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J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol., Volume 3, Issue 1 (March 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with a secondary form of sarcopenia. An appropriate and [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Body Position on Pelvic Tilt Angles Measured with a Smartphone-Based Navigated Ultrasound System in Symptom-Free Young Adults
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3010018
Received: 2 February 2018 / Revised: 6 March 2018 / Accepted: 7 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
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Abstract
The study aimed to investigate whether pelvic tilt (PT) angles differ between the supine and upright position in symptom-free young adults. Additionally, the concurrent validity of the measurement system was tested on a pelvis phantom against a digital inclinometer. A new smartphone-based navigated [...] Read more.
The study aimed to investigate whether pelvic tilt (PT) angles differ between the supine and upright position in symptom-free young adults. Additionally, the concurrent validity of the measurement system was tested on a pelvis phantom against a digital inclinometer. A new smartphone-based navigated ultrasound system was used to perform the measurements. The sample consisted of 12 symptom-free young adults. A multivariate regression model was used to analyze the data. The subjects’ pelvis in supine position was significantly more tilted anteriorly (mean PT = −7.3°, 95% C.I.: −10.6 to −3.9) than in upright position (mean PT = 0.8°, 95% C.I.: −2.5 to 4.1) (mean. diff. 8.1°; p < 0.001). Rater and trial order had no significant effects on the measured PT angles (p = 0.5). The accuracy of the system when measuring PT angles on the pelvis phantom was 0.3° (0.1° to 0.7°) and 0.2° (−0.09° to 0.6°) for the supine and upright positions respectively. Pelvic tilt angles differed significantly between the supine and the upright position in symptom-free young adults. Concurrent validity showed no differences for measurements in the upright position and small (under 0.4°) significant differences for measurements in the supine position. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Movement Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle
Osteoclast Formation within a Human Co-Culture System on Bone Material as an In Vitro Model for Bone Remodeling Processes
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3010017
Received: 31 December 2017 / Revised: 12 March 2018 / Accepted: 12 March 2018 / Published: 18 March 2018
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Abstract
Bone remodeling can be mimicked in vitro by co-culture models. Based on bone cells, such co-cultures help to study synergistic morphological changes and the impact of materials and applied substances. Hence, we examined the formation of osteoclasts on bovine bone materials to prove [...] Read more.
Bone remodeling can be mimicked in vitro by co-culture models. Based on bone cells, such co-cultures help to study synergistic morphological changes and the impact of materials and applied substances. Hence, we examined the formation of osteoclasts on bovine bone materials to prove the bone resorption functionality of the osteoclasts in three different co-culture set-ups using human monocytes (hMCs) and (I) human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), (II) osteogenic differentiated hMSCs (hOBs), and (III) hOBs in addition of soluble monocyte-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and cytokine receptor activator of NFκB ligand (RANKL). We detected osteoclast-specific actin morphology, as well as the expression of cathepsin K and CD51/61 in single cells in set-up II and in numerous cells in set-up III. Resorption pits on bone material as characteristic proof of functional osteoclasts were not found in set-up I and II, but we detected such resorption pits in set–up III. We conclude in co-culture models without M-CSF and RANKL that monocytes can differentiate into osteoclasts that show the characteristic actin structures and protein expression. However, to receive functional bone resorbing osteoclasts in vitro, the addition of M-CSF and RANKL is needed. Moreover, we suggest the use of bone or bone-like materials for future studies evaluating osteoclastogenesis. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
The “Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology” Journal Club Series: Highlights on Recent Papers in Motor Control and Learning
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3010016
Received: 1 March 2018 / Revised: 1 March 2018 / Accepted: 1 March 2018 / Published: 6 March 2018
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Abstract
We are glad to introduce the sixth Journal Club. This edition is focused on several relevant studies published in recent years in the field of Motor Control and Learning, chosen by our Editorial Board members and their colleagues. We hope to stimulate your [...] Read more.
We are glad to introduce the sixth Journal Club. This edition is focused on several relevant studies published in recent years in the field of Motor Control and Learning, chosen by our Editorial Board members and their colleagues. We hope to stimulate your curiosity in this field and to share with you the passion for sport seen also from the scientific point of view. The Editorial Board members wish you an inspiring lecture. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Relationship between Sedentary Time, Physical Activity and Multiple Lifestyle Factors in Children
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3010015
Received: 12 December 2017 / Revised: 17 February 2018 / Accepted: 22 February 2018 / Published: 2 March 2018
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Abstract
An improved understanding of relationships between moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), screen-time and lifestyle factors is imperative for developing interventions, yet few studies have explored such relationships simultaneously. Therefore, the study’s aim was to examine the relationship between sufficient MVPA (≥60 min·day–1) [...] Read more.
An improved understanding of relationships between moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), screen-time and lifestyle factors is imperative for developing interventions, yet few studies have explored such relationships simultaneously. Therefore, the study’s aim was to examine the relationship between sufficient MVPA (≥60 min·day–1) and excessive screen-time (≥2 h·day–1) with lifestyle factors in children. In total, 756 children (10.4 ± 0.6 years) completed a questionnaire, which assessed sleep duration, MVPA, homework/reading, screen-time and diet, and a 20 metre multi-stage shuttle run test to assess cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). Body mass and stature were measured and used to calculate BMI (body mass index) for age/sex z-scores. Fruit and vegetable consumption and CRF were positively associated with sufficient MVPA, irrespective of sex (p < 0.05). Excessive screen-time was positively associated with sugary snack consumption in boys and girls, and diet soft drink intake in boys (p < 0.05). In addition, excessive screen-time was negatively associated with MVPA before school for both boys and girls, as well as with sleep duration and fruit and vegetable consumption for girls (p < 0.05). Sufficient MVPA and excessive screen-time were associated with healthy and unhealthy factors, respectively, with relationships sometimes differing by sex. Future health promoting interventions should consider targeting change in multiple lifestyle factors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Physical Fitness Evaluation of School Children in Southern Italy: A Cross Sectional Evaluation
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3010014
Received: 20 December 2017 / Revised: 12 February 2018 / Accepted: 14 February 2018 / Published: 26 February 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this work was to evaluate the fitness levels of different physical components in schoolchildren in southern Italy and identify age-related effects of physical performance. One hundred and fifty-four schoolchildren with ages ranging between 6 and 10 years (age 8.1 ± [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to evaluate the fitness levels of different physical components in schoolchildren in southern Italy and identify age-related effects of physical performance. One hundred and fifty-four schoolchildren with ages ranging between 6 and 10 years (age 8.1 ± 1.45 years; 33.70 ± 10.25 kg; 131.50 ± 13.60 cm) were recruited for the investigation. Each scholar underwent a fitness-test battery composed of five elements. A Hand-Grip Strength Test to assess the strength of the hand muscles, a Standing Broad Jump Test to assess lower body explosive strength, a Sit-Up Test to exhaustion to evaluate abdominal muscular endurance, a 4 × 10-m Shuttle Run Test to assess agility, and a 20-m sprint test to assess speed. Cross-sectional analysis revealed that boys perform better than girls and that age affects performance. Lower limb measures show a significant increase after 8 years of age, whereas upper limb measures show a significant increase at 7 and 10 years of age. No age-related differences were found in muscular endurance measures. It is possible to consider age-related performance measures to program exercise interventions that follow the growth characteristics of schoolchildren. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Insights into the Role of Neuroinflammation in the Pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3010013
Received: 3 January 2018 / Revised: 6 February 2018 / Accepted: 12 February 2018 / Published: 13 February 2018
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Abstract
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a devastating disease, and with the increasing number of cases each year, it is becoming a significant socioeconomic burden for the affected people and the entire community. The aetiology of MS is largely unknown, but genetic susceptibility, exposure to [...] Read more.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a devastating disease, and with the increasing number of cases each year, it is becoming a significant socioeconomic burden for the affected people and the entire community. The aetiology of MS is largely unknown, but genetic susceptibility, exposure to infections and/or environmental toxicants are recognised as risk factors. MS is characterised by the appearance of lesions/plaques in the central nervous system, caused by destruction of the myelin sheet by auto-reactive T cells. Symptoms range from mild impairment of daily motor functions to severe sensory and cognitive disabilities necessitating mobility assistance, medical and support from caregivers. Due to the progressive nature of the disease, MS is gaining more attention and research to better understand its multifaceted pathogenesis. In the present review, we focus on some of the latest research related to the neuroinflammatory component of the disease, since it appears to play a critical role in MS pathogenesis. The goal is to shed more light on this specific domain of MS, in an attempt to assist in the identification of novel treatment trajectories and management plans. Full article
Open AccessReview
PKC Proteins and Muscular Dystrophy
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3010012
Received: 22 December 2017 / Revised: 30 January 2018 / Accepted: 5 February 2018 / Published: 7 February 2018
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Abstract
Protein Kinase Cs (PKCs) are a family of 10 isoenzymes with critical roles in cell physiological processes like proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis. Muscular dystrophies are a heterogenous group of genetic degenerative diseases that affect skeletal and cardiac muscles. In the development of muscular dystrophies, [...] Read more.
Protein Kinase Cs (PKCs) are a family of 10 isoenzymes with critical roles in cell physiological processes like proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis. Muscular dystrophies are a heterogenous group of genetic degenerative diseases that affect skeletal and cardiac muscles. In the development of muscular dystrophies, several transduction pathways have been studied. A possible link between muscular dystrophies and PKCs have been recently proposed. After a brief description of the possible transduction pathways that are involved in the development of these genetic diseases, we summarize recent evidence on the role of PKC proteins in muscular dystrophies, with the aim to review possible candidates in molecular therapy of these pathologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Muscular Dystrophy)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Pre-Workout Supplements on Power Maintenance in Lower Body and Upper Body Tasks
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3010011
Received: 6 December 2017 / Revised: 23 January 2018 / Accepted: 24 January 2018 / Published: 1 February 2018
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Abstract
Recently, the use of pre-workout supplements has become popular. Research has shown their ability to increase performance for single bouts but little exists showing their ability to maintain this increase in performance over multiple bouts. Purpose: To investigate the effects of supplements on [...] Read more.
Recently, the use of pre-workout supplements has become popular. Research has shown their ability to increase performance for single bouts but little exists showing their ability to maintain this increase in performance over multiple bouts. Purpose: To investigate the effects of supplements on power production and the maintenance of upper and lower body tasks. Methods: Twenty-three males (22.9 ± 3.6 years, 175.6 ± 6.5 cm, 86.9 ± 15.1 kg, 19.1 ± 8.4 BF% mean ± standard deviation (SD)) were familiarized with the testing protocols and maximal bench press performances were attained (109.1 ± 34.0 kg). Utilizing a double-blind crossover design, subjects completed three trials of five countermovement vertical jumps before and after a high-intensity cycle sprint protocol, which consisted of ten maximal 5 s cycle ergometer sprints utilizing 7.5% of the subject’s body weight as resistance, with 55 s of recovery between each sprint. Subjects ingested in a randomized order a commercially available pre-workout supplement (SUP), placebo + 300 mg caffeine (CAF), or a placebo (PLA). Peak power (PP), mean power (MP), and minimum power (MNP) were recorded for each sprint. Subjects performed a velocity bench press test utilizing 80% of their predetermined one repetition maximum (1RM) for 10 sets of 3 repetitions for maximal speed, with one-minute rests between sets. Maximal velocity from each set was recorded. For analysis, bike sprint and bench press data were normalized to the placebo trial. Results: Cycle sprint testing showed no significant differences through the testing sessions. In the bench press, the peak velocity was higher with both the SUP and CAF treatments compared to the placebo group (1.09 ± 0.17 SUP, 1.10 ± 0.16 CAF, and 1 ± 0 PLA, p < 0.05) and the supplement group was higher than the PLA for mean velocity (1.11 ± 0.18 SUP and 1 ± 0 PLA, p < 0.05). Vertical jump performance and lactate levels were not significantly different (RMANOVA showed no significant differences from any treatments). Conclusions: Supplementation with a pre-workout supplement or placebo with caffeine showed positive benefits in performance in bench press velocity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Postural Stability Is Affected in Older Males with Haemophilia—A Matched Control Study
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3010010
Received: 12 December 2017 / Revised: 12 January 2018 / Accepted: 19 January 2018 / Published: 31 January 2018
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Abstract
Despite fall-related injuries having serious consequences for older haemophilic patients, few studies have investigated their postural stability and risk of falls. The aim was to examine postural stability, joint function and joint mobility in haemophiliacs and age-matched controls. Centre of pressure excursions in [...] Read more.
Despite fall-related injuries having serious consequences for older haemophilic patients, few studies have investigated their postural stability and risk of falls. The aim was to examine postural stability, joint function and joint mobility in haemophiliacs and age-matched controls. Centre of pressure excursions in four 60 s balance conditions, two minute walk test, passive ankle and knee range of motion, Haemophilia Joint Health Score, and Haemophilia Early Arthropathy Detection with Ultrasound score were measured in eight men with haemophilia (people with heamophilia, PWH), and eight age-matched men without haemophilia (people without heamophilia, PWOH). PWH have significantly worse postural stability under physically perturbed conditions (p = 0.001–0.028, η p 2 = 0.19–0.34), reduced joint function (p = 0.001–0.010, d = 1.33–2.62) and mobility (p < 0.001–0.025, d = 1.01–4.61), and increased centre of pressure (CoP) velocity (p < 0.001–0.003) when compared to PWOH. Postural stability among PWH did not deteriorate with time standing, although significant decreases compared to PWOH across all time intervals were observed (Eyes Open Foam (EOF) CoP ellipse (time x group) p = 0.011, η p 2 = 0.28; path (time × group) p = 0.035, η p 2 = 0.21; EOF CoP antero-posterior (AP) (time × group) p = 0.021, η p 2 = 0.24). Joint function, mobility, and postural stability are reduced in PWH compared to PWOH, driven by differences in the CoP AP range. Dynamic tests incorporating physical perturbation may be more effective than static balance tests on a level surface, and longer period of time to assess postural stability may determine whether fatigue affects ability of PWH to maintain postural stability. Adoption of a possible ‘hip strategy’ by which to achieve balance suggests falls prevention programs need to focus on increasing hip strength and retraining ankle strategy movement to allow PWH to improve balance stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Movement Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Resistance Training on Telomere Length in Women Recovering from Breast Cancer
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3010009
Received: 10 January 2018 / Revised: 16 January 2018 / Accepted: 23 January 2018 / Published: 26 January 2018
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Abstract
The purpose of this exploratory analysis was to examine the effects of resistance training (RT) on leukocyte telomere length in breast cancer survivors. Samples from 33 breast cancer survivors were analysed following a 16-week RT or usual care intervention (RT: n = 19, [...] Read more.
The purpose of this exploratory analysis was to examine the effects of resistance training (RT) on leukocyte telomere length in breast cancer survivors. Samples from 33 breast cancer survivors were analysed following a 16-week RT or usual care intervention (RT: n = 19, control: n = 14). The RT group performed supervised exercise three times per week. Leukocyte telomere length was assessed before and after training using quantitative PCR. Changes in telomere length were analysed using ANCOVA, with the change score being the dependent variable, and the baseline value the covariate. Effect sizes (ES) were calculated via partial eta squared. We found a non-statistically significant change in telomere length, and a small associated ES in the RT group compared to the control group for change in telomere length (p = 0.78, ES = 0.003). Our exploratory study demonstrates that a 16-week RT intervention does not have a significant effect on telomere length in women recovering from breast cancer. Therefore, RT is a safe intervention that does not accelerate biological ageing. Full article
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Open AccessReview
What Is the Evidence on Which Physicians Can Rely to Advise Patients When They May Resume Driving after TKA? A Systematic Literature Review
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3010008
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 2 January 2018 / Accepted: 15 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
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Abstract
Patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) often ask when they can safely resume driving. Answering this question is an important matter, which might entail legal and insurance issues. In the present review, the following questions are addressed: What is the quality of the [...] Read more.
Patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) often ask when they can safely resume driving. Answering this question is an important matter, which might entail legal and insurance issues. In the present review, the following questions are addressed: What is the quality of the existing literature on this issue? When does the Brake Response Time (BRT) return to baseline values after right and left TKA? Are BRT components, reaction time (RT), and movement time (MT) equally affected after right and left TKA? Are there gender differences regarding the influence of TKA on BRT and its recovery? An electronic systematic search was performed on Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Web of Science, and PubMed. Ten studies investigating the effects of TKA on driving performance were included. The quality assessment was made with a 12-item assessment tool adapted from the “Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies” of the National Institute of Health. The quality of the existing studies varies, with all studies having methodological weak points. TKA causes an MT delay, which affects BRT negatively. The mean number of days for BRT to return to baseline values was 44 ± 19 (95% C.I. [29 to 58]) and 20 ± 15 (95% C.I. [2 to 38]) after right and left TKA, respectively. As shown by the wide 95% C.I. of the mean, these values can increase to higher numbers. Based on the weighted mean values, a driving abstinence of at least six weeks after right TKA and three weeks after left TKA should be recommended. Due to the discrepancies found in results, further high quality studies are necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Movement Analysis)
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Open AccessReview
The Role of Exercise in Pediatric and Adolescent Cancers: A Review of Assessments and Suggestions for Clinical Implementation
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3010007
Received: 6 December 2017 / Revised: 4 January 2018 / Accepted: 10 January 2018 / Published: 14 January 2018
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Abstract
In the European Union, five-year survival rates for childhood cancer patients are approaching 72–80%, which is a testament to better diagnostics and improved treatment. As a result, a large proportion of childhood cancer patients go on to live productive lives well past reproductive [...] Read more.
In the European Union, five-year survival rates for childhood cancer patients are approaching 72–80%, which is a testament to better diagnostics and improved treatment. As a result, a large proportion of childhood cancer patients go on to live productive lives well past reproductive age. While this is encouraging, childhood cancer treatment is accompanied by multiple long-term adverse effects on physical and mental wellbeing. While there are several approaches to address mental health, reproductive integrity, secondary pathologies, and recurrence, in order to optimize quality of life in childhood cancer patients, exercise and nutrition should also be considered. It is clear that physical activity plays an important role in the prevention and reduction of long-term adverse side effects associated with cancer treatment in both children and adults. However, the current exercise guidelines for cancer survivors are based on adult data and accordingly are not appropriate for children. As children and adults are markedly different, including both the pathophysiology of cancer and exercise response, treatment plans incorporating exercise for children should be age-specific and individually tailored to both reduce the development of future comorbidities and enhance physical health. The purpose of this paper is to review the predominant cancer types and effects of cancer treatment in children, describe several special considerations, and propose a framework for assessment and exercise guidelines for this population. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology in 2017
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3010006
Received: 10 January 2018 / Accepted: 10 January 2018 / Published: 10 January 2018
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Abstract
Peer review is an essential part in the publication process, ensuring that Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology maintains high quality standards for its published papers.[...] Full article
Open AccessReview
Physical Therapy Considerations for Chronic Kidney Disease and Secondary Sarcopenia
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3010005
Received: 1 December 2017 / Revised: 31 December 2017 / Accepted: 2 January 2018 / Published: 5 January 2018
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Abstract
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a progressive condition that may negatively affect musculoskeletal health. These comorbidities may include malnutrition, osteoporosis, and decreased lean body mass. Secondary sarcopenia due to CKD may be associated with mobility limitations and elevated fall risk. Physical therapists are [...] Read more.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a progressive condition that may negatively affect musculoskeletal health. These comorbidities may include malnutrition, osteoporosis, and decreased lean body mass. Secondary sarcopenia due to CKD may be associated with mobility limitations and elevated fall risk. Physical therapists are well-positioned among the health care team to screen for secondary sarcopenia in those with CKD and for the treatment of musculoskeletal comorbid conditions that may affect functional performance. Given the consequences of both low muscle mass and low bone mineral density, appropriate and timely physical therapy is important for fall risk assessment and intervention to minimize the susceptibility to bone fracture. While strength training has been studied less frequently than aerobic training for the management of secondary CKD conditions, evidence suggests that this patient population benefits from participation in strength training programs. However, the provision of a formal exercise prescription by a health care professional, along with formal implementation of an exercise program, may need to be more fully integrated into the standard plan of care for individuals with CKD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tailored Exercise in Patients with Chronic Diseases 2017)
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Open AccessEditorial
Progress for Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology in 2017
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3010004
Received: 22 December 2017 / Revised: 22 December 2017 / Accepted: 26 December 2017 / Published: 28 December 2017
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Open AccessArticle
Diabetes Type 2 and Physical Activity Program: Potential Application of Risk-Engine UKPDS Score in Out-Patient Context
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3010003
Received: 10 November 2017 / Revised: 20 December 2017 / Accepted: 23 December 2017 / Published: 27 December 2017
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Abstract
Diabetes mellitus Type 2 (DMT2) carries a high risk of cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. Physical activity (PA) is widely prescribed for this population. However, detection of the eventual risk level and the potential additional increase through physical exercise are of paramount importance [...] Read more.
Diabetes mellitus Type 2 (DMT2) carries a high risk of cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. Physical activity (PA) is widely prescribed for this population. However, detection of the eventual risk level and the potential additional increase through physical exercise are of paramount importance in these patients. A model for predicting absolute risk for coronary artery disease in diabetes has been provided in the investigation by the UKPDS (United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study). The present study aims to verify the potential feasibility of the UKPDS calculation in an out-patient context, where patients with DMT2 can be selected for an exercise prescription program. All patients investigated were consecutively enrolled in the study at the time of the first clinical check-up in the outpatient center of the University of Perugia-Internal Medicine Department. A group of 101 Caucasian patients (62 males; 39 females; aged 67 ± 2 years) were studied. In agreement with the UKPDS score, gender, age, ethnicity, Body Mass Index, systolic blood pressure and smoking habits were considered. The global mean cardiovascular risk calculated by the UKPDS risk-engine was 25.8% of a first cardiovascular event within 10 years after the initial observation. Despite an absence of symptoms, the risk was globally high and in agreement with current literature. Conclusion: The data are suggestive of a potential large clinical application of UKPDS risk-engine score in an outpatient context, especially in those asymptomatic DMT2 patients potentially enrolled in a physical activity program. This pilot investigation supports the importance for immediate estimation of cardiovascular risk in DMT2 subjects to implement basic therapeutic strategies such as physical activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tailored Exercise in Patients with Chronic Diseases 2017)
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Open AccessReview
Shaping the Cell and the Future: Recent Advancements in Biophysical Aspects Relevant to Regenerative Medicine
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3010002
Received: 14 November 2017 / Revised: 11 December 2017 / Accepted: 13 December 2017 / Published: 22 December 2017
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Abstract
In a worldwide effort to generate clinically useful therapeutic or preventive interventions, harnessing biophysical stimuli for directing cell fate is a powerful strategy. With the vision to control cell function through engineering cell shape, better understanding, measuring, and controlling cell shape for ultimately [...] Read more.
In a worldwide effort to generate clinically useful therapeutic or preventive interventions, harnessing biophysical stimuli for directing cell fate is a powerful strategy. With the vision to control cell function through engineering cell shape, better understanding, measuring, and controlling cell shape for ultimately utilizing cell shape-instructive materials is an emerging “hot” topic in regenerative medicine. This review highlights how quantitation of cellular morphology is useful not only for understanding the effects of different microenvironmental or biophysical stimuli on cells, but also how it could be used as a predictive marker of biological responses, e.g., by predicting future mesenchymal stromal cell differentiation. We introduce how high throughput image analysis, combined with computational tools, are increasingly being used to efficiently and accurately recognize cells. Moreover, we discuss how a panel of quantitative shape descriptors may be useful for measuring specific aspects of cellular and nuclear morphology in cell culture and tissues. This review focuses on the mechano-biological principle(s) through which biophysical cues can affect cellular shape, and recent insights on how specific cellular “baseline shapes” can intentionally be engineered, using biophysical cues. Hence, this review hopes to reveal how measuring and controlling cellular shape may aid in future regenerative medicine applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Low-Intensity Vibration Improves Muscle Healing in a Mouse Model of Laceration Injury
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3010001
Received: 4 December 2017 / Revised: 12 December 2017 / Accepted: 15 December 2017 / Published: 21 December 2017
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Abstract
Recovery from traumatic muscle injuries is typically prolonged and incomplete, leading to impaired muscle and joint function. We sought to determine whether mechanical stimulation via whole-body low-intensity vibration (LIV) could (1) improve muscle regeneration and (2) reduce muscle fibrosis following traumatic injury. C57BL/6J [...] Read more.
Recovery from traumatic muscle injuries is typically prolonged and incomplete, leading to impaired muscle and joint function. We sought to determine whether mechanical stimulation via whole-body low-intensity vibration (LIV) could (1) improve muscle regeneration and (2) reduce muscle fibrosis following traumatic injury. C57BL/6J mice were subjected to a laceration of the gastrocnemius muscle and were treated with LIV (0.2 g at 90 Hz or 0.4 g at 45 Hz for 30 min/day) or non-LIV sham treatment (controls) for seven or 14 days. Muscle regeneration and fibrosis were assessed in hematoxylin and eosin or Masson’s trichrome stained muscle cryosections, respectively. Compared to non-LIV control mice, the myofiber cross-sectional area was larger in mice treated with each LIV protocol after 14 days of treatment. Minimum fiber diameter was also larger in mice treated with LIV of 90 Hz/0.2 g after 14 days of treatment. There was also a trend toward a reduction in collagen deposition after 14 days of treatment with 45 Hz/0.4 g (p = 0.059). These findings suggest that LIV may improve muscle healing by enhancing myofiber growth and reducing fibrosis. The LIV-induced improvements in muscle healing suggest that LIV may represent a novel therapeutic approach for improving the healing of traumatic muscle injuries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Muscle Damage and Regeneration)
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