Previous Issue
Volume 7, September

Safety, Volume 7, Issue 4 (December 2021) – 10 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Article
Decision-Making Framework for Implementing Safer Human–Robot Collaboration Workstations: System Dynamics Modeling
by , , , , , , , , and
Safety 2021, 7(4), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety7040075 - 27 Oct 2021
Viewed by 178
Abstract
Human–Robot Collaboration (HRC) systems are often implemented seeking for reducing risk of Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSD) development and increasing productivity. The challenge is to successfully implement an industrial HRC to manage those factors, considering that non-linear behaviors of complex systems can produce counterintuitive [...] Read more.
Human–Robot Collaboration (HRC) systems are often implemented seeking for reducing risk of Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSD) development and increasing productivity. The challenge is to successfully implement an industrial HRC to manage those factors, considering that non-linear behaviors of complex systems can produce counterintuitive effects. Therefore, the aim of this study was to design a decision-making framework considering the key ergonomic methods and using a computational model for simulations. It considered the main systemic influences when implementing a collaborative robot (cobot) into a production system and simulated scenarios of productivity and WMSD risk. In order to verify whether the computational model for simulating scenarios would be useful in the framework, a case study in a manual assembly workstation was conducted. The results show that both cycle time and WMSD risk depend on the Level of Collaboration (LoC). The proposed framework helps deciding which cobot to implement in a context of industrial assembly process. System dynamics were used to understand the actual behavior of all factors and to predict scenarios. Finally, the framework presented a clear roadmap for the future development of an industrial HRC system, drastically reducing risk management in decision-making. Full article
Article
Digitalization of Musculoskeletal Risk Assessment in a Robotic-Assisted Assembly Workstation
by , , , , , , , , and
Safety 2021, 7(4), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety7040074 - 27 Oct 2021
Viewed by 143
Abstract
The ergonomic assessment of adopted working postures is essential for avoiding musculoskeletal risk factors in manufacturing contexts. Several observational methods based on external analyst observations are available; however, they are relatively subjective and suffer low repeatability. Over the past decade, the digitalization of [...] Read more.
The ergonomic assessment of adopted working postures is essential for avoiding musculoskeletal risk factors in manufacturing contexts. Several observational methods based on external analyst observations are available; however, they are relatively subjective and suffer low repeatability. Over the past decade, the digitalization of this assessment has received high research interest. Robotic applications have the potential to lighten workers’ workload and improve working conditions. Therefore, this work presents a musculoskeletal risk assessment before and after robotic implementation in an assembly workstation. We also emphasize the importance of using novel and non-intrusive technologies for musculoskeletal risk assessment. A kinematic study was conducted using inertial motion units (IMU) in a convenience sample of two workers during their normal performance of assembly work cycles. The musculoskeletal risk was estimated according to a semi-automated solution, called the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) report. Based on previous musculoskeletal problems reported by the company, the assessment centered on the kinematic analysis of functional wrist movements (flexion/extension, ulnar/radial deviation, and pronation/supination). The results of the RULA report showed a reduction in musculoskeletal risk using robotic-assisted assembly. Regarding the kinematic analysis of the wrist during robotic-assisted tasks, a significant posture improvement of 20–45% was registered (considering the angular deviations relative to the neutral wrist position). The results obtained by direct measurements simultaneously reflect the workload and individual characteristics. The current study highlights the importance of an in-field instrumented assessment of musculoskeletal risk and the limitations of the system applied (e.g., unsuitable for tracking the motion of small joints, such as the fingers). Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Effect of Geometric Road Conditions on Safety Performance of Abu Dhabi Road Intersections
Safety 2021, 7(4), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety7040073 - 21 Oct 2021
Viewed by 260
Abstract
Abu Dhabi’s government has taken several initiatives to improve the safety of the city’s highways, such as reducing traffic accident occurrence, red light violations, and property damage associated with traffic accidents. However, the intersections are still associated with many severe accidents, property damage [...] Read more.
Abu Dhabi’s government has taken several initiatives to improve the safety of the city’s highways, such as reducing traffic accident occurrence, red light violations, and property damage associated with traffic accidents. However, the intersections are still associated with many severe accidents, property damage associated with accidents, and red light violations. To help authorities pinpoint the major contributors to the deterioration of the safety performance of the signalized junctions, this study employed a negative binomial regression model to investigate the effect of geometric road conditions (in terms of the number of lanes of streets found in four-leg, three-leg, and different types of intersection) on property damage, red light violations, and severe accidents as safety performance indicators. The research found that, in both three-leg and four-leg intersections, most accidents and traffic light violations occur when minor streets pass through the intersection. This can be solved by converting these minor streets into major streets by increasing the number of lanes. This way, the capability of the minor street’s handling of increased traffic from the major streets significantly increases. The results also show that traffic speed is a major contributor to safety performance deterioration in these intersections. This can be solved by posting speed limits at these intersections. Results have also shown that, in Direction 1, when the main street passes through the intersection, the property damage type of accident is significantly high. This may be due to the presence of a potentially hazardous property or road design flaws on that side of the road. This effect needs further investigation to determine the hazardous property or the road design flaws causing these accidents. Full article
Article
The State of the Practice in Validation of Model-Based Safety Analysis in Socio-Technical Systems: An Empirical Study
Safety 2021, 7(4), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety7040072 - 18 Oct 2021
Viewed by 294
Abstract
Even though validation is an important concept in safety research, there is comparatively little empirical research on validating specific safety assessment, assurance, and ensurance activities. Focusing on model-based safety analysis, scant work exists to define approaches to assess a model’s adequacy for its [...] Read more.
Even though validation is an important concept in safety research, there is comparatively little empirical research on validating specific safety assessment, assurance, and ensurance activities. Focusing on model-based safety analysis, scant work exists to define approaches to assess a model’s adequacy for its intended use. Rooted in a wider concern for evidence-based safety practices, this paper intends to provide an understanding of the extent of this problem of lack of validation to establish a baseline for future developments. The state of the practice in validation of model-based safety analysis in socio-technical systems is analyzed through an empirical study of relevant published articles in the Safety Science journal spanning a decade (2010–2019). A representative sample is first selected using the PRISMA protocol. Subsequently, various questions concerning validation are answered to gain empirical insights into the extent, trends, and patterns of validation in this literature on model-based safety analysis. The results indicate that no temporal trends are detected in the ratio of articles in which models are validated compared to the total number of papers published. Furthermore, validation has no clear correlation with the specific model type, safety-related concept, different system life cycle stages, industries, or with the countries from which articles originate. Furthermore, a wide variety of terminology for validation is observed in the studied articles. The results suggest that the safety science field concerned with developing and applying models in safety analyses would benefit from an increased focus on validation. Several directions for future work are discussed. Full article
Review
Ergonomics and Human Factors as a Requirement to Implement Safer Collaborative Robotic Workstations: A Literature Review
Safety 2021, 7(4), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety7040071 - 18 Oct 2021
Viewed by 310
Abstract
There is a worldwide interest in implementing collaborative robots (Cobots) to reduce work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSD) risk. While prior work in this field has recognized the importance of considering Ergonomics & Human Factors (E&HF) in the design phase, most works tend to highlight [...] Read more.
There is a worldwide interest in implementing collaborative robots (Cobots) to reduce work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSD) risk. While prior work in this field has recognized the importance of considering Ergonomics & Human Factors (E&HF) in the design phase, most works tend to highlight workstations’ improvements due to Human-Robot Collaboration (HRC). Based on a literature review, the current study summarises studies where E&HF was considered a requirement rather than an output. In this article, the authors are interested in understanding the existing studies focused on Cobots’ implementation with ergonomic requirements, and the methods applied to design safer collaborative workstations. This review was performed in four prominent publications databases: Scopus, Web of Science, Pubmed, and Google Scholar, searching for the keywords ‘Collaborative robots’ or ‘Cobots’ or ‘HRC’ and ‘Ergonomics’ or ‘Human factors’. Based on the inclusion criterion, 20 articles were reviewed, and the main conclusions of each are provided. Additionally, the focus was given to the segmentation between studies considering E&HF during the design phase of HRC systems and studies applying E&HF in real-time on HRC systems. The results demonstrate the novelty of this topic, especially of the real-time applications of ergonomics as a requirement. Globally, the results of the reviewed studies showed the potential of E&HF requirements integrated into HRC systems as a relevant input for reducing WMSD risk. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Improving Airline Pilots’ Visual Scanning and Manual Flight Performance through Training on Skilled Eye Gaze Strategies
Safety 2021, 7(4), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety7040070 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 331
Abstract
Poor cockpit monitoring has been identified as an important contributor to aviation accidents. Improving pilots’ monitoring strategies could therefore help to enhance flight safety. During two different sessions, we analyzed the flight performance and eye movements of professional airline pilots in a full-flight [...] Read more.
Poor cockpit monitoring has been identified as an important contributor to aviation accidents. Improving pilots’ monitoring strategies could therefore help to enhance flight safety. During two different sessions, we analyzed the flight performance and eye movements of professional airline pilots in a full-flight simulator. In a pre-training session, 20 pilots performed a manual approach scenario as pilot flying (PFs) and were classified into three groups according to their flight performance: unstabilized, standard, and most accurate. The unstabilized pilots either under- or over-focused various instruments. Their number of visual scanning patterns was lower than those of pilots who managed to stabilize their approach. The most accurate pilots showed a higher perceptual efficiency with shorter fixation times and more fixations on important primary flight instruments. Approximately 10 months later, fourteen pilots returned for a post-training session. They received a short training program and performed a similar manual approach as during the pre-training session. Seven of them, the experimental group, received individual feedback on their own performance and visual behavior (i.e., during the pre-training session) and a variety of data obtained from the most accurate pilots, including an eye-tracking video showing efficient visual scanning strategies from one of the most accurate pilots. The other seven, the control group, received general guidelines on cockpit monitoring. During the post-training session, the experimental group had better flight performance (compared to the control group), and its visual scanning strategies became more similar to those of the most accurate pilots. In summary, our results suggest that cockpit monitoring underlies manual flight performance and that it can be improved using a training program based mainly on exposure to eye movement examples from highly accurate pilots. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Identification of Risk Factors Associated with Fatal Intersection Crashes and Assessment of the In-Service Safety Performance of Signalized Intersections and Roundabouts in Abu Dhabi
Safety 2021, 7(4), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety7040069 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 445
Abstract
Several research studies conducted in North America and Europe have consistently shown that converting signalized intersections into roundabouts leads to safety benefits. These studies have led North American and European transportation agencies to convert hundreds of signalized intersections into roundabouts over the last [...] Read more.
Several research studies conducted in North America and Europe have consistently shown that converting signalized intersections into roundabouts leads to safety benefits. These studies have led North American and European transportation agencies to convert hundreds of signalized intersections into roundabouts over the last few decades. Meanwhile, the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, the largest emirate in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), has replaced many of its long-standing roundabouts with signalized intersections (i.e., controlled by traffic lights) despite the fact that no UAE-based scientific study comparing the safety performance of these two intersection types can be found in the literature. Hence, the objectives of this paper are to (i) identify factors that significantly contribute to fatal intersection-related crashes and (ii) assess the in-service safety performance of signalized intersections and roundabouts. It is anticipated that the findings from this research will provide road designers and decision-makers with much needed scientific guidance on which factors contribute to fatal intersection crashes as well as on whether converting existing roundabouts into signalized intersections improves public safety or not in Abu Dhabi. The findings from this research should also benefit neighboring Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries considering their similarities in road design, traffic characteristics, and driving culture. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Retraction
Retraction: Li, J. Fault-Event Trees Based Probabilistic Safety Analysis of a Boiling Water Nuclear Reactor’s Core Meltdown and Minor Damage Frequencies. Safety 2020, 6, 28
by
Safety 2021, 7(4), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety7040068 - 12 Oct 2021
Viewed by 256
Abstract
The author would like to retract the article, published on 17 June 2020, cited above [...] Full article
Review
Accidental Combustion Phenomena at Cryogenic Conditions
Safety 2021, 7(4), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety7040067 - 02 Oct 2021
Viewed by 472
Abstract
The presented state of the art can be intended as an overview of the current understandings and the remaining challenges on the phenomenological aspects involving systems operating at ultra-low temperature, which typically characterize the cryogenic fuels, i.e., liquefied natural gas and liquefied hydrogen. [...] Read more.
The presented state of the art can be intended as an overview of the current understandings and the remaining challenges on the phenomenological aspects involving systems operating at ultra-low temperature, which typically characterize the cryogenic fuels, i.e., liquefied natural gas and liquefied hydrogen. To this aim, thermodynamic, kinetic, and technological aspects were included and integrated. Either experimental or numerical techniques currently available for the evaluation of safety parameters and the overall reactivity of systems at cryogenic temperatures were discussed. The main advantages and disadvantages of different alternatives were compared. Theoretical background and suitable models were reported given possible implementation to the analyzed conditions. Attention was paid to models describing peculiar phenomena mainly relevant at cryogenic temperatures (e.g., para-to-ortho transformation and thermal stratification in case of accidental release) as well as critical aspects involving standard phenomena (e.g., ultra-low temperature combustion and evaporation rate). Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Are Traffic Announcements Really Effective? A Systematic Review of Evaluations of Crash-Prevention Communication Campaigns
Safety 2021, 7(4), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety7040066 - 24 Sep 2021
Viewed by 568
Abstract
Communication campaigns are commonly used in the traffic and road safety sector to raise public awareness of the importance of avoiding risky road user attitudes and behaviors. Surprisingly few of these communication campaigns evaluate their effectiveness in a formal and comprehensive manner. The [...] Read more.
Communication campaigns are commonly used in the traffic and road safety sector to raise public awareness of the importance of avoiding risky road user attitudes and behaviors. Surprisingly few of these communication campaigns evaluate their effectiveness in a formal and comprehensive manner. The core aim of the present systematic review is to identify the type of studies that evaluate the effectiveness of campaigns in this sector, in order to identify and contrast their main findings. This systematic review followed the PRISMA methodology, by means of which the relevant articles based on the search term were identified. A total of 613 indexed articles were filtered, and a final set of 27 articles directly addressing the issue was analyzed. Search strategies were developed and conducted in WOS, Scopus, NCBI, Google Scholar and APA databases. The selected articles point out that, although advertisements alone have a certain positive effect, their effectiveness is substantially increased if they are accompanied by other preventive measures such as legislation or road safety education. In any case, more evaluations of traffic campaigns are needed to identify which techniques are effective and which are not, and which should therefore be replaced by new methods of behavior modification in future communication campaigns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Motorized Road Users Safety)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Back to TopTop