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Instruments, Volume 4, Issue 3 (September 2020) – 10 articles

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11 pages, 4669 KiB  
Article
Design and Validation of a Portable Handheld Device to Produce Fine Fibers Using Centrifugal Forces
by Gregory Potter, Raul Barbosa, Alexa Villarreal, Alexandra Salinas, Hector Guzman, Heriberto De Leon, Javier A. Ortega and Karen Lozano
Instruments 2020, 4(3), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments4030027 - 14 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4600
Abstract
In the present research project, a novel portable battery-powered handheld device able to produce micron and submicron fibers using centrifugal forces is proposed. The design includes spinnerets with a clamshell configuration with multiple chambers or reservoirs (2, 4, and 8) and different exit [...] Read more.
In the present research project, a novel portable battery-powered handheld device able to produce micron and submicron fibers using centrifugal forces is proposed. The design includes spinnerets with a clamshell configuration with multiple chambers or reservoirs (2, 4, and 8) and different exit orifice diameters (400, 500, 600, and 800 µm). The rotational speed is controlled via an Arduino microcontroller. To validate the design, a series of experiments were conducted and the effect of the orifice diameter, number of chambers, and velocity on the resulting fibers’ diameter and yield was studied. For the experiments, a polymeric solution of Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) was prepared. The fiber yield was gravimetrically quantified, and the fiber morphology and diameter were analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The experimental results showed that spinnerets with an orifice diameter of 500 microns yielded the greatest amount of fibers (0.0777 g). In addition, the number of chambers also affected the amount of fibers produced, and it was determined that the fiber diameter size is dependent on the spinneret speed. Fibers 80 nm in diameter were observed at 6500 rpm. Full article
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17 pages, 2396 KiB  
Article
Real-Time Accelerator Diagnostic Tools for the MAX IV Storage Rings
by Bernhard Meirose, Viktor Abelin, Fredrik Bertilsson, Benjamin E. Bolling, Mathias Brandin, Michael Holz, Rasmus Høier, Andreas Johansson, Sebastian Kalbfleisch, Per Lilja, Johan S. Lundquist, Stephen Molloy, Filip Persson, Jonas E. Petersson, Hugo Serodio, Robin Svärd and David Winchester
Instruments 2020, 4(3), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments4030026 - 03 Sep 2020
Viewed by 2864
Abstract
In this paper, beam diagnostic and monitoring tools developed by the MAX IV Operations Group are discussed. In particular, beam position monitoring and accelerator tunes visualization software tools, as well as tools that directly influence the beam quality and stability, are introduced. An [...] Read more.
In this paper, beam diagnostic and monitoring tools developed by the MAX IV Operations Group are discussed. In particular, beam position monitoring and accelerator tunes visualization software tools, as well as tools that directly influence the beam quality and stability, are introduced. An availability and downtime monitoring application is also presented. Full article
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20 pages, 1537 KiB  
Article
Regression with Gaussian Mixture ModelsApplied to Track Fitting
by Rudolf Frühwirth
Instruments 2020, 4(3), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments4030025 - 31 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2032
Abstract
This note describes the application of Gaussian mixture regression to track fitting with a Gaussian mixture model of the position errors. The mixture model is assumed to have two components with identical component means. Under the premise that the association of each measurement [...] Read more.
This note describes the application of Gaussian mixture regression to track fitting with a Gaussian mixture model of the position errors. The mixture model is assumed to have two components with identical component means. Under the premise that the association of each measurement to a specific mixture component is known, the Gaussian mixture regression is shown to have consistently better resolution than weighted linear regression with equivalent homoskedastic errors. The improvement that can be achieved is systematically investigated over a wide range of mixture distributions. The results confirm that with constant homoskedastic variance the gain is larger for larger mixture weight of the narrow component and for smaller ratio of the width of the narrow component and the width of the wide component. Full article
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10 pages, 298 KiB  
Article
A THz Spectrometer Using Band Pass Filters
by Francesco Martini, Ennio Giovine, Fabio Chiarello and Pasquale Carelli
Instruments 2020, 4(3), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments4030024 - 29 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1892
Abstract
We describe a THz spectrometer operating between 1.2 and 10.5 THz, consisting of band pass filters made by metasurfaces. The source is made of a 10 W small black body. The detector is a high sensitivity room temperature pyroelectric sensor. Various techniques that [...] Read more.
We describe a THz spectrometer operating between 1.2 and 10.5 THz, consisting of band pass filters made by metasurfaces. The source is made of a 10 W small black body. The detector is a high sensitivity room temperature pyroelectric sensor. Various techniques that are used to prepare samples are described. The spectra obtained are compared with those measured with a Fourier Transformer Infrared Spectrometer on the same samples. Our instrument, which uses commercial technologies available at the present time, can constitute an economical alternative to very expensive spectrometers. It has already been successfully used, obtaining precise spectroscopic measurements on many inorganic powders. Full article
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8 pages, 633 KiB  
Article
Phase Space Considerations for a microSAXS Beamline Located on a Diamond Laue Side-Bounce Monochromator
by Detlef-M. Smilgies
Instruments 2020, 4(3), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments4030023 - 06 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1600
Abstract
Flux as well as spatial and angular resolution for a microbeam small-angle X-ray scattering set-up, comprising Laue optics and multiple focusing elements are modeled within five-dimensional phase space analysis. A variety of X-ray optics configurations for highest angular resolution and for highest spatial [...] Read more.
Flux as well as spatial and angular resolution for a microbeam small-angle X-ray scattering set-up, comprising Laue optics and multiple focusing elements are modeled within five-dimensional phase space analysis. A variety of X-ray optics configurations for highest angular resolution and for highest spatial resolution are analyzed. Full article
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55 pages, 5245 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Raman Spectroscopy System Transfer Functions in Intensity, Wavelength, and Time
by Yu-Chung Lin and Joseph V. Sinfield
Instruments 2020, 4(3), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments4030022 - 05 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3797
Abstract
The emergence of a wide variety of relatively low-cost compact spectrometers has led to an increase in the use of spectroscopic techniques by researchers in a broad array of fields beyond those that have traditionally employed these analytical methods. While the fundamental elements [...] Read more.
The emergence of a wide variety of relatively low-cost compact spectrometers has led to an increase in the use of spectroscopic techniques by researchers in a broad array of fields beyond those that have traditionally employed these analytical methods. While the fundamental elements and functions of Raman systems are generally consistent, the specific components that compose a system may vary in number, design, and configuration, and researchers often modify off-the-shelf spectrometers for unique applications. Understanding the effect of instrument design and components on acquired information is thus crucial and provides the prospect to optimize the system to individual needs and to properly compare results obtained with different systems while also reducing the potential for unintended misinterpretation of data. This paper provides a practical treatment of the influences in a typical compact spectroscopy system that can impact the extent to which the output of the system is representative of the observed environment, a relationship that in measurement science is classically termed the system transfer function. For clarity, the transfer function is developed in terms of traditional Raman output parameters, namely intensity, wavelength, and time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Devices Instrumentation and Applications)
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27 pages, 11465 KiB  
Article
Off-Axis Characterisation of the CERN T10 Beam for low Momentum Proton Measurements with a High Pressure Gas Time Projection Chamber
by S.B. Jones, T.S. Nonnenmacher, E. Atkin, G.J. Barker, A. Basharina-Freshville, C. Betancourt, S.B. Boyd, D. Brailsford, Z. Chen-Wishart, L. Cremonesi, A. Deisting, A. Dias, P. Dunne, J. Haigh, P. Hamacher-Baumann, A. Kaboth, A. Korzenev, W. Ma, P. Mermod, M. Mironova, J. Monroe, R. Nichol, J. Nowak, W. Parker, H. Ritchie-Yates, S. Roth, R. Saakyan, N. Serra, Y. Shitov, J. Steinmann, A. Tarrant, M.A. Uchida, S. Valder, A.V. Waldron, M. Ward and M.O. Wasckoadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Instruments 2020, 4(3), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments4030021 - 28 Jul 2020
Viewed by 3737
Abstract
We present studies of proton fluxes in the T10 beamline at CERN. A prototype high pressure gas time projection chamber (TPC) was exposed to the beam of protons and other particles, using the 0.8 GeV/c momentum setting in T10, in order to make [...] Read more.
We present studies of proton fluxes in the T10 beamline at CERN. A prototype high pressure gas time projection chamber (TPC) was exposed to the beam of protons and other particles, using the 0.8 GeV/c momentum setting in T10, in order to make cross section measurements of low energy protons in argon. To explore the energy region comparable to hadrons produced by GeV-scale neutrino interactions at oscillation experiments, i.e., near 0.1 GeV of kinetic energy, methods of moderating the T10 beam were employed: the dual technique of moderating the beam with acrylic blocks and measuring scattered protons off the beam axis was used to decrease the kinetic energy of incident protons, as well as change the proton/minimum ionising particle (MIP) composition of the incident flux. Measurements of the beam properties were made using time of flight systems upstream and downstream of the TPC. The kinetic energy of protons reaching the TPC was successfully changed from ∼0.3 GeV without moderator blocks to less than 0.1 GeV with four moderator blocks (40 cm path length). The flux of both protons and MIPs off the beam axis was increased. The ratio of protons to MIPs vary as a function of the off-axis angle allowing for possible optimisation of the detector to select the type of required particles. Simulation informed by the time of flight measurements show that with four moderator blocks placed in the beamline, (5.6 ± 0.1) protons with energies below 0.1 GeV per spill traversed the active TPC region. Measurements of the beam composition and energy are presented. Full article
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12 pages, 11131 KiB  
Article
Infrared Wavefront Sensing for Adaptive Optics Assisted Galactic Center Observations with the VLT Interferometer and GRAVITY: Operation and Results
by Stefan Hippler, Wolfgang Brandner, Silvia Scheithauer, Martin Kulas, Johana Panduro, Peter Bizenberger, Henry Bonnet, Casey Deen, Françoise Delplancke-Ströbele, Frank Eisenhauer, Gert Finger, Zoltan Hubert, Johann Kolb, Eric Müller, Laurent Pallanca, Julien Woillez, Gérard Zins and GRAVITY Collaboration
Instruments 2020, 4(3), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments4030020 - 15 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2607
Abstract
This article describes the operation of the near-infrared wavefront sensing based Adaptive Optics (AO) system CIAO. The Coudé Infrared Adaptive Optics (CIAO) system is a central auxiliary component of the Very Large Telescope (VLT) interferometer (VLTI). It enables in particular the observations of [...] Read more.
This article describes the operation of the near-infrared wavefront sensing based Adaptive Optics (AO) system CIAO. The Coudé Infrared Adaptive Optics (CIAO) system is a central auxiliary component of the Very Large Telescope (VLT) interferometer (VLTI). It enables in particular the observations of the Galactic Center (GC) using the GRAVITY instrument. GRAVITY is a highly specialized beam combiner, a device that coherently combines the light of the four 8-m telescopes and finally records interferometric measurements in the K-band on 6 baselines simultaneously. CIAO compensates for phase disturbances caused by atmospheric turbulence, which all four 8 m Unit Telescopes (UT) experience during observation. Each of the four CIAO units generates an almost diffraction-limited image quality at its UT, which ensures that maximum flux of the observed stellar object enters the fibers of the GRAVITY beam combiner. We present CIAO performance data obtained in the first 3 years of operation as a function of weather conditions. We describe how CIAO is configured and used for observations with GRAVITY. In addition, we focus on the outstanding features of the near-infrared sensitive Saphira detector, which is used for the first time on Paranal, and show how it works as a wavefront sensor detector. Full article
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9 pages, 3617 KiB  
Article
CT-Dose Measurement of the Spinal Cord Region Using XR-QA2 Radiochromic Films and TLD 100H Dosimeters
by Martina Pace, Giuseppe Stella, Letizia Barone Tonghi, Stefania Mazzaglia and Anna Maria Gueli
Instruments 2020, 4(3), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments4030019 - 03 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1989
Abstract
The European Directive 2013/59/Euratom focuses on the radiation protection and patient dosimetry. In particular, the dose absorbed by serial organs such as the spinal cord due to diagnostic exams plays a crucial role in the appraisal of medical exposure. In this work, a [...] Read more.
The European Directive 2013/59/Euratom focuses on the radiation protection and patient dosimetry. In particular, the dose absorbed by serial organs such as the spinal cord due to diagnostic exams plays a crucial role in the appraisal of medical exposure. In this work, a comparison between dose measurements performed with GafchromicTM XR-QA2 and TLD 100H is presented. The dosimeters—after a calibration procedure through an X-ray tube—were placed within the thorax region of an anthropomorphic phantom corresponding to the spinal cord area exposed to a thoracic CT procedure. The mean-dose value was measured with GafchromicTM first, and it was then compared to the dose value obtained with TLDs, resulting in a good agreement between the two dosimetric methodologies. Additionally, the results showed that—due to the usage of the automatic exposure control (EC) system—the discrepancy between the two methods is proportional to the current output of the CT system. Full article
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27 pages, 39231 KiB  
Article
Open-Source Digitally Replicable Lab-Grade Scales
by Benjamin R. Hubbard and Joshua M. Pearce
Instruments 2020, 4(3), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments4030018 - 27 Jun 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 7426
Abstract
This study provides designs for a low-cost, easily replicable open-source lab-grade digital scale that can be used as a precision balance. The design is such that it can be manufactured for use in most labs throughout the world with open-source RepRap-class material extrusion-based [...] Read more.
This study provides designs for a low-cost, easily replicable open-source lab-grade digital scale that can be used as a precision balance. The design is such that it can be manufactured for use in most labs throughout the world with open-source RepRap-class material extrusion-based 3-D printers for the mechanical components and readily available open-source electronics including the Arduino Nano. Several versions of the design were fabricated and tested for precision and accuracy for a range of load cells. The results showed the open-source scale was found to be repeatable within 0.05 g with multiple load cells, with even better precision (0.005 g) depending on load cell range and style. The scale tracks linearly with proprietary lab-grade scales, meeting the performance specified in the load cell data sheets, indicating that it is accurate across the range of the load cell installed. The smallest load cell tested (100 g) offers precision on the order of a commercial digital mass balance. The scale can be produced at significant cost savings compared to scales of comparable range and precision when serial capability is present. The cost savings increase significantly as the range of the scale increases and are particularly well-suited for resource-constrained medical and scientific facilities. Full article
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