Are Traffic Announcements Really Effective? A Systematic Review of Evaluations of Crash-Prevention Communication Campaigns
Are Road Safety Awareness Campaigns Effective?
2. Materials and Methods
- Identifying the Research Question,
- Finding Relevant Studies,
- Selecting the Studies,
- Charting the Data and Collating,
- Summarizing and Reporting the Results.
2.1.1. Step 1: Identifying the Research Question
2.1.2. Step 2: Finding Relevant Studies
2.1.3. Step 3: Selecting the Studies
2.1.4. Step 4: Charting the Data
2.1.5. Step 5: Collating, Summarizing and Reporting the Results
2.2. Ethics Statement
3.1. Search Results
3.2. Characteristics of Eligible Research Articles
4.1. Effectiveness of Advertising Campaigns
4.2. Methodology for Campaign Evaluation
4.3. Practical Implications of the Study
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Author and Year||Country||Study Aim(s) and Method||Type of |
|Results (Main Outcomes)|
|Negi et al. 2020 ||Ethiopia||This study assesses the effectiveness of a public awareness campaign targeted at deterring people from driving while intoxicated. Under the slogan “Never drink and drive”, the analysis focuses on knowledge, attitudes and behaviors related to drinking and driving.||Observational and Cross-Sectional||Following the program, participants were far more likely to change their knowledge and attitudes concerning drunk driving. Behavior improved as well: participants after the campaign reported a lower rate of drunk driving compared to those who had participated in the campaign at the beginning.|
|Adnan and Gazder, 2019 ||Pakistan||Univariate and non-parametric classification and regression tree (CART) approaches are used to evaluate repeated cross-sectional data obtained before (n = 226) and after (n = 277) the helmet use enforcement campaign.||Observational and Longitudinal||The effect of the campaign is temporary. It takes a lot of effort to make it effective, as well as to establish consistent and systematic awareness and enforcement programs.|
|Sicińska and Dąbrowska-Loranc, 2018 ||Polonia||This study presents the results of self-reported data from the real traffic survey on vehicle users’ protective behavior. Focusing on their performance following seat belt and child restraint campaigns.||Observational and Longitudinal||Regarding the study results, it should be noted that the annual decrease confirms the need for regular surveys on road user behavior and for educating road users through the media. Such activities encourage motorists to use child and adult restraint systems, which are the most basic and effective passive safety devices in a vehicle.|
|Shaikh et al. 2017 ||Pakistan||Three observational surveys on the proportion of vehicles giving way to ambulances on the roads were conducted in different areas of Karachi (Pakistan) for this project, taking place at three different points in time: before, during and after the campaign on the proportion of vehicles giving way to ambulances on the roads.||Observational and Longitudinal||Vehicles were more inclined to give way to ambulances during and after the campaign.|
Media campaigns, especially when conveying a humanitarian message, can play an essential role in causing a change in people’s negligent behavior in response to such activities.
|Hamelin et al. 2017 ||Australia||GfK-face EMO’s recognition software collected 60 people’s unconscious feelings while they saw the commercial, and they were also requested to complete a modified version of the National Survey of Speeding Attitudes and Behaviors. With this test, a driving attitude score was calculated directly after the individual saw the advertisement and again two weeks later.||Experimental and|
|The highly emotional ad improved drivers’ driving behavior. Higher impact than the low-emotional ad.|
|Adamos and Nathanail, 2016 ||Greece||The findings of an examination of three road safety communication initiatives targeting the themes of drinking and driving, seat belt use and driving weariness are used in this article. When measuring the success of road safety campaigns, this study uses three types of research designs (experimental, quasi-experimental and non-experimental designs), implements a cross-design assessment and conducts a cross-campaign evaluation.||Mixed and Cross-Sectional||The study’s findings revealed that the pre-post split-sample design had better predictability than other designs, particularly in data collected from the intervention group after the campaign’s execution. The predictability values increased as more constructions were introduced to the independent variables. The construct that has the greatest impact on behavior is the intention, while the other constructions have a lesser impact. Behavioral beliefs, normative beliefs and descriptive norms all play a role in predicting purpose.|
|Widyastuti et al. 2016 ||Indonesia||Many places have utilized road safety campaigns to minimize traffic fatalities and injuries, but few have been created using scientific theories or evaluated for their effectiveness in changing attitudes, intentions or behaviors. The value of the crash rate as a metric to be evaluated is the subject of RUNK’s investigation in this study.||Observational and Cross-Sectional||The result of this study shows that road type 4/2 UD has the highest accident rate.|
|Ditsuwan et al. 2013 ||Thailand||For this study, a generalized cost-effectiveness analysis was carried out, and costs from a health sector perspective were included. Random and selective breath testing and media campaigns were compared in both the current and intervention scenarios with the “do nothing” scenario.||Observational and Cross-Sectional||When compared to doing nothing, media campaigns, random breath testing and selective breath testing all result in cost savings. Together: intensified breath testing and media campaigns have the potential to reduce the burden of alcohol-related road traffic injuries by 24%.|
|Zampetti et al. 2013 ||Italy||The 20 municipalities received a publicity campaign through different actions, such as posters, leaflets, media communication with press conferences, articles in local newspapers, radio and TV interviews and a website dedicated to the LHA1. In addition, 12 municipalities received an intensive education campaign. After that, the number and severity of non-fatal road traffic injuries before and after the campaign were compared.||Observational and Cross-Sectional||The results obtained in this project are in line with other European studies and show that there is a general downward trend, but this is presumably not a direct consequence of road safety education. This does not mean that campaigns are ineffective (they are necessary for raising awareness), but it does indicate that they must be supplemented with additional actions in order to be truly effective.|
|Castillo-Manzano et al. 2012 ||Spain||The aim of this project is to study and evaluate the effectiveness of sanctioning strategies in terms of the main indicators of road accidents and the duration of the effects. Multivariate models of unobserved components in a state-space framework are utilized in this fashion on monthly series from 1980 to 2008.||Observational and Longitudinal||The findings of this study are crucial because they show that after several years of soft advertising, when the level of severity of the messages is increased, the number of deaths and injuries is lowered.|
|Hutchinson and Wundersitz, 2011 ||Australia||The recent literature on the effectiveness (or otherwise) of road safety promotion through media advertising is selectively reviewed. The overall result is inconclusive: large effects have been rare, but small effects cannot be ruled out.||Observational and Cross-Sectional||It is proposed that the assessment should be based on a before-and-after comparison of objectively observable behaviors or variables that are closely related to security, and credible theories are needed to corroborate the link between behavior and security.|
|Richard and De Barros, 2010 ||Canada||The impact of anti-speeding messaging on drivers’ attitudes and traffic speed on an interurban highway are investigated in this research. A questionnaire was developed and sampled on almost a hundred drivers.||Observational and Cross-Sectional||The results of the study show that the messages produced do not have a large, albeit beneficial, effect on driver attitudes and road traffic speed.|
|Fell et al. 2008 ||United States||The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has funded a number of projects in Georgia, Louisiana, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, Indiana and Michigan.||Observational and Cross-Sectional||Fatal accidents in Georgia, Tennessee, Indiana and Michigan were significantly reduced after using an interrupted time series analysis of FARS data comparing the proportion of alcohol drinking and non-drinking drivers in fatal accidents. In turn, significant reductions were made in a second measure, alcohol-related deaths per 100 million miles traveled per vehicle, in Indiana and Michigan. The other three states showed only minor changes.|
|Solomon et al. 2008 ||United States||There were three key components to the Labor Day holiday campaign: (1) DWI enforcement, (2) public awareness efforts and (3) evaluation. The 2006 program used approximately $10 million in congressionally funded audiovisual ads. The message sent out in these campaigns was that drunk drivers would be arrested by the authorities.||Observational and Cross-Sectional||National random-sampling telephone surveys conducted before and shortly after the campaign revealed that the media campaign raised awareness of law enforcement repression and a small increase in the perceived likelihood of being arrested for drinking and driving, but did not reflect self-reported changes in driving behavior while intoxicated.|
|Zwicker et al. 2007 ||United States||The state implemented an advertising and implementation model for NHTSA’s advertising and enforcement program. This program was conducted in specific counties with the goal of reducing driving and alcohol-related deaths.||Observational and Longitudinal||State DMV surveys in the chosen counties showed a significant increase in information from drivers after the campaign that they had heard of poor driving and had gone through a sobriety checkpoint. Consequently, traffic assessments of drivers’ blood alcohol concentrations revealed a considerable decrease in the proportion of drivers with a positive BAC at the end of the campaign when compared to the same period the previous year. Each month, one fatality is expected to be avoided.|
|Whittam et al. 2006 ||United States||This study shows the evaluation of a 1/2 month multimedia traffic safety campaign targeting young drivers in Northeast Tennessee. Interviews and discussion groups with young people were carried out to determine the impact on crash frequencies among drivers aged 16 to 19 years, baseline data, intervention and accident monitoring were obtained from the statistics maintained for the state.||Observational and Longitudinal||According to a time series analysis of these data, crashes involving 16–19-year-old drivers reduced by 21.6 percent at the period of intervention, whereas a control area in the southeast of Tennessee revealed no significant changes.|
|Tay, 2005 ||Australia||This project evaluated the effectiveness of advertising and law enforcement campaigns against speeding and driving under the influence of alcohol.||Observational and Cross-Sectional||Regarding the results, the advertising and enforcement campaigns against speeding did not show an independent effect. However, its interactive impact was significant in reducing serious accidents involving young drivers.|
|Tay, 2005 ||Australia||Drunk driving publicity and compliance campaigns in Victoria have been extensively evaluated. In this sense, the results obtained have generated a great debate. When evaluating the same data from previous studies, this document confirms the effectiveness of the campaigns and tested various assumptions and model specifications.||Observational and Cross-Sectional||After the evaluation, the results obtained were solid and showed the effectiveness of the campaigns to reduce serious accidents during hours of high alcohol consumption.|
|Miller et al. 2004 ||New Zealand||In late 1996, nearly a third of the country received alcoholic beverage buses and community alcohol testing programs. This article compares three approaches to the required breath test (CBT), which involves testing all stopped drivers.||Observational and Cross-Sectional||Actions such as aggressive CBT plus zero alcohol tolerance for youth, booze buses and a media blitz proved to be dramatically effective. At the time of carrying out these actions at the same time, night accidents with serious and fatal injuries were reduced by half. Sustained effort appears to be critical. With stepwise, increasingly evident and inevitable checkpoints, better outcomes can be attained than with an “ideal” beginning program.|
|Agent et al. 2002 ||United States||The campaign’s assessment phase comprised documenting program-related actions (advertising and compliance) as well as assessing the results. The data from accidents that occurred during the campaign were compared to data from the same period in previous years as part of the review. The number of arrests and other law enforcement activities, as well as telephone polls of drivers done before and after the campaign, and a summary of the sorts of advertising, were all reported.||Observational and Cross-Sectional||The campaign resulted in an increase in the number of drivers who were aware of the program, as well as an increase in the number of drivers who had heard particular details about the campaign. The surveys, on the other hand, found no change in self-reported behavior or a perception of an increased chance of arrest for driving after drinking.|
|Tay and Ozanne, 2002 ||New Zealand||This study examined the impact of a fear-based advertising campaign aimed at reducing unsafe driving behavior and fatal accident rates. To carry it out, it was argued that this type of campaign, characterized by touching a chord with drivers, could be very effective. However, the most impressionable population is only a part of it.||Observational and Cross-Sectional||This study showed that fatal accident rates, after the broadcast of the campaign, had been reduced in three groups of drivers: women between 15 and 24 years old, women between 25 and 34 years old and men between 35 and 54 years old.|
|Ulleberg, 2001 ||Norway||The present analysis aimed to identify young drivers’ subtypes (n = 2524) and evaluate how they responded to a road safety campaign.||Observational and Cross-Sectional||After the study, it was found that the subtypes differed in how they evaluated and responded to the road safety campaign. The results of the analysis showed that the campaign seemed to attract the most low-risk subtypes.|
|Tay, 2001 ||New Zealand||The Land Transportation Safety Authority (LTSA) implemented an enhanced speed and alcohol control campaign, supported by powerful graphic advertisements on television in October 1995. Macpherson and Lewis (1996, 1998).|
With the aim of reducing the enormous cost of traffic accidents in New Zealand, estimated at NZ $ 3.3 billion in 1994.
|Observational and Cross-Sectional||The results showed that the campaign was effective in reducing the number of serious victims.|
|Macpherson and Lewis, 1998 ||New Zealand||In this project, data on campaign advertising exposure and other variables believed to be associated with drunk driving behavior are displayed. In this sense, they were subjected to regression analysis to measure the relationship between the incidence of campaign ads and positive evidence breath tests.||Observational and Cross-Sectional||After the study, it should be noted that only a tenuous relationship was found, since it was important for the success of an advertising campaign that it was linked to the application.|
|Murry et al. 1993 ||United States||In this study, an analysis of the impact of a paid advertising campaign that aims to reduce the rate of drunk driving in young people was carried out. To do so, it was investigated utilizing (1) before and after test sample surveys collected from both a campaign and a control location, as well as (2) time-series intervention modeling of monthly traffic accident data collected from both sites.||Observational and Longitudinal||These compatible analyses show collaborative evidence that the advertising campaign was successful and reduced the driving behavior and alcoholism of young men and, consequently, traffic accidents.|
|McLean et al. 1991 ||Australia||The NHMRC’s Highway Accident Investigation Unit conducted a survey of alcohol in drivers’ breath in 1989 to monitor the effectiveness of random breath tests (RBTs) by the police.||Observational and Cross-Sectional||The study found a 40 percent reduction in the proportion of drivers above the legal blood alcohol limit. A de-escalation went hand in hand with the increase in the level of publicity for RBT police operations. Additionally, other factors may have played a role in these significant reductions: advertising followed by a rise in the number of RBT applications.|
|King and Reid, 1990 ||United States||Building on the general body of research on fear and persuasion, this study was conducted to address the question of whether threats of physical injury of varying intensity and the focus of injury outcome produce differences in increased fear between individuals, and how fear affects cognitive, evaluative and behavioral responses to public service announcements against alcohol and driving.||Experimental and|
|No differences were found across the treatments in support argumentation, attitude toward the PSAs or intention to drink and drive.|
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Faus, M.; Alonso, F.; Fernández, C.; Useche, S.A. Are Traffic Announcements Really Effective? A Systematic Review of Evaluations of Crash-Prevention Communication Campaigns. Safety 2021, 7, 66. https://doi.org/10.3390/safety7040066
Faus M, Alonso F, Fernández C, Useche SA. Are Traffic Announcements Really Effective? A Systematic Review of Evaluations of Crash-Prevention Communication Campaigns. Safety. 2021; 7(4):66. https://doi.org/10.3390/safety7040066Chicago/Turabian Style
Faus, Mireia, Francisco Alonso, Cesáreo Fernández, and Sergio A. Useche. 2021. "Are Traffic Announcements Really Effective? A Systematic Review of Evaluations of Crash-Prevention Communication Campaigns" Safety 7, no. 4: 66. https://doi.org/10.3390/safety7040066