Next Article in Journal
Differential Susceptibility of Male Versus Female Laboratory Mice to Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection
Previous Article in Journal
Exotic Parasite Threats to Australia’s Biosecurity—Trade, Health, and Conservation
Open AccessArticle

Day Biting Habits of Mosquitoes Associated with Mangrove Forests in Kedah, Malaysia

1
School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia
2
School of Humanities, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia
3
Medical Entomology, NSW Health Pathology, Level 3 ICPMR, Westmead Hospital, Westmead 2145, Australia
4
Marie Bashir Institute of Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, University of Sydney, Sydney 2000, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2018, 3(3), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed3030077
Received: 6 June 2018 / Revised: 10 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
  |  
PDF [521 KB, uploaded 23 July 2018]
  |  

Abstract

Due to conservation and rehabilitation efforts, mangrove forests represent some of the largest environmental niches in Malaysia. However, there is little information on the potential risks posed by mosquitoes that are directly and indirectly associated with mangrove forests. To study the potential health risk to humans active within and in close vicinity of mangrove forests, this research focused on the day biting habits of mosquitoes in mangrove forests of Kedah, Malaysia. The bare leg catch (BLC) method was used to collect adult mosquitoes during a 12-h period from 7:30 a.m. to 7:30 p.m. in both disturbed and less disturbed areas of mangroves. In total, 795 adult mosquitoes from 5 genera and 8 species were collected, and over 65% of the total mosquitoes were collected from the less disturbed area. The predominant species from the less disturbed area was Verrallina butleri; in the disturbed area the dominant species was Culex sitiens. The peak biting hour differed for each species, with Aedes albopictus and Cx. sitiens recorded as having a bimodal biting activity peak during dawn and dusk. For Ve. butleri an erratic pattern of biting activity was recorded in the less disturbed area but it peaked during the early daytime for both collection points. Overall, the distinct pattern of day biting habits of mosquitoes within mangroves peaked during dawn and dusk for the less disturbed area but was irregular for the disturbed area throughout the day. The presence of vectors of pathogens such as Ae. albopictus for both areas raises the need for authorities to consider management of mosquitoes in mangrove forests. View Full-Text
Keywords: mangrove; forest; Verrallina butleri; Aedes albopictus; Aedes; Culex; biting habits mangrove; forest; Verrallina butleri; Aedes albopictus; Aedes; Culex; biting habits
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

T. Ismail, T.N.S.; A. Kassim, N.F.; A. Rahman, A.; Yahya, K.; Webb, C.E. Day Biting Habits of Mosquitoes Associated with Mangrove Forests in Kedah, Malaysia. Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2018, 3, 77.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. EISSN 2414-6366 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top