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Inventions, Volume 7, Issue 4 (December 2022) – 23 articles

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Article
Hidden Dynamics Investigation, Fast Adaptive Synchronization, and Chaos-Based Secure Communication Scheme of a New 3D Fractional-Order Chaotic System
Inventions 2022, 7(4), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7040108 - 21 Nov 2022
Viewed by 200
Abstract
In this paper, a new fractional-order chaotic system containing several nonlinearity terms is introduced. This new system can excite hidden chaotic attractors or self-excited chaotic attractors depending on the chosen system parameters or its fraction-order derivative value. Several dynamics of this new system, [...] Read more.
In this paper, a new fractional-order chaotic system containing several nonlinearity terms is introduced. This new system can excite hidden chaotic attractors or self-excited chaotic attractors depending on the chosen system parameters or its fraction-order derivative value. Several dynamics of this new system, such as chaotic attractors, equilibrium points, Lyapunov exponents, and bifurcation diagrams, are analyzed analytically and numerically. Then, adaptive control laws are developed to achieve chaos synchronization in two identical new systems with uncertain parameters; one of these two new identical systems is the master, and the other is the slave. In addition, update laws for estimating the uncertain slave parameters are derived. Furthermore, in chaos application fields, these master and slave synchronized systems are applied in secure communication to act as the transmitter and receiver, respectively. Finally, the security analysis metric tests were analyzed using histograms and spectrograms to establish the communication system’s security strength. Numerical test results demonstrate the possibility of using this proposed fractional-order chaotic system in high-security communication systems. The employed communication system is also highly resistant to pirate attacks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Privacy-Preserving Computing for Analytics and Mining)
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Article
Evaluation of the Operating Modes of the Urban Electric Networks in Dushanbe City, Tajikistan
Inventions 2022, 7(4), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7040107 - 18 Nov 2022
Viewed by 226
Abstract
Currently, energy saving has become an acute problem all over the world. Due to the rapid development of both the energy and information technology sectors, as well as an increase in the electricity demand, the electric distribution system is facing problems caused by [...] Read more.
Currently, energy saving has become an acute problem all over the world. Due to the rapid development of both the energy and information technology sectors, as well as an increase in the electricity demand, the electric distribution system is facing problems caused by stricter requirements for electricity quality, reliability, efficiency, and sustainability. Therefore, the use of energy-saving technologies, both the improvement of existing ones and the application of new ones, is one of the main reserves for electricity saving in power supply systems. This study is devoted to the evaluation of the operating modes of transformer substations of the 6–10 kV electric distribution network in Dushanbe city, based on the results of control winter measurements and the dependence of the low coefficient of active power in transformer substations. It has been observed that, with a low coefficient of active power in transformer substations, when transmitting electricity from substation busbars to transformer substations of a final consumer via overhead transmission lines (an average length of 5 km), the voltage loss exceeds the maximum permissible values. When transmitting electricity via cable lines, the voltage losses are within the limit of 5%. However, a low active power factor may be the reason for an increase in capacitive currents, followed by the command of single-phase earth fault currents. Due to the low active power factor, the increase in voltage losses and useful power losses leads to the inefficient operating modes of the transformer substations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Data Analytics in the Energy Sector)
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Article
On the Avant-Garde IDeS Method for the Future of Car Design Applied to an SUV Project
Inventions 2022, 7(4), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7040106 - 17 Nov 2022
Viewed by 230
Abstract
This case study aims to develop a new innovative SUV (Sport Utility Vehicle) model exploiting IDeS (Industrial Design Structure), which is an engineering approach conceived to optimize car design projects in the automotive industry like never before. A compact SUV was chosen because [...] Read more.
This case study aims to develop a new innovative SUV (Sport Utility Vehicle) model exploiting IDeS (Industrial Design Structure), which is an engineering approach conceived to optimize car design projects in the automotive industry like never before. A compact SUV was chosen because it is a type of vehicle that is highly requested by customers, and it is extremely successful in the market due to its versatility. In fact, compact SUVs are mixed vehicles that combine the pragmatism of a car with the typical robustness of an off-road vehicle making them suitable both for urban and off-road scenarios. The following pages will illustrate the steps followed for the realization of the final product using the SDE (Stylistic Design Engineering) method and other various design technologies, such as Quality Function Deployment (QFD), Benchmarking (BM) and Top Flop Analysis (TPA). In the final part of this project, the virtual prototyping of the product is carried out using Additive Manufacturing (AM) with an FDM 3D printer. The combination of these methods forms, to all intents and purposes, the IDeS, a newly developed innovative and cutting-edge discipline capable of schematically guiding the new product development process in companies with unprecedented efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Innovation Papers)
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Article
Influence of Kinematic Parameters of Carbon Dioxide Turbine on Its Coefficient of Efficiency and Dimensions
Inventions 2022, 7(4), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7040105 - 17 Nov 2022
Viewed by 153
Abstract
To reduce carbon dioxide emissions into the environment, the energy sector develops oxygen-fuel energy cycles. One of the most promising cycles is the Allam cycle that features the highest efficiency of electricity generation among all others. One of the main elements of an [...] Read more.
To reduce carbon dioxide emissions into the environment, the energy sector develops oxygen-fuel energy cycles. One of the most promising cycles is the Allam cycle that features the highest efficiency of electricity generation among all others. One of the main elements of an oxy-fuel energy cycle is a high-temperature carbon dioxide turbine. The turbine’s working fluid and coolant consist predominantly of carbon dioxide at a supercritical pressure. Currently, there are no recommendations in the literature for the design of carbon dioxide turbines for an oxy-fuel energy system (OFES) operating according to the Allam cycle; therefore, there is a need to study the influence of parameters of the flow path of carbon dioxide turbines on its efficiency and overall performance. In this paper, we have presented the results of one-dimensional calculations of a flow path of the carbon dioxide turbine for the Allam cycle with a capacity of 300 MW, with an initial temperature and pressure of 1100 °C and 30 MPa, and an outlet pressure of 3 MPa. The study was carried out by varying the rotor speed, the reactivity level and the average diameter. Based on the results of one-dimensional calculations, we have found that the highest efficiency of the turbine flow path is achieved at a speed of 471 rad/s, a reactivity of 0.5, and an average diameter of 1.1 m for the first stage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Data Analytics in the Energy Sector)
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Article
Periodontal Maintenance Therapy: Efficacy of Oral Irrigator in the Home Oral Hygiene Protocol Associated with Microbiological Analysis with Phase Contrast Microscope
Inventions 2022, 7(4), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7040104 - 15 Nov 2022
Viewed by 252
Abstract
Objective: The aim of this research was to assess how the application of an oral irrigator modifies the subgingival bacterial flora in patients undergoing periodontal maintenance therapy. We used a qualitative microbiological analysis with a phase contrast microscope that can differentiate a non-pathogenic [...] Read more.
Objective: The aim of this research was to assess how the application of an oral irrigator modifies the subgingival bacterial flora in patients undergoing periodontal maintenance therapy. We used a qualitative microbiological analysis with a phase contrast microscope that can differentiate a non-pathogenic (immobile) bacterial flora from a pathogenic (mobile). Methods: In this study, 60 patients with a diagnosis of moderate periodontitis were enrolled. They were treated with non-surgical laser-assisted causal therapy and after one month a re-evaluation was performed that established the stabilization of the periodontal pathology. They were instructed in the home oral hygiene protocol with sonic toothbrush, interdental brushes and oral irrigator, and were included in the periodontal maintenance therapy program with a phase contrast microscope control every 6 months. At T0 phase contrast–phase microscopic examinations, the existence of non-pathogenic bacterial flora was displayed in all patients. They were then randomly divided into two groups, A and B. After professional oral hygiene treatment, group B suspended the usage of oral irrigator. Patients of group A, after the professional oral hygiene treatment, were motivated to continue their oral hygiene protocol at home. After three months, the patients underwent microscopic analysis of the bacterial plaque. Results: At T1 in Group B, 90% of patients had undergone a pathogenic bacterial flora change. In group A, in which patients kept using the oral irrigator for the three months, 100% of them showed immobile plaque on phase contrast microscopic analysis. Conclusions: This research showed that oral irrigator in the practice of home hygiene protocols plays a role in the long-term maintenance of a non-pathogenic bacterial flora in periodontal patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Innovation Papers)
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Article
Heat Flow and Thermal Stress Analysis to Enhance the Temperature Distribution and Service Life of Stone Grill Plates in Barbecue Ovens
Inventions 2022, 7(4), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7040103 - 15 Nov 2022
Viewed by 248
Abstract
The causes of the fracturing of stone grills in barbecue ovens were analyzed using a coupled analysis model that combined combustion thermodynamics with heat conduction and the finite element method. The proportion of mixed air for combustion was simulated, and the stone grill [...] Read more.
The causes of the fracturing of stone grills in barbecue ovens were analyzed using a coupled analysis model that combined combustion thermodynamics with heat conduction and the finite element method. The proportion of mixed air for combustion was simulated, and the stone grill plate temperature and thermal stress distribution were the two factors taken to enhance the design of stone grill plates. Moreover, thermal images were used to compare the performance of the original and the improved plates to quantify the improvements, and validate the accuracy of the simulations. The results showed that the temperature distribution was uniform across the stone grill plate. When comparing the simulation model and the actual experiment, the simulation model can generate an optimal design with fewer errors in a shorter period. The combustion tube is deemed to have considerable influence on the performance of the barbecue oven. The surface temperature distribution of the stone grill plate was improved by controlling the amount of fuel entering the combustion system and/or changing the material and shape of the stone grill. On the other hand, the analysis results of the improved stone grill plate in this study showed that we can correct the temperature difference and thermal stress difference caused by the opening of the upper cover of the oven. According to our study, the average thermal stress on the surface of the stone grill plate was effectively reduced by 45.3 MPa. The average temperature difference decreased by 91 °C. At the same time, by improving the intake position and method of the combustion tube, the air mass flow in the combustion tube increased by 12%, which effectively improved the combustion efficiency of the combustion tube. In particular, a more uniform distribution was achieved by decreasing the temperature of the mixed air entering the combustion tube, which in turn increased the flow rate and velocity of the air flowing through the top of the flame to the bottom surface of the stone grill plate. The strategies employed can prevent the thermal-stress-induced fracturing of stone grill plates and prolong their service life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low-Cost Inventions and Patents: Series II)
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Article
Algebras of Vector Functions over Normed Fields
Inventions 2022, 7(4), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7040102 - 14 Nov 2022
Viewed by 193
Abstract
This article is devoted to study of vector functions in Banach algebras and Banach spaces over normed fields. A structure of their Banach algebras is investigated. Banach algebras of vector functions with values in ∗-algebras, finely regular algebras, B-algebras, and operator [...] Read more.
This article is devoted to study of vector functions in Banach algebras and Banach spaces over normed fields. A structure of their Banach algebras is investigated. Banach algebras of vector functions with values in ∗-algebras, finely regular algebras, B-algebras, and operator algebras are scrutinized. An approximation of vector functions is investigated. The realizations of these algebras by operator algebras are studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Innovation Papers)
Article
Experimental Assessment of a Novel Dual Opening Dewar for Use on a Liquid Air Energy Storage System Installed on Remote, Islanded, Renewable Microgrids
Inventions 2022, 7(4), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7040101 - 09 Nov 2022
Viewed by 227
Abstract
Islanded, renewable energy microgrids for use at remote operating facilities reduce logistical burdens associated with fossil fuel based electrical power sources and provide greater operational flexibility; however, energy generation can be intrinsically intermittent on renewable microgrids. This intermittent electrical generation can be mitigated [...] Read more.
Islanded, renewable energy microgrids for use at remote operating facilities reduce logistical burdens associated with fossil fuel based electrical power sources and provide greater operational flexibility; however, energy generation can be intrinsically intermittent on renewable microgrids. This intermittent electrical generation can be mitigated with electrical energy storage. Liquid air energy storage (LAES) is one promising technology proposed to meet this energy storage issue due to its high energy density and lack of geographical constraints. Small-scale microgrids may not have enough excess capacity to store pressurized liquid air (LA), and instead may rely on unpressurized LA storage and their associated unpressurized power recovery systems. Using commercial off-the-shelf components, this article conducts a performance-based tradespace study for several dual opening, unpressurized Dewar designs for use with Stirling- or Peltier-based power recovery cycles. The dual opening Dewar design is found to be ineffective for the short-term LA storage times necessary for small-scale microgrid use, primarily due to excessive conductive thermal losses; however, the design may be useful as a LA receiver and immediate use energy storage medium for a connected Stirling generator. A proposed alternative solution using a self-pressurized Dewar for LA storage and transport for microgrid applications is presented for future work. Full article
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Editorial
Editorial for Special Issue “the Development and Optimization of Innovative Systems, Processes and Materials for the Production, Conversion, and Storage of Energy”
Inventions 2022, 7(4), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7040100 - 04 Nov 2022
Viewed by 216
Abstract
This Editorial is dedicated to a Special Issue focused on the development and optimization of innovative systems, processes and materials for the production, conversion and storage of energy [...] Full article
Article
Activated Plasma Albumin Gel (APAG) in Transalveolar Technique for Maxillary Sinus Lift: A Case Series
Inventions 2022, 7(4), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7040099 - 26 Oct 2022
Viewed by 335
Abstract
Over the past 20 years, transalveolar techniques have progressively improved. They have become increasingly predictable and reliable, with the additional advantage of simplified procedures that are less operator dependent. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a new technique [...] Read more.
Over the past 20 years, transalveolar techniques have progressively improved. They have become increasingly predictable and reliable, with the additional advantage of simplified procedures that are less operator dependent. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a new technique to lift the maxillary sinus through a transalveolar approach, Simple Minimal Safe (SMS), with use of activated plasma albumin gel (APAG). A total of 33 patients (22 female and 11 male), aged between 36 and 79, were consecutively operated on, with 44 implants positioned using the SMS technique. All were placed in the premolar or molar areas of the maxillary bone. No implant was lost during the follow-up period (6 months) and all implants were then prosthetically loaded. The average bone gain was 4.43 mm. In the first quadrant, sites 15, 16 and 17 were involved with an average bone gain of 3.5 mm, 4.6 mm and 4.5 mm, respectively. In the second quadrant the sites 24, 25, 26 and 27 were involved with an average bone gain of 4.25 mm, 4.5 mm, 4.4 mm and 4.5 mm, respectively. Analyzing the data considering the sex, implants in women had an average gain of 4.66 mm, while in men the average gain was 3.83 mm. With the SMS technique, we achieved a reduction in post-operatory morbidity and in the frequency of Schneiderian membrane perforation. In conclusion, maxillary sinus augmentation via the transalveolar approach has become a more predictable surgical procedure and an easier technique due to less operator-dependent processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Innovation Papers)
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Article
Development of a Human Motion Analysis System Based on Sensorized Insoles and Machine Learning Algorithms for Gait Evaluation
Inventions 2022, 7(4), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7040098 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 350
Abstract
Human gait analysis can provide an excellent source for identifying and predicting pathologies and injuries. In this respect, sensorized insoles also have a great potential for extracting gait information. This, combined with mathematical techniques based on machine learning (ML), can potentialize biomechanical analyses. [...] Read more.
Human gait analysis can provide an excellent source for identifying and predicting pathologies and injuries. In this respect, sensorized insoles also have a great potential for extracting gait information. This, combined with mathematical techniques based on machine learning (ML), can potentialize biomechanical analyses. The present study proposes a proof-of-concept of a system based on vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) acquisition with a sensorized insole that uses an ML algorithm to identify different patterns of vGRF and extract biomechanical characteristics that can help during clinical evaluation. The acquired data from the system was clustered by an immunological algorithm (IA) based on vGRF during gait. These clusters underwent a data mining process using the classification and regression tree algorithm (CART), where the main characteristics of each group were extracted, and some rules for gait classification were created. As a result, the system proposed was able to collect and process the biomechanical behavior of gait. After the application of IA and CART algorithms, six groups were found. The characteristics of each of these groups were extracted and verified the capability of the system to collect and process the biomechanical behavior of gait, offering verification points that can help focus during a clinical evaluation. Full article
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Article
Treatment of Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw (MRONJ) with Er:YaG Laser and Ozone Therapy: A Case Series
Inventions 2022, 7(4), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7040097 - 20 Oct 2022
Viewed by 371
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of the combination of ozone gel and Er:YAG laser treatment in respect of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) for normal procedures. Consequently, the following techniques are compared in the study: medical therapy [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of the combination of ozone gel and Er:YAG laser treatment in respect of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) for normal procedures. Consequently, the following techniques are compared in the study: medical therapy (MT); MT + conservative surgery with rotary/piezoelectric instruments; MT + ozone therapy; MT + surgical treatment + laser Er:YAG; and MT + ozone therapy + surgical treatment + laser Er:YAG. Fifty-seven patients with MRONJ stages I, II, and III were treated. The protocol was different for each group of patients and included MT, the application of an ozone gel, an Er:YAG laser surgery session, conservative surgery with rotary/piezoelectric instruments, or surgical treatment, and then the monitoring of healing for at least 12 months. The protocols were performed once a week until complete recovery. Patients were reassessed weekly for the first month after treatment, monthly for the following quarter, and then every 3 months until the end of one year. The radiographic surveys were carried out 6 and 12 months after the last treatment. All of the patients in Group 4 (treated with medical therapy + ozone therapy + surgical treatment + laser Er:YAG) achieved complete clinical and radiographic recovery (100%) with complete remission of osteonecrosis. The proposed combined treatment of ozone therapy using laser Er:YAG and the MT + surgical treatment allowed us to obtain excellent results in the resolution of MRONJ. This success was explained by a series of characteristics specific to laser technology; in fact, thanks to its photoacoustic, photochemical, photothermal, and photomechanical properties, the laser made it possible to reduce the bacterial load at the intervention site. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Innovation Papers)
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Article
Research of Static and Dynamic Properties of Power Semiconductor Diodes at Low and Cryogenic Temperatures
Inventions 2022, 7(4), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7040096 - 18 Oct 2022
Viewed by 516
Abstract
Systems with high-temperature superconductors (HTSC) impose new requirements on power conversions, since the main part of the losses in such systems is induced in the semiconductors of the converters. Within the framework of this study, the possibility of improving the static and dynamic [...] Read more.
Systems with high-temperature superconductors (HTSC) impose new requirements on power conversions, since the main part of the losses in such systems is induced in the semiconductors of the converters. Within the framework of this study, the possibility of improving the static and dynamic characteristics of power semiconductor diodes using cryogenic cooling was confirmed; in some cases, a loss reduction of up to 30% was achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Challenges in Emerging Power Systems)
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Article
Delaying the Stall of A Low-Wing Aircraft Using A Novel Powerful Vortex Generator
Inventions 2022, 7(4), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7040095 - 18 Oct 2022
Viewed by 326
Abstract
In this study, a new aerodynamic surface concept is introduced, which is a powerful vortex generator (PVG). It can delay the stall point in a low-wing aircraft. This delay leads to a significant increase in the CLmax of an [...] Read more.
In this study, a new aerodynamic surface concept is introduced, which is a powerful vortex generator (PVG). It can delay the stall point in a low-wing aircraft. This delay leads to a significant increase in the CLmax of an aircraft. The results of this research show that the use of PVG, due to its longitudinal position, does not affect the aerodynamic center of the aircraft as well as its static stability. This is an advantage for this method compared to the method based on LEX, in which the aerodynamic center moves forward and the static stability of the aircraft reduces. As a case study, this research focused on a low-wing advanced training jet. Additionally, the aerodynamic characteristics of the aircraft were investigated in three points, including takeoff /landing condition, one maneuvering point, and one MMO condition. To evaluate the concept of PVG in more realistic situations, the wing airfoil was optimized at the same three points using the adjoint method. Then, the effect of PVG on various configurations of the aircraft, including the clean configuration and the different types of flap, was investigated. Since all the analyses were performed using computational fluid dynamics, at first, the validation of numerical methods was conducted on two test cases in low-speed and high-speed flows. The results of the case study show that the PVG greatly delays the separation and increases the value of CLmax. For example, in the case of a hinged leading-edge flap and single slotted trailing-edge flap, more than 12 degrees of delay in the stall was achieved, and the value of CLmax increased from 1.4 to 2.05 (46% increase). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Inventions and innovation in Advanced Manufacturing)
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Article
A Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average with Exogenous Factors (SARIMAX) Forecasting Model-Based Time Series Approach
Inventions 2022, 7(4), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7040094 - 16 Oct 2022
Viewed by 659
Abstract
Time series modeling is an effective approach for studying and analyzing the future performance of the power sector based on historical data. This study proposes a forecasting framework that applies a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average with exogenous factors (SARIMAX) model to forecast [...] Read more.
Time series modeling is an effective approach for studying and analyzing the future performance of the power sector based on historical data. This study proposes a forecasting framework that applies a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average with exogenous factors (SARIMAX) model to forecast the long-term performance of the electricity sector (electricity consumption, generation, peak load, and installed capacity). In this study, the model was used to forecast the aforementioned factors in Saudi Arabia for 30 years from 2021 to 2050. The historical data that were inputted into the model were collected from Saudi Arabia at quarterly intervals across a 40-year period (1980−2020). The SARIMAX technique applies a time series approach with seasonal and exogenous influencing factors, which helps reduce the error values and improve the overall model accuracy, even in the case of close input and output dataset lengths. The experimental findings indicated that the SARIMAX model has promising performance in terms of categorization and consideration, as it has significantly improved forecasting accuracy compared with the simpler autoregressive integrated moving average-based techniques. Furthermore, the model is capable of coping with different-sized sequential datasets. Finally, the model aims to help address the issue of a lack of future planning and analyses of power performance and intermittency, and it provides a reliable forecasting technique, which is a prerequisite for modern energy systems. Full article
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Article
Patterned Colouring via Variable-Speed Single Stretching
Inventions 2022, 7(4), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7040093 - 12 Oct 2022
Viewed by 398
Abstract
We demonstrate a cost-effective, highly reliable/stable and environmentally friendly approach for the patterned colouring of a commercial transparent polyethylene terephthalate (PET). We show that different colour patterns (transparent, white/translucent, complete white/silver and different combinations of these three colours) can be realised in PET [...] Read more.
We demonstrate a cost-effective, highly reliable/stable and environmentally friendly approach for the patterned colouring of a commercial transparent polyethylene terephthalate (PET). We show that different colour patterns (transparent, white/translucent, complete white/silver and different combinations of these three colours) can be realised in PET strips upon varying the speed during continuous stretching. The conditions for good quality colour patterns are investigated, and the length of transient region during speed change is investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Innovation Papers)
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Article
Energy-Saving Load Control of Induction Electric Motors for Drives of Working Machines to Reduce Thermal Wear
Inventions 2022, 7(4), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7040092 - 12 Oct 2022
Viewed by 375
Abstract
The influence of reduced voltage on the service life of an induction motor is considered in this article. An algorithm for calculating the rate of thermal wear of induction motor insulation under reduced supply voltage depending on the load and the mechanical characteristics [...] Read more.
The influence of reduced voltage on the service life of an induction motor is considered in this article. An algorithm for calculating the rate of thermal wear of induction motor insulation under reduced supply voltage depending on the load and the mechanical characteristics of the working machine has been developed. It determines the change in the rate of thermal wear under alternating external effects on the motor (supply voltage and load) and allows forecasting its service life under these conditions. The dependency graphs of the rate of insulation thermal wear on the motor load for various levels of supply voltage and various mechanical characteristics of working machines are provided in the work. It was determined that the rate of thermal wear of the induction motor insulation increases significantly when the voltage is reduced compared to its nominal value with nominal load on the motor. The authors propose to consider this fact for resource-saving control of the motor. The paper presents the results of experimental verification of the obtained rule for “Asynchronous Interelectro” (AI) series electric motors that confirm its accuracy. Based on the obtained correlation, the rule of voltage regulation in energy-saving operation mode has been derived. The proposed rule takes into account the thermal impact on the electric motor running in energy-saving mode and enables saving its resource, which, in turn, results in extending its service life. The research does not consider additional effects on the electric motor except the thermal one. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Challenges in Emerging Power Systems)
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Article
IDeS Method Applied to an Innovative Motorbike—Applying Topology Optimization and Augmented Reality
Inventions 2022, 7(4), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7040091 - 10 Oct 2022
Viewed by 347
Abstract
This study is on the conception of the DS700 HYBRID project by the application of the Industrial Design Structure method (IDeS), which applies different tools sourced from engineering and style departments, including QFD and SDE, used to create the concept of a hybrid [...] Read more.
This study is on the conception of the DS700 HYBRID project by the application of the Industrial Design Structure method (IDeS), which applies different tools sourced from engineering and style departments, including QFD and SDE, used to create the concept of a hybrid motorbike that could reach the market in the near future. SDE is an engineering approach for the design and development of industrial design projects, and it finds important applications in the automotive sector. In addition, analysis tools such as QFD, comprising benchmarking and top-flop analysis are carried out to maximize the creative process. The key characteristics of the bike and the degree of innovation are identified and outlined, the market segment is identified, and the stylistic trends that are most suitable for a naked motorbike of the future are analyzed. In the second part the styling of each superstructure and of all the components of the vehicle is carried out. Afterwards the aesthetics and engineering perspectives are accounted for to complete the project. This is achieved with modelling and computing tools such as 3D CAD, visual renderings, and FEM simulations, and virtual prototyping thanks to augmented reality (AR), and finally physical prototyping with the use of additive manufacturing (AM). The result is a product conception able to compete in the present challenging market, with a design that is technically feasible and also reaches new lightness targets for efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Innovation Papers)
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Article
Study on Road Friction Database for Traffic Safety: Construction of a Road Friction-Measuring Device
Inventions 2022, 7(4), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7040090 - 03 Oct 2022
Viewed by 367
Abstract
This study focuses on the possibility of constructing a database on friction coefficients for actual roads from the viewpoint of traffic safety. A measurement algorithm is established to construct a road friction-measuring device. Next, the tires are selected for use in the measurements [...] Read more.
This study focuses on the possibility of constructing a database on friction coefficients for actual roads from the viewpoint of traffic safety. A measurement algorithm is established to construct a road friction-measuring device. Next, the tires are selected for use in the measurements and their characteristics are measured using a bench tire characteristic tester. The measuring device is designed and constructed based on these characteristics. Finally, using this device, the measurement results of the road friction characteristics for two types of road surfaces are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Innovation Papers)
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Article
Optimization of the Parameters Influencing the Antioxidant Activity and Concentration of Anthocyanins Extracted from Red Onion Skins Using a Central Composite Design
Inventions 2022, 7(4), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7040089 - 03 Oct 2022
Viewed by 367
Abstract
This study aimed to extract bioactives from red onion skins for use as edible colorants that are both natural and functional. The extraction of bioactive chemicals from red onion skins using a conventional solvent extraction was optimized using a Central Composite Design (CCD). [...] Read more.
This study aimed to extract bioactives from red onion skins for use as edible colorants that are both natural and functional. The extraction of bioactive chemicals from red onion skins using a conventional solvent extraction was optimized using a Central Composite Design (CCD). The influence of extraction parameters, such as ethanol and citric acid concentrations, extraction temperature, and time, on anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity (DPPH method) was studied. A quadratic model was suggested for all of the parameters examined and employed. Citric acid concentration (0.05–2.64%), ethanol concentration (6.36–73.63%), operation temperature (16.47–58.52 °C), and extraction duration (10–234.54 min) were the variables studied in the coded form of the experimental plan. The best conditions for maximum anthocyanins and antioxidant activity recovery were: 60% ethanol, 0.87% citric acid, 179.99 min, and 25 °C. The anthocyanins concentration varied from 0.45 to 1.43 mg C3G/g DW, while the antioxidant activity varied from 24.29 to 37.20 mM TE/g DW, according to the experimental design. Overall, it should be emphasized that the extraction process can be enhanced by settling the operating factors to maximize the model responses. The current findings demonstrate that extracts from red onion skins would be useful in developing functional food products. Full article
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Article
Design of a Smart Barrier to Internal Flooding
Inventions 2022, 7(4), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7040088 - 30 Sep 2022
Viewed by 471
Abstract
Increasingly, and with greater frequency, humanity is experiencing violent weather storms, which cause innumerable human and economic losses. Among the most frequent climatic storms that cause considerable losses are floods. Usually, domestic anti-flood systems are not autonomous; they require human intervention. This article [...] Read more.
Increasingly, and with greater frequency, humanity is experiencing violent weather storms, which cause innumerable human and economic losses. Among the most frequent climatic storms that cause considerable losses are floods. Usually, domestic anti-flood systems are not autonomous; they require human intervention. This article presents Smart Flood Barrier (SFB), which is a fully automated system using sensors and composed of hinged lintels that can be installed on any door of any commercial brand. SFB is responsible for diverting the flow of fluid towards the center of a street with a certain slope, generating a “dry zone” near the entrance door to the house. This device also has a barrier installed in front of the door, which will be responsible for hermetically sealing the lintels, preventing the passage into the interior of the house if it is possible for the fluid to flow in the opposite direction to the direction of fluid flow. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Automatic Control and System Theory and Advanced Applications)
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Article
Application of Fixed-Length Ultrasonic Interferometry to Determine the Kinetics of Light-/Heat-Induced Damage to Biological Membranes and Protein Complexes
Inventions 2022, 7(4), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7040087 - 30 Sep 2022
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Abstract
This manuscript describes the application of a fixed-length ultrasonic spectrometer to determine the kinetics of heat- and photo-induced damage to biological membranes and protein complexes and provides examples of the test measurements. We implemented a measurement scheme using the digital analysis of harmonic [...] Read more.
This manuscript describes the application of a fixed-length ultrasonic spectrometer to determine the kinetics of heat- and photo-induced damage to biological membranes and protein complexes and provides examples of the test measurements. We implemented a measurement scheme using the digital analysis of harmonic signals. To conduct the research, the fixed-length ultrasonic spectrometer was modernized: the speed was increased; lighting was supplied to the sample cells; the possibility of changing the gas atmosphere and mixing the sample was given. Using solutions containing natural concentrations of deuterium oxide, a high sensitivity of the spectrometer was shown. The spectrometer performed well in the measurement of phase state of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine liposomes, both in the absence and in the presence of additions, which are capable of changing the lipid properties (sodium dodecyl sulfate, palmitic acid, and calcium ions). The heat- and photo-induced changes in the state of photosystem II core complexes were demonstrated using a fixed-length ultrasonic spectrometer. Transitions at 35.5 °C, 43.5 °C, 56.5 °C, and 66.7 °C were revealed. It is proposed that the transitions reflect the disassembly of the complexes and protein denaturation. Thus, the present study demonstrates that a fixed-length ultrasonic spectrometer can be applied to determine the kinetics of heat- and photo-induced damage to biological membranes and protein complexes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Innovation Papers)
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Article
Event-Based PID Control of a Flexible Manufacturing Process
Inventions 2022, 7(4), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7040086 - 26 Sep 2022
Viewed by 330
Abstract
In most cases, the system control is made in a sampled manner, measuring the controlled value at a predefined frequency given by the sampling time. However, not all processes provide relevant information at regular intervals, especially in manufacturing. To reduce the costs and [...] Read more.
In most cases, the system control is made in a sampled manner, measuring the controlled value at a predefined frequency given by the sampling time. However, not all processes provide relevant information at regular intervals, especially in manufacturing. To reduce the costs and complexity of systems, event-based measuring is necessary. To control this kind of process, an event-based controller is needed. This poses some challenges, especially between the event-triggered measurement, as the process runs in an open loop. In the literature, most event-based controllers are based on the comparison of the error value with a predefined value and activate the controller if this value is crossed. However, in this type of controller, the measured value is measured at a predefine interval and is not suited for most event-based processes. In manufacturing systems, the most usual event-based process is represented by the conveyor transportation system. In this process, the product position is measured only in key locations on the conveyor. For the optimal operation of a flexible manufacturing system, the presence of a product in a key location at predetermined intervals is necessary. For this purpose, this article presents an event-based PID controller implemented on a conveyor transportation system. Full article
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