Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a devastating disease, and with the increasing number of cases each year, it is becoming a significant socioeconomic burden for the affected people and the entire community. The aetiology of MS is largely unknown, but genetic susceptibility, exposure to infections and/or environmental toxicants are recognised as risk factors. MS is characterised by the appearance of lesions/plaques in the central nervous system, caused by destruction of the myelin sheet by auto-reactive T cells. Symptoms range from mild impairment of daily motor functions to severe sensory and cognitive disabilities necessitating mobility assistance, medical and support from caregivers. Due to the progressive nature of the disease, MS is gaining more attention and research to better understand its multifaceted pathogenesis. In the present review, we focus on some of the latest research related to the neuroinflammatory component of the disease, since it appears to play a critical role in MS pathogenesis. The goal is to shed more light on this specific domain of MS, in an attempt to assist in the identification of novel treatment trajectories and management plans.
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