family disputes, love affairs, snakebites, and psychiatric disorders. The management of JOOTRH should consider allocating resources to support the development of poison management and control. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Diagnostic Accuracy of the InBios Scrub Typhus Detect™ ELISA for the Detection of IgM Antibodies in Chittagong, Bangladesh
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2018, 3(3), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed3030095
Received: 1 August 2018 / Revised: 20 August 2018 / Accepted: 27 August 2018 / Published: 1 September 2018
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Abstract
Here we estimated the accuracy of the InBios Scrub Typhus Detect™ immunoglobulin M (IgM) ELISA to determine the optimal optical density (OD) cut-off values for the diagnosis of scrub typhus. Patients with undifferentiated febrile illness from Chittagong, Bangladesh, provided samples for reference testing
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Here we estimated the accuracy of the InBios Scrub Typhus Detect™ immunoglobulin M (IgM) ELISA to determine the optimal optical density (OD) cut-off values for the diagnosis of scrub typhus. Patients with undifferentiated febrile illness from Chittagong, Bangladesh, provided samples for reference testing using (i) qPCR using the Orientia spp. 47-kDa htra gene, (ii) IFA ≥1:3200 on admission, (iii) immunofluorescence assay (IFA) ≥1:3200 on admission or 4-fold rise to ≥3200, and (iv) combination of PCR and IFA positivity. For sero-epidemiological purposes (ELISA vs. IFA ≥1:3200 on admission or 4-fold rise to ≥3200), the OD cut-off for admission samples was ≥1.25, resulting in a sensitivity (Sn) of 91.5 (95% confidence interval (95% CI: 96.8–82.5) and a specificity (Sp) of 92.4 (95% CI: 95.0–89.0), while for convalescent samples the OD cut-off was ≥1.50 with Sn of 66.0 (95% CI: 78.5–51.7) and Sp of 96.0 (95% CI: 98.3–92.3). Comparisons against comparator reference tests (ELISA vs. all tests including PCR) indicated the most appropriate cut-off OD to be within the range of 0.75–1.25. For admission samples, the best Sn/Sp compromise was at 1.25 OD (Sn 91.5%, Sp 92.4%) and for convalescent samples at 0.75 OD (Sn 69.8%, Sp 89.5%). A relatively high (stringent) diagnostic cut-off value provides increased diagnostic accuracy with high sensitivity and specificity in the majority of cases, while lowering the cut-off runs the risk of false positivity. This study underlines the need for regional assessment of new diagnostic tests according to the level of endemicity of the disease given the high levels of residual or cross-reacting antibodies in the general population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Past and Present Threat of Rickettsial Diseases)
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Open AccessReview Onchodermatitis: Where Are We Now?
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2018, 3(3), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed3030094
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 27 August 2018 / Accepted: 28 August 2018 / Published: 1 September 2018
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Abstract
Onchocerciasis causes debilitating pruritus and rashes as well as visual impairment and blindness. Prior to control measures, eye disease was particularly prominent in savanna areas of sub-Saharan Africa whilst skin disease was more common across rainforest regions of tropical Africa. Mass drug distribution
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Onchocerciasis causes debilitating pruritus and rashes as well as visual impairment and blindness. Prior to control measures, eye disease was particularly prominent in savanna areas of sub-Saharan Africa whilst skin disease was more common across rainforest regions of tropical Africa. Mass drug distribution with ivermectin is changing the global scene of onchocerciasis. There has been successful progressive elimination in Central and Southern American countries and the World Health Organization has set a target for elimination in Africa of 2025. This literature review was conducted to examine progress regarding onchocercal skin disease. PubMed searches were performed using keywords ‘onchocerciasis’, ‘onchodermatitis’ and ‘onchocercal skin disease’ over the past eight years. Articles in English, or with an English abstract, were assessed for relevance, including any pertinent references within the articles. Recent progress in awareness of, understanding and treatment of onchocercal skin disease is reviewed with particular emphasis on publications within the past five years. The global burden of onchodermatitis is progressively reducing and is no longer seen in children in many formerly endemic foci. Full article
Open AccessArticle ‘Know Your Epidemic’: Are Prisons a Potential Barrier to TB Elimination in an Australian Context?
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2018, 3(3), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed3030093
Received: 12 August 2018 / Revised: 27 August 2018 / Accepted: 27 August 2018 / Published: 31 August 2018
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Abstract
Globally, rates of tuberculosis (TB) cases in prisons are substantially higher than in the general population. The goal of this study was to review TB notifications in Victorian correctional facilities, and consider whether additional interventions towards TB elimination may be useful in this
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Globally, rates of tuberculosis (TB) cases in prisons are substantially higher than in the general population. The goal of this study was to review TB notifications in Victorian correctional facilities, and consider whether additional interventions towards TB elimination may be useful in this setting. All patients who were notified with or treated for TB in the Australian state of Victoria from 1 January 2003 to 1 December 2017 were included in this study. Descriptive analysis was performed. Demographic and treatment outcome data for individuals with and without a history of incarceration were reviewed and compared. Of the 5645 TB cases notified during the study period, 26 (0.5%) had a history of being incarcerated in correctional facilities while receiving treatment for TB. There were 73,238 inmates in Victorian correctional facilities over the same study period, meaning that approximately 0.04% of inmates were diagnosed or treated with TB disease in correctional facilities. Incarcerated individuals were more likely to have positive sputum smears and cavitation compared with nonincarcerated people with TB. There was no significant difference in treatment outcomes between the general TB population and those who had a history of incarceration during their treatment. There is a low apparent rate of TB in Victorian prisoners, and prisons do not contribute significantly to TB incidence in Victoria. Overall, TB outcomes do not differ between prisoners and nonprisoners. Ongoing efforts to sustain these lower rates and comparable outcomes in this vulnerable cohort are important for continued progress towards TB elimination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tuberculosis Elimination in the Asia-Pacific)
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Open AccessReview Advances in the Treatment of Yaws
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2018, 3(3), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed3030092
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 27 August 2018 / Accepted: 27 August 2018 / Published: 29 August 2018
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Yaws is one of the three endemic treponematoses and is recognised by the World Health Organization as a neglected tropical disease. Yaws is currently reported in 15 countries in the Pacific, South-East Asia, West and Central Africa, predominantly affects children, and results in
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Yaws is one of the three endemic treponematoses and is recognised by the World Health Organization as a neglected tropical disease. Yaws is currently reported in 15 countries in the Pacific, South-East Asia, West and Central Africa, predominantly affects children, and results in destructive lesions of the skin and soft tissues. For most of the twentieth century penicillin-based treatment was the standard of care and resistance to penicillin has still not been described. Recently, oral azithromycin has been shown to be an effective treatment for yaws, facilitating renewed yaws eradication efforts. Resistance to azithromycin is an emerging threat and close surveillance will be required as yaws eradication efforts are scaled up globally. Full article
Open AccessReview Melioidosis in Hong Kong
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2018, 3(3), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed3030091
Received: 1 August 2018 / Revised: 21 August 2018 / Accepted: 21 August 2018 / Published: 25 August 2018
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Abstract
Melioidosis, although endemic in many parts of Southeast Asia, has not been systematically studied in Hong Kong, which is a predominantly urban area located in the subtropics. This review describes the early outbreaks of melioidosis in captive animals in Hong Kong in the
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Melioidosis, although endemic in many parts of Southeast Asia, has not been systematically studied in Hong Kong, which is a predominantly urban area located in the subtropics. This review describes the early outbreaks of melioidosis in captive animals in Hong Kong in the 1970s, as well as the early reports of human clinical cases in the 1980s. A review of all hospitalized human cases of culture-confirmed melioidosis in the last twenty years showed an increasing trend in the incidence of the disease, with significant mortality observed. The lack of awareness of this disease among local physicians, the delay in laboratory diagnosis and the lack of epidemiological surveillance are among the greatest challenges of managing melioidosis in the territory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Burden and Challenges of Melioidosis)
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Open AccessCase Report First Case Report of a Near Lethal Envenomation by a Salomonelaps par (Solomons Coral Snake) in the Solomon Islands
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2018, 3(3), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed3030090
Received: 27 June 2018 / Revised: 1 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 August 2018 / Published: 21 August 2018
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Abstract
Venomous snake bites in the Solomon Islands can be very dangerous due to lack of access to health care. There are no documented case reports of envenomation by snake bites in the Solomon Islands. This case report highlights the management of a patient
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Venomous snake bites in the Solomon Islands can be very dangerous due to lack of access to health care. There are no documented case reports of envenomation by snake bites in the Solomon Islands. This case report highlights the management of a patient with potentially lethal neurotoxicity secondary to a Solomonelaps par (Solomons coral snake) in a low resource setting. This case identifies the potential benefit of further research to determine the incidence of lethal envenomation as well as analysing the venom to determine if any commercially available antivenom would be useful in the treatment of envenomation by Salomonelaps par and other venomous snakes. There should be consideration given to providing education on first aid for people living in remote areas as well as education for health workers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Snakebite Envenoming: Prioritizing a Neglected Tropical Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Rabies in the Caribbean: A Situational Analysis and Historic Review
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2018, 3(3), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed3030089
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 14 August 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 20 August 2018
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Abstract
Rabies virus is the only Lyssavirus species found in the Americas. In discussions about rabies, Latin America and the Caribbean are often grouped together. Our study aimed to independently analyse the rabies situation in the Caribbean and examine changes in rabies spatiotemporal epidemiology.
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Rabies virus is the only Lyssavirus species found in the Americas. In discussions about rabies, Latin America and the Caribbean are often grouped together. Our study aimed to independently analyse the rabies situation in the Caribbean and examine changes in rabies spatiotemporal epidemiology. A questionnaire was administered to the 33 member countries and territories of the Caribbean Animal Health Network (CaribVET) to collect current data, which was collated with a literature review. Rabies was endemic in ten Caribbean localities, with the dog, mongoose, and vampire bat identified as enzootic reservoirs. The majority of animal cases occurred in Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, and Haiti, while human cases only consistently occurred in the latter two areas. Rabies vaccination was conducted for high-risk animal populations with variable coverage, and rabies diagnostic capacities varied widely throughout the region. Illegal importation and natural migration of animals may facilitate the introduction of rabies virus variants into virus-naïve areas. Passive surveillance, together with enhanced methods and serological screening techniques, can therefore be of value. The insularity of the Caribbean makes it ideal for conducting pilot studies on reservoir host population management. Best practice guidelines developed for these reservoir hosts can be individually modified to the epidemiological status and available resources within each locality. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Teledermatology Pilot Programme for the Management of Skin Diseases in Primary Health Care Centres: Experiences from a Resource-Limited Country (Mali, West Africa)
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2018, 3(3), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed3030088
Received: 24 July 2018 / Revised: 4 August 2018 / Accepted: 6 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
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Abstract
In sub-Saharan Africa, in particular in rural areas, patients have limited access to doctors with specialist skills in skin diseases. To address this issue, a teledermatology pilot programme focused on primary health centres was set up in Mali. This study was aimed at
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In sub-Saharan Africa, in particular in rural areas, patients have limited access to doctors with specialist skills in skin diseases. To address this issue, a teledermatology pilot programme focused on primary health centres was set up in Mali. This study was aimed at investigating the feasibility of this programme and its impact on the management of skin diseases. The programme was based on the store-and-forward model. Health care providers from 10 primary centres were trained to manage common skin diseases, to capture images of skin lesions, and to use an e-platform to post all cases beyond their expertise for dermatologists in order to obtain diagnosis and treatment recommendations. After training, the cases of 180 patients were posted by trained health workers on the platform. Ninety-six per cent of these patients were properly managed via the responses given by dermatologists. The mean time to receive the expert’s response was 32 h (range: 13 min to 20 days). Analysis of all diseases diagnosed via the platform revealed a wide range of skin disorders. Our initiative hugely improved the management of all skin diseases in the targeted health centres. In developing countries, Internet accessibility and connection quality represent the main challenges when conducting teledermatology programmes. Full article
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Open AccessReview Community Involvement in the Care of Persons Affected by Podoconiosis—A Lesson for Other Skin NTDs
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2018, 3(3), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed3030087
Received: 20 July 2018 / Revised: 8 August 2018 / Accepted: 11 August 2018 / Published: 16 August 2018
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Abstract
Podoconiosis is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) characterized by lower-leg swelling (lymphedema), which is caused by long-term exposure to irritant red-clay soils found within tropical volcanic high-altitude environments with heavy rainfall. The condition places a substantial burden on affected people, their families and
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Podoconiosis is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) characterized by lower-leg swelling (lymphedema), which is caused by long-term exposure to irritant red-clay soils found within tropical volcanic high-altitude environments with heavy rainfall. The condition places a substantial burden on affected people, their families and communities, including disability, economic consequences, social exclusion, and stigma; mental disorders and distress are also common. This paper focuses on community-based care of podoconiosis, and, in particular, the role that community involvement can have in the reduction of stigma against people affected by podoconiosis. We first draw on research conducted in Ethiopia for this, which has included community-based provision of care and treatment, education, and awareness-raising, and socioeconomic rehabilitation to reduce stigma. Since people affected by podoconiosis and other skin NTDs often suffer the double burden of mental-health illness, which is similarly stigmatized, we then point to examples from the mental-health field in low-resource community settings to suggest avenues for stigma reduction and increased patient engagement that may be relevant across a range of skin NTDs, though further research is needed on this. Full article
Open AccessReview Treading the Path towards Genetic Control of Snail Resistance to Schistosome Infection
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2018, 3(3), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed3030086
Received: 18 July 2018 / Revised: 8 August 2018 / Accepted: 13 August 2018 / Published: 15 August 2018
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Abstract
Schistosomiasis remains the most important tropical snail-borne trematodiasis that threatens many millions of human lives. In achieving schistosomiasis elimination targets, sustainable control of the snail vectors represents a logical approach. Nonetheless, the ineffectiveness of the present snail control interventions emphasizes the need to
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Schistosomiasis remains the most important tropical snail-borne trematodiasis that threatens many millions of human lives. In achieving schistosomiasis elimination targets, sustainable control of the snail vectors represents a logical approach. Nonetheless, the ineffectiveness of the present snail control interventions emphasizes the need to develop new complementary strategies to ensure more effective control outcomes. Accordingly, the use of genetic techniques aimed at driving resistance traits into natural vector populations has been put forward as a promising tool for integrated snail control. Leveraging the Biomphalaria-Schistosoma model system, studies unraveling the complexities of the vector biology and those exploring the molecular basis of snail resistance to schistosome infection have been expanding in various breadths, generating many significant discoveries, and raising the hope for future breakthroughs. This review provides a compendium of relevant findings, and without neglecting the current existing gaps and potential future challenges, discusses how a transgenic snail approach may be adapted and harnessed to control human schistosomiasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prospects for Schistosomiasis Elimination)
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Open AccessReview When Should the Emphasis on Schistosomiasis Control Move to Elimination?
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2018, 3(3), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed3030085
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 4 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 August 2018 / Published: 15 August 2018
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Abstract
The stated goal of the World Health Organization’s program on schistosomiasis is paraphrased as follows: to control morbidity and eliminate transmission where feasible. Switching from a goal of controlling morbidity to interrupting transmission may well be currently feasible in some countries in the
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The stated goal of the World Health Organization’s program on schistosomiasis is paraphrased as follows: to control morbidity and eliminate transmission where feasible. Switching from a goal of controlling morbidity to interrupting transmission may well be currently feasible in some countries in the Caribbean, some areas in South America, northern Africa, and selected endemic areas in sub-Saharan Africa where there have been improvements in sanitation and access to clean water. However, in most of sub-Saharan Africa, where programmatic interventions still consist solely of annual mass drug administration, such a switch in strategies remains premature. There is a continued need for operational research on how best to reduce transmission to a point where interruption of transmission may be achievable. The level of infection at which it is feasible to transition from control to elimination must also be defined. In parallel, there is also a need to develop and evaluate approaches for achieving and validating elimination. There are currently neither evidence-based methods nor tools for breaking transmission or verifying that it has been accomplished. The basis for these statements stems from numerous studies that will be reviewed and summarized in this article; many, but not all of which were undertaken as part of SCORE, the Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prospects for Schistosomiasis Elimination)
Open AccessArticle Long-Range Diagnosis of and Support for Skin Conditions in Field Settings
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2018, 3(3), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed3030084
Received: 9 July 2018 / Revised: 6 August 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 13 August 2018
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Abstract
Skin diseases are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide; however, access to dermatology services are critically limited, particularly in low- to middle-income countries (LMIC), where there is an overall shortage of physicians. Implementation of long-range technological support tools has been growing
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Skin diseases are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide; however, access to dermatology services are critically limited, particularly in low- to middle-income countries (LMIC), where there is an overall shortage of physicians. Implementation of long-range technological support tools has been growing in an effort to provide quality dermatology care to even the most remote settings globally. eHealth strategies can provide realistic healthcare solutions if implemented in a feasible and sensitive way, customizing tools to address the unique needs and resource limitations of the local setting. This article summarizes the various types of telemedicine and mobile health (mHealth) tools and their practical applications and benefits for patient care. The challenges and barriers of teledermatology are discussed, as well as steps to consider when implementing a new teledermatology initiative. eHealth arguably offers one of the most flexible and realistic tools for providing critically needed access to dermatology skills in underserved LMICs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Risk Mapping of Visceral Leishmaniasis: A Spatial Regression Model for Attica Region, Greece
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2018, 3(3), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed3030083
Received: 27 June 2018 / Revised: 3 August 2018 / Accepted: 6 August 2018 / Published: 13 August 2018
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Abstract
Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic to the Attica region of Greece. The geographical distribution of VL cases was analyzed employing methods of spatial analysis in a GIS environment. A geographic database was constructed including data for the disease cases and environmental factors, such
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Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic to the Attica region of Greece. The geographical distribution of VL cases was analyzed employing methods of spatial analysis in a GIS environment. A geographic database was constructed including data for the disease cases and environmental factors, such as land cover types, stray dog population, and socioeconomic factors. Classic and spatial regression models are presented that suggest the factors contributing most to the incidence of leishmaniasis are green urban areas and the population of stray dogs in the municipalities of Attica region. The results of the spatial regression model were more accurate, thus were used to produce a disease risk map. This map indicates the high-risk municipalities in which surveillance for the control of leishmaniasis is necessary. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report Cushing Syndrome due to Inappropriate Corticosteroid Topical Treatment of Undiagnosed Scabies
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2018, 3(3), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed3030082
Received: 26 June 2018 / Revised: 23 July 2018 / Accepted: 24 July 2018 / Published: 3 August 2018
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Abstract
The uncontrolled sale of topical corticosteroids has become an important risk factor for the development of iatrogenic Cushing syndrome in children, especially in countries where medications are sold over the counter. This is exacerbated by the lack of information for both the patients
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The uncontrolled sale of topical corticosteroids has become an important risk factor for the development of iatrogenic Cushing syndrome in children, especially in countries where medications are sold over the counter. This is exacerbated by the lack of information for both the patients and pharmacists. This report documents a series of eight cases of iatrogenic Cushing syndrome secondary to an inappropriate use of topical steroids, due to a misdiagnosis of scabies. Full article
Open AccessReview DNA Diagnostics for Schistosomiasis Control
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2018, 3(3), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed3030081
Received: 24 June 2018 / Revised: 25 July 2018 / Accepted: 30 July 2018 / Published: 1 August 2018
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Abstract
Despite extensive efforts over the last few decades, the global disease burden of schistosomiasis still remains unacceptably high. This could partly be attributed to the lack of accurate diagnostic tools for detecting human and animal schistosome infections in endemic areas. In low transmission
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Despite extensive efforts over the last few decades, the global disease burden of schistosomiasis still remains unacceptably high. This could partly be attributed to the lack of accurate diagnostic tools for detecting human and animal schistosome infections in endemic areas. In low transmission and low prevalence areas where schistosomiasis elimination is targeted, case detection requires a test that is highly sensitive. Diagnostic tests with low sensitivity will miss individuals with low infection intensity and these will continue to contribute to transmission, thereby interfering with the efficacy of the control measures operating. Of the many diagnostic approaches undertaken to date, the detection of schistosome DNA using DNA amplification techniques including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) provide valuable adjuncts to more conventional microscopic and serological methods, due their accuracy, high sensitivity, and the capacity to detect early pre-patent infections. Furthermore, DNA-based methods represent important screening tools, particularly in those endemic areas with ongoing control where infection prevalence and intensity have been reduced to very low levels. Here we review the role of DNA diagnostics in the path towards the control and elimination of schistosomiasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prospects for Schistosomiasis Elimination)
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Open AccessReview New Immuno-Epidemiological Biomarker of Human Exposure to Aedes Vector Bites: From Concept to Applications
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2018, 3(3), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed3030080
Received: 2 July 2018 / Revised: 23 July 2018 / Accepted: 30 July 2018 / Published: 1 August 2018
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Abstract
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) such as dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), Zika virus (ZIKV), and yellow fever virus (YFV) are the most important ‘emerging pathogens’ because of their geographic spread and their increasing impact on vulnerable human populations. To fight against these arboviruses,
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Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) such as dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), Zika virus (ZIKV), and yellow fever virus (YFV) are the most important ‘emerging pathogens’ because of their geographic spread and their increasing impact on vulnerable human populations. To fight against these arboviruses, vector control strategies (VCS) remain one of the most valuable means. However, their implementation and monitoring are labour intensive and difficult to sustain on large scales, especially when transmission and Aedes mosquito densities are low. To increase the efficacy of VCS, current entomological methods should be improved by new complementary tools which measure the risk of arthropod-borne diseases’ transmission. The study of human–Aedes immunological relationships can provide new promising serological tools, namely antibody-based biomarkers, allowing to accurately estimate the human–Aedes contact and consequently, the risk of transmission of arboviruses and the effectiveness of VCS. This review focuses on studies highlighting the concept, techniques, and methods used to develop and validate specific candidate biomarkers of human exposure to Aedes bites. Potential applications of such antibody-based biomarkers of exposure to Aedes vector bites in the field of operational research are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology of Dengue: Past, Present and Future)
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Open AccessArticle Epidemiology and Spatiotemporal Patterns of Leprosy Detection in the State of Bahia, Brazilian Northeast Region, 2001–2014
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2018, 3(3), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed3030079
Received: 29 April 2018 / Revised: 12 July 2018 / Accepted: 25 July 2018 / Published: 31 July 2018
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Abstract
The detection of leprosy cases is distributed unequally in Brazil, with high-risk clusters mainly in the North and Northeast regions. Knowledge on epidemiology and spatiotemporal patterns of leprosy occurrence and late diagnosis in these areas is critical to improve control measures. We performed
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The detection of leprosy cases is distributed unequally in Brazil, with high-risk clusters mainly in the North and Northeast regions. Knowledge on epidemiology and spatiotemporal patterns of leprosy occurrence and late diagnosis in these areas is critical to improve control measures. We performed a study including all leprosy cases notified in the 417 municipalities of Bahia state, from 2001 to 2014. New case detection (overall and pediatric <15 years) and grade 2 disability (G2D) rates were calculated and stratified according to socio-demographic variables. Spatial analyses were performed to detect high-risk areas for occurrence and late diagnosis. A total of 40,060 new leprosy cases was reported in the period (mean = 2861 cases/year), 3296 (8.2%) in <15-year-olds, and 1921 (4.8%) with G2D. The new case detection rate was 20.41 cases/100,000 inhabitants (95% CI: 19.68–21.17). A higher risk was identified in older age groups (RR = 8.45, 95% CI: 7.08–10.09) and in residents living in the state capital (RR = 5.30, 95% CI: 4.13–6.79), in medium-sized cities (RR = 2.80; 95% CI: 2.50–3.13), and in the west (RR = 6.56, 95% CI: 5.13–8.39) and far south regions of the state (RR = 6.56, 95% CI: 5.13–8.39). A higher risk of G2D was associated with male gender (RR = 2.43, 95% CI: 2.20–2.67), older age (RR = 44.08, 95% CI: 33.21–58.51), Afro-Brazilian ethnicity (RR = 1.59; 95% CI: 1.37–1.85), living in medium-sized cities (RR = 2.60; 95% CI: 2.27–2.96) and residency in the north (RR = 5.02; 95% CI: 3.74–6.73) and far south (RR = 7.46; 95% CI: 5.58–9.98) regions. Heterogeneous space–time patterns of leprosy distribution were identified, indicating high endemicity, recent transmission, and late diagnosis. This heterogeneous distribution of the disease was observed throughout the study period. Leprosy remains a relevant public health problem in Bahia state. The disease has a focal distribution. We reinforce the importance of integrating surveillance, prevention and control actions in regions of higher risk of leprosy detection and late diagnosis, and in the most vulnerable populations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Differential Susceptibility of Male Versus Female Laboratory Mice to Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2018, 3(3), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed3030078
Received: 27 June 2018 / Revised: 7 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
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Abstract
Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is a debilitating, non-specific febrile illness caused by the granulocytotropic obligate intracellular bacterium called Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Surveillance studies indicate a higher prevalence of HGA in male versus female patients. Whether this discrepancy correlates with differential susceptibility of males
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Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is a debilitating, non-specific febrile illness caused by the granulocytotropic obligate intracellular bacterium called Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Surveillance studies indicate a higher prevalence of HGA in male versus female patients. Whether this discrepancy correlates with differential susceptibility of males and females to A. phagocytophilum infection is unknown. Laboratory mice have long been used to study granulocytic anaplasmosis. Yet, sex as a biological variable (SABV) in this model has not been evaluated. In this paper, groups of male and female C57Bl/6 mice that had been infected with A. phagocytophilum were assessed for the bacterial DNA load in the peripheral blood, the percentage of neutrophils harboring bacterial inclusions called morulae, and splenomegaly. Infected male mice exhibited as much as a 1.85-fold increase in the number of infected neutrophils, which is up to a 1.88-fold increase in the A. phagocytophilum DNA load, and a significant increase in spleen size when compared to infected female mice. The propensity of male mice to develop a higher level of A. phagocytophilum infection is relevant for studies utilizing the mouse model. This stresses the importance of including SABV and aligns with the observed higher incidence of infection in male versus female patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Past and Present Threat of Rickettsial Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle Day Biting Habits of Mosquitoes Associated with Mangrove Forests in Kedah, Malaysia
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2018, 3(3), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed3030077
Received: 6 June 2018 / Revised: 10 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
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Abstract
Due to conservation and rehabilitation efforts, mangrove forests represent some of the largest environmental niches in Malaysia. However, there is little information on the potential risks posed by mosquitoes that are directly and indirectly associated with mangrove forests. To study the potential health
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Due to conservation and rehabilitation efforts, mangrove forests represent some of the largest environmental niches in Malaysia. However, there is little information on the potential risks posed by mosquitoes that are directly and indirectly associated with mangrove forests. To study the potential health risk to humans active within and in close vicinity of mangrove forests, this research focused on the day biting habits of mosquitoes in mangrove forests of Kedah, Malaysia. The bare leg catch (BLC) method was used to collect adult mosquitoes during a 12-h period from 7:30 a.m. to 7:30 p.m. in both disturbed and less disturbed areas of mangroves. In total, 795 adult mosquitoes from 5 genera and 8 species were collected, and over 65% of the total mosquitoes were collected from the less disturbed area. The predominant species from the less disturbed area was Verrallina butleri; in the disturbed area the dominant species was Culex sitiens. The peak biting hour differed for each species, with Aedes albopictus and Cx. sitiens recorded as having a bimodal biting activity peak during dawn and dusk. For Ve. butleri an erratic pattern of biting activity was recorded in the less disturbed area but it peaked during the early daytime for both collection points. Overall, the distinct pattern of day biting habits of mosquitoes within mangroves peaked during dawn and dusk for the less disturbed area but was irregular for the disturbed area throughout the day. The presence of vectors of pathogens such as Ae. albopictus for both areas raises the need for authorities to consider management of mosquitoes in mangrove forests. Full article
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Open AccessReview Exotic Parasite Threats to Australia’s Biosecurity—Trade, Health, and Conservation
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2018, 3(3), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed3030076
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 11 July 2018 / Accepted: 12 July 2018 / Published: 18 July 2018
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Abstract
Parasites have threatened Australia’s biosecurity since the early days of European settlement. Tick fever in cattle and liver fluke, along with their invertebrate hosts, and hydatid disease head the list of parasites that are still impacting livestock industries. In addition, there are many
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Parasites have threatened Australia’s biosecurity since the early days of European settlement. Tick fever in cattle and liver fluke, along with their invertebrate hosts, and hydatid disease head the list of parasites that are still impacting livestock industries. In addition, there are many parasites that have been introduced that are of significance to public health as well as the conservation of native wildlife. As a consequence of these early arrivals, Australia has become much more aware of its vulnerability should parasites such as Trichinella and Trypanosoma evansi become established in Australia. However, recent discoveries concerning Leishmania and other trypanosomes have demonstrated that Australia must not become complacent and reliant on dogma when considering the potential emergence of new threats to its biosecurity. In this short review, the major parasite threats to Australia’s biosecurity are summarised, some misconceptions are emphasised, and attention is given to the importance of challenging dogma in the face of a dearth of information about Australian native fauna. Full article
Open AccessArticle On the Home Front: Specialised Reference Testing for Dengue in the Australasian Region
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2018, 3(3), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed3030075
Received: 29 May 2018 / Revised: 29 June 2018 / Accepted: 10 July 2018 / Published: 15 July 2018
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Abstract
Reference laboratories are vital for disease control and interpreting the complexities and impact of emerging pathogens. The role of these centralized facilities extends beyond routine screening capabilities to provide rapid, specific, and accurate diagnoses, advanced data analysis, consultation services, and sophisticated disease surveillance
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Reference laboratories are vital for disease control and interpreting the complexities and impact of emerging pathogens. The role of these centralized facilities extends beyond routine screening capabilities to provide rapid, specific, and accurate diagnoses, advanced data analysis, consultation services, and sophisticated disease surveillance and monitoring. Within the Australasian region, the Public Health Virology Laboratory (PHV), Forensic and Scientific Services, Department of Health, Queensland Government, Australia, and the Institute of Environmental Science and Research Limited (ESR), New Zealand (NZ) perform specialised reference testing and surveillance for dengue viruses (DENVs) and other emerging arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses), including chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV). With a focus on DENV, we review the reference testing performed by PHV (2005 to 2017) and ESR (2008 to 2017). We also describe how the evolution and expansion of reference-based methodologies and the adoption of new technologies have provided the critical elements of preparedness and early detection that complement frontline public health control efforts and limit the spread of arboviruses within Australasia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology of Dengue: Past, Present and Future)
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