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Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2018, 3(3), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed3030096

Acute Poisonings at a Regional Referral Hospital in Western Kenya

1
Department of Pharmacy, Jaramogi Oginga Odinga Teaching and Referral Hospital, Kisumu P.O. Box 849-40100, Kenya
2
Department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Nairobi P.O. Box 29053-00625, Kenya
3
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine, Moi University, Eldoret P.O. Box 3900-30100, Kenya
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 July 2018 / Revised: 24 August 2018 / Accepted: 29 August 2018 / Published: 3 September 2018
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Abstract

The emergency department (ED) of the Jaramogi Oginga Odinga Teaching and Referral Hospital (JOOTRH) handles many cases of poisoning. However, there is scant information on the factors, agents, and outcomes of poisoning at the hospital. The aim of this work was to determine the factors, agents, and outcomes of poisoning at JOOTRH. Records of patients who presented to JOOTRH with symptoms of poisoning between January 2011 and December 2016 were retrieved. Data on age, gender, offending agents, time, and season of exposure were collected. Information on the route of exposure, motive, and clinical symptoms of poisoning was also included. Other information included the laboratory evaluation, first aid measures, period of hospitalization, and outcome of poisoning. Mean, standard deviation, frequencies and bar graphs were used to describe the demographic factors of the study population. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the strength of association between risk factors and outcome of poisoning among patients. The level of significance for inferential analysis was set at 5%. There were 385 cases of poisoning: 57.9% (223/385) were male, 31.9% (123/385) were 13–24 years of age, and 83.9% (323/385) of exposures were in Kisumu County. The peak time of exposure was 6:00–00:00, and 23.6% (91/385) presented 1–4 h after exposure. About 62.9% (242/385) of the cases were due to accidental poisoning. Snakebites and organophosphates (OPPs) contributed to 33.0% (127/385) and 22.1% (85/385) of all cases, respectively. About 62.1% (239/385) of exposures were oral, and 63.9% (246/385) of all cases occurred in the rainy season. Additionally, 49.2% (60/122) of intentional poisoning was due to family disputes, and 16.1% (10/62) of pre-hospital first aid involved the use of tourniquets and herbal medicine. About 28.6% (110/385) of the victims were subjected to laboratory evaluation and 83.9% (323/385) were hospitalized for between 1–5 days. Other results indicated that 80.0% (308/385) responded well to therapy, while 7.3% (28/385) died, 68% (19/28) of whom were male. Furthermore, 39.3% (11/28) of the deaths were related to OPPs. Our findings suggest that the earlier the victims of poisoning get to the hospital, the more likely they are to survive after treatment is initiated. Similarly, victims of poisoning due to parental negligence are more likely to survive after treatment compared to other causes of poisoning, including family disputes, love affairs, snakebites, and psychiatric disorders. The management of JOOTRH should consider allocating resources to support the development of poison management and control. View Full-Text
Keywords: acute poisoning; Western Kenya; snakebite; organophosphates acute poisoning; Western Kenya; snakebite; organophosphates
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MDPI and ACS Style

Okumu, M.O.; Patel, M.N.; Bhogayata, F.R.; Olweny, I.A.; Ochola, F.O.; Onono, J.O. Acute Poisonings at a Regional Referral Hospital in Western Kenya. Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2018, 3, 96.

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