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Safety, Volume 6, Issue 2 (June 2020) – 16 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) VFR2IMC accidents are 6 times more fatal than typical accidents. They occur when pilots enter poor [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Risk Perception and Its Influencing Factors among Construction Workers in Malawi
Safety 2020, 6(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety6020033 - 24 Jun 2020
Viewed by 287
Abstract
This study employed a deductive research approach and a survey strategy to assess risk perception and its influencing factors among construction workers in Malawi. Three specific construction hazards and their associated risks were selected. The hazards were “working at height (WAH)” “manual handling [...] Read more.
This study employed a deductive research approach and a survey strategy to assess risk perception and its influencing factors among construction workers in Malawi. Three specific construction hazards and their associated risks were selected. The hazards were “working at height (WAH)” “manual handling of loads (MHL)” and “heavy workload or intense pressure to be more productive (HWP).” The study engaged multistage sampling of 376 subjects. Univariate analysis, factor analysis and multiple linear regressions were performed in order to determine the main influencing factors among the independent variables. The study established that workers were aware of risks posed by their work. The majority perceived the risk associated with WAH, MHL and HWP as very high (62.7%, =8.80 ± 1.95); (48.5%, =8.10 ± 2.38); (57.9%, =8.49 ± 2.22) respectively. The study identified six factors as variables that showed a significant effect on workers’ perception of risk (p < 0.05). These factors were: “dreaded factor,” “avoidability and controllability,” “expert knowledge,” “personal knowledge,” “education level,” and “age”. It is concluded that contractors in the Malawian construction industry should integrate analysis of behaviors and risk perception of the workers and other players to guide the identification of better health and safety interventions at their worksites. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Drug Use: Impact, Rules, Regulations and Mitigation Practices in the Construction Industry in the U.S
Safety 2020, 6(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety6020032 - 22 Jun 2020
Viewed by 298
Abstract
Abusing intoxicating substances such as alcohol and drugs in the construction industry poses a serious threat to the safety of workers. It is a pervasive problem that often results in fatal accidents and other relevant risks. This paper aimed to investigate the impacts [...] Read more.
Abusing intoxicating substances such as alcohol and drugs in the construction industry poses a serious threat to the safety of workers. It is a pervasive problem that often results in fatal accidents and other relevant risks. This paper aimed to investigate the impacts of substance abuse at job sites, the perception of industry professionals about the issue, and the current practices of the industry. The objective was to compare the perception of the industry to the findings of the background study conducted in this area. To achieve this goal, the authors conducted a survey to analyze (1) the difference in perception between onsite and administrative teams regarding the issue of onsite substance abuse, (2) comparing possibilities of occurrence of diverse impacts of substance abuse as per the industry perspective, and (3) effectiveness of the available mitigation practices according to industry professionals. The results show that (1) there is a significant difference in perception regarding the existence and the seriousness of the problem of substance abuse in the construction companies between the onsite and the administrative teams, (2) though fatal accidents are the worst possible impact, loss in productivity is considered as the most common impact, and (3) drug-testing is not considered as the best mitigation practice by construction professionals. It was concluded that there is a need for education on the seriousness of drug abuse as well as extensive research for developing more efficient mitigation systems. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Aquatic Competencies and Drowning Prevention in Children 2–4 Years: A Systematic Review
Safety 2020, 6(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety6020031 - 21 Jun 2020
Viewed by 460
Abstract
Aquatic competencies have been proposed as a prevention strategy for children aged 2–4 years who are over-represented in drowning statistics. For this recommendation to be made, exploration of the connection between aquatic competencies and drowning is required. This review critically analyzed studies exploring [...] Read more.
Aquatic competencies have been proposed as a prevention strategy for children aged 2–4 years who are over-represented in drowning statistics. For this recommendation to be made, exploration of the connection between aquatic competencies and drowning is required. This review critically analyzed studies exploring aquatic competencies and their effect on drowning and/or injury severity in children 2–4 years. English language peer-reviewed literature up to 31 July 2019 was searched and the PRISMA process utilized. Data were extracted from twelve studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Findings from this study included that aquatic competencies were not found to increase risk of drowning and demonstrated children aged 2–4 years are capable of developing age-appropriate aquatic competencies. Age-appropriate aquatic competencies extracted were propulsion/locomotion, flotation/buoyancy, water familiarization, submersion and water exits. The acquisition of these competencies holds benefit for the prevention of drowning. No evidence was found relating to injury severity. There was limited exploration of the relationship between aquatic competencies attainment and age-related developmental readiness. The review highlights the need for consistent measures of exposure, clarity around skills acquisition, better age-specific data (2 years vs. 3 years vs. 4 years), studies with larger sample sizes, further exploration of the dose–response relationship and consistent skill level testing across age groups. Further investigation is required to establish the efficacy of aquatic competencies as a drowning prevention intervention, as well as exploring the relationship between aquatic competencies and age-related developmental readiness. In conclusion, early evidence suggests aquatic competencies can help to reduce drowning. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Role of Passengers in Single-Vehicle Drunk-Driving Crashes: An Injury-Severity Analysis
Safety 2020, 6(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety6020030 - 21 Jun 2020
Viewed by 380
Abstract
Background: Drunk-driving is a major crash risk factor, and crashes resulting from this risky behavior tend to be serious and have significant economic and societal impacts. The presence of passengers and their demographics and activities can influence risky driving behaviors such as drunk-driving. [...] Read more.
Background: Drunk-driving is a major crash risk factor, and crashes resulting from this risky behavior tend to be serious and have significant economic and societal impacts. The presence of passengers and their demographics and activities can influence risky driving behaviors such as drunk-driving. However, passengers could either be an “enabling” factor to take more risks or could be an “inhibiting” factor by ensuring safe driving by a drunk-driver. Objective: This study examines whether the presence of passengers affects the contributing factors of single-vehicle (SV) drunk-driving crashes, by presenting a severity analysis of single- and multi-occupant SV drunk-driving crashes, to identify risk factors that contribute to crash severity outcomes, for the effective implementation of relevant countermeasures. Method: A total of 7407 observations for 2012–2016 from the crash database of the State of Alabama was used for this study. The variables were divided into six classes: temporal, locational, driver, vehicle, roadway, and crash characteristics and injury severities into three: severe, minor, and no injury. Two latent class multinomial logit models—one each for single- and multi-occupant crashes—were developed, to analyze the effects of significant factors on injury severity outcomes using marginal effects. Results: The estimated results show that collision with a ditch, run-off road, intersection, winter season, wet roadway, and interstate decreased the probability of severe injuries in both single- and multi-occupant crashes, whereas rural area, road with downward grade, dark and unlit roadway, unemployed driver, and driver with invalid license increased the likelihood of severe injuries for both single- and multi-occupant crashes. Female drivers were more likely to be severely injured in single-occupant crashes, but less likely in multi-occupant crashes. A significant association was found between severe injuries and weekends, residential areas, and crash location close (<25 mi ≈40.23 km) to the residence of the at-fault driver in multi-occupant crashes. Sport utility vehicles were found to be safer when driving with passengers. Conclusions: The model findings show that, although many correlates are consistent between the single- and multi-occupant SV crashes that are associated with locational, roadway, vehicle, temporal, and driver characteristics, their effect can vary across the single- and multi-occupant driving population. The findings from this study can help in targeting interventions, developing countermeasures, and educating passengers to reduce drunk-driving crashes and consequent injuries. Such integrated efforts combined with engineering and emergency response may contribute in developing a true safe systems approach. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Speeds of Young E-Cyclists on Urban Streets and Related Risk Factors: An Observational Study in Israel
Safety 2020, 6(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety6020029 - 18 Jun 2020
Viewed by 295
Abstract
In Israel, a growing use of electric bicycles by youngsters has been noted, with an increase in related injuries. In this study, an observational survey was conducted on typical urban streets, aiming to characterize the riding speeds of young e-cyclists compared to regular [...] Read more.
In Israel, a growing use of electric bicycles by youngsters has been noted, with an increase in related injuries. In this study, an observational survey was conducted on typical urban streets, aiming to characterize the riding speeds of young e-cyclists compared to regular cyclists and the associated risk factors in their behaviors. The survey covered 39 sites in eight cities, and included 1054 cyclists. The results showed that mean speeds of young e-cyclists were higher than those of regular cyclists at all types of sites, with a difference of 6–9 km/h. The mean speeds of e-bicycles were below 25 km/h, as prescribed by law, but the 85-percentile speeds were higher. E-cyclist speeds depend on the type of street, road layout and place of riding. More e-cyclists used the roadway compared to regular cyclists, however, on divided roads, more e-cyclists used sidewalks in spite of the law prohibition, thus endangering pedestrians. The majority of cyclists did not wear helmets. The unsafe behaviors of teenage e-cyclists increase the injury risk for themselves and for other road-users. Thus, separate bicycle infrastructure should be promoted in the cities. Road safety education and training of young e-cyclists with stronger enforcement of traffic regulations are also needed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Fault-Event Trees Based Probabilistic Safety Analysis of a Boiling Water Nuclear Reactor’s Core Meltdown and Minor Damage Frequencies
Safety 2020, 6(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety6020028 - 17 Jun 2020
Viewed by 536
Abstract
A systematic probabilistic safety assessment for a boiling water nuclear reactor core is performed using fault trees and event trees analysis models. Based on a survey of the BWR’s safety systems against potential hazards, eight independent failure modes (initiating events) triggered scenarios are [...] Read more.
A systematic probabilistic safety assessment for a boiling water nuclear reactor core is performed using fault trees and event trees analysis models. Based on a survey of the BWR’s safety systems against potential hazards, eight independent failure modes (initiating events) triggered scenarios are modelled and evaluated in the assembled fault-event trees, obtaining the two key outcome probabilities of interest, i.e., complete core meltdown (CCMD) frequency and minor core damage (MCD) frequency. The analysis results indicate that the complete loss of heat sink accounts for the initiating accident most vulnerable to CCMD (with a frequency of 1.8 × 10 5 per year), while the large break in the reactor pressure vessel is the least susceptible one (with a frequency of 2.9 × 10 12 per year). The quantitative risk assessment and independent review conducted in this case study contributed a reference reliability model for defense-in-depth core optimizations with reduced costs, informing risk-based policy decision making, licensing, and public understanding in nuclear safety systems. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Roadside Fixed-Object Collisions, Barrier Performance, and Fatal Injuries in Single-Vehicle, Run-Off-Road Crashes
Safety 2020, 6(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety6020027 - 20 May 2020
Viewed by 625
Abstract
Objectives: To quantify the odds of fatal injuries associated with drivers involved in single-vehicle, run-off-road (SVROR), injury crashes. Methods: An in-service safety evaluation was carried out using multivariate logistic regression models. Results: The odds of motorist death was lower for w-beam guardrail crashes [...] Read more.
Objectives: To quantify the odds of fatal injuries associated with drivers involved in single-vehicle, run-off-road (SVROR), injury crashes. Methods: An in-service safety evaluation was carried out using multivariate logistic regression models. Results: The odds of motorist death was lower for w-beam guardrail crashes as compared to tree, pole, and concrete barrier crashes. On the other hand, there was no statistically significant difference between the odds of motorist death in concrete barrier crashes as compared to tree or pole crashes. The odds of motorist death were lower for curbs and collision-free crashes as compared to tree, pole, and barrier crashes. Thus, obstacles should be removed whenever possible and barriers installed only whenever absolutely necessary. The lack of vehicle containment (in barrier crashes) was found: (i) to tend to occur on higher-posted-speed-limit roads and result in a higher percentage of fatal crashes, (ii) to be more prevalent with the less rigid barrier type, and (iii) to result in a consistently higher percentage of fatal crashes under the concrete barrier category. Conclusions: Findings not only support state-of-the-art roadside design guidelines and crash-testing criteria, but they may also be useful in evaluating proposed roadside safety improvements. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Method for Safety Analysis of Cyber-Physical Systems—Application to a Ship Exhaust Gas Scrubber System
Safety 2020, 6(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety6020026 - 19 May 2020
Viewed by 638
Abstract
Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) represent a systems category developed and promoted in the maritime industry to automate functions and system operations. In this study, a novel Combinatorial Approach for Safety Analysis is presented, which addresses the traditional safety methods’ limitations by integrating System Theoretic [...] Read more.
Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) represent a systems category developed and promoted in the maritime industry to automate functions and system operations. In this study, a novel Combinatorial Approach for Safety Analysis is presented, which addresses the traditional safety methods’ limitations by integrating System Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA), Events Sequence Identification (ETI) and Fault Tree Analysis (FTA). The developed method results in the development of a detailed Fault Tree that captures the effects of both the physical components/subsystems and the software functions’ failures. The quantitative step of the method employs the components’ failure rates to calculate the top event failure rate along with importance metrics for identifying the most critical components/functions. This method is implemented for an exhaust gas open loop scrubber system safety analysis to estimate its failure rate and identify critical failures considering the baseline system configuration as well as various alternatives with advanced functions for monitoring and diagnostics. The results demonstrate that configurations with SOx sensor continuous monitoring or scrubber unit failure diagnosis/prognosis lead to significantly lower failure rate. Based on the analysis results, the advantages/disadvantages of the novel method are also discussed. This study also provides insights for better safety analysis of the CPSs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maritime Safety and Operations)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects Influencing Pedestrian–Vehicle Crash Frequency by Severity Level: A Case Study of Seoul Metropolitan City, South Korea
Safety 2020, 6(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety6020025 - 13 May 2020
Viewed by 675
Abstract
This study aimed to determine how built environments affect pedestrian–vehicle collisions. The study examined pedestrian–vehicular crashes that occurred between 2013 and 2015 in Seoul, Korea, by comparing and analyzing different effects of the built environment on pedestrian–vehicle crashes. Specifically, the study analyzed built [...] Read more.
This study aimed to determine how built environments affect pedestrian–vehicle collisions. The study examined pedestrian–vehicular crashes that occurred between 2013 and 2015 in Seoul, Korea, by comparing and analyzing different effects of the built environment on pedestrian–vehicle crashes. Specifically, the study analyzed built environment attributes, land use environment, housing types, road environment, and traffic characteristics to determine how these factors affect the severity of pedestrian injury. The results of the statistical analysis appear to infer that the built environment attributes had dissimilar impacts on pedestrian collisions, depending on the injury severity. In general, both incapacitating and non-incapacitating injuries appear to be more likely to be caused by the built environment than fatal and possible injuries. These results highlight the need to consider injury severity when implementing more effective interventions and strategies for ensuring pedestrian safety. However, because of the small sample size, an expanded research project regarding this issue should be considered, as it would contribute to the development and implementation of effective policies and interventions for pedestrian safety in Korea. This study therefore offers practical information regarding the development of such an expanded study to inform future traffic safety policies in Seoul to establish a “safe walking city.” Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Motorized Road Users Safety)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Road Markings and Traffic Signs Presence on Young Driver Stress Level, Eye Movement and Behaviour in Night-Time Conditions: A Driving Simulator Study
Safety 2020, 6(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety6020024 - 11 May 2020
Viewed by 704
Abstract
The study investigates how the presence of traffic signalling elements (road markings and traffic signs) affects the behaviour of young drivers in night-time conditions. Statistics show that young drivers (≤30 years old) are often involved in road accidents, especially those that occur in [...] Read more.
The study investigates how the presence of traffic signalling elements (road markings and traffic signs) affects the behaviour of young drivers in night-time conditions. Statistics show that young drivers (≤30 years old) are often involved in road accidents, especially those that occur in night-time conditions. Among other factors, this is due to lack of experience, overestimation of their ability or the desire to prove themselves. A driving simulator scenario was developed for the purpose of the research and 32 young drivers took two runs using it: (a) one containing no road markings and traffic signs and (b) one containing road markings and traffic signs. In addition to the driving simulator, eye tracking glasses were used to track eye movement and an electrocardiograph was used to monitor the heart rate and to determine the level of stress during the runs. The results show statistically significant differences (dependent samples t-test) between the two runs concerning driving speed, lateral position of the vehicle, and visual scanning of the environment. The results prove that road markings and traffic signs provide the drivers with timely and relevant information related to the upcoming situation, thus enabling them to adjust their driving accordingly. The results are valuable to road authorities and provide an explicit confirmation of the importance of traffic signalling for the behaviour of young drivers in night-time conditions, and thus for the overall traffic safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable and Safe Road Design)
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Open AccessArticle
Sports Injuries in the Australian Regular Army
Safety 2020, 6(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety6020023 - 11 May 2020
Viewed by 969
Abstract
Sports participation in the military is important for physical fitness and building morale and camaraderie. However, injuries caused by sports are detrimental to military capability. The purpose of this study was to investigate patterns of injury from sports participation in Australian Regular Army [...] Read more.
Sports participation in the military is important for physical fitness and building morale and camaraderie. However, injuries caused by sports are detrimental to military capability. The purpose of this study was to investigate patterns of injury from sports participation in Australian Regular Army personnel. Injury data spanning a two-year period were obtained from the Department of Defence Workplace Health, Safety, Compensation, and Reporting (WHSCAR) database. Data were extracted for the top five sporting activities causing injuries. The most common body sites, natures, and mechanisms of injuries across these five sports were then determined. Sports participation accounted for 11% (n = 1092) of reported injuries (n = 9828). Soccer presented with the greatest number of injuries (23.3%), followed by rugby union/league (22.9%), touch football (18.6%), Australian rules football (12.0%), and basketball/netball (11.9%). The ankle, knee, and shoulder were the most injured body sites (21.9%; 17.2%; 11.6% respectively) across these five sports, with soft tissue injury, dislocation, and fractures being the most common natures of injury (55.1%; 12.7%; 11.9% respectively). The most common mechanisms of injuries were contact with objects (35.1%) and falls (27.4%). The current injury rates, locations, and mechanisms are similar to historical rates suggesting little impact by injury mitigation strategies. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A Model to Predict Children’s Reaction Time at Signalized Intersections
Safety 2020, 6(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety6020022 - 05 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 763
Abstract
Traffic accident statistics in urban areas, both locally in Croatia and at the European level, identify children as a group of vulnerable road users. The analysis of the parameters that influence the interaction of child pedestrians and other road users requires special attention. [...] Read more.
Traffic accident statistics in urban areas, both locally in Croatia and at the European level, identify children as a group of vulnerable road users. The analysis of the parameters that influence the interaction of child pedestrians and other road users requires special attention. This paper presents the results of research about the reaction time of children, measured both in laboratory conditions, via a computer reaction time test, and in actual traffic conditions. The results of the reaction time test in a situation with expected stimuli (a computer test) of children aged 6 to 10 years were compared with the results of the reaction time of adult traffic participants, drivers, who also took part in the computer test. Standard deviations of the reaction times between the control group (drivers, adults) and each subgroup of children were significantly different (p < 0.05). The results suggest that the largest developmental jump occurs between preschool children and first-grade children. In actual traffic conditions, the reaction time of children aged 4 to 16 years at the signalized intersection was measured. The model for predicting the reaction time of children in real traffic conditions was created using a neural network. The model prediction results matched well with the values measured in actual traffic conditions, for the observed intersection (correlation coefficient is 94.56%) and for the validation intersection (correlation coefficient is 92.29%). Parameters influencing children’s reaction times in real traffic conditions were identified by applying both statistical analysis and the neural network model developed. Using both methods, the same key distractors were identified—the movement of children in the group and the use of mobile phones. The case study was conducted at selected signalized intersections in the city of Osijek, Croatia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable and Safe Road Design)
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Open AccessArticle
Using a Neural Network Analysis to Assess Stressors in the Farming Community
Safety 2020, 6(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety6020021 - 16 Apr 2020
Viewed by 922
Abstract
In the 1980s and 1990s, with decreasing numbers of full-time farmers and adverse economic conditions, chronic stress was common in farmers, and remains so today. A neural network was implemented to conduct an in-depth analysis of stress risk factors. Two Colorado farm samples [...] Read more.
In the 1980s and 1990s, with decreasing numbers of full-time farmers and adverse economic conditions, chronic stress was common in farmers, and remains so today. A neural network was implemented to conduct an in-depth analysis of stress risk factors. Two Colorado farm samples (1992–1997) were combined (n = 1501) and divided into training and test samples. The outcome, stress, was measured using seven stress-related items from the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale. The initial model contained 32 predictors. Mean squared error and model fit parameters were used to identify the best fitting model in the training data. Upon testing for reproducibility, the test data mirrored the training data results with 20 predictors. The results highlight the importance of health, debt, and pesticide-related illness in increasing the risk of stress. Farmers whose primary occupation was farming had lower stress levels than those who worked off the farm. Neural networks reflect how the brain processes signals from its environment and algorithms allow the neurons “to learn”. This approach handled correlated data and gave greater insight into stress than previous approaches. It revealed how important providing health care access and reducing farm injuries are to reducing farm stress. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of a LED Lighting Crosswalk on Pedestrian Safety: Some Experimental Results
Safety 2020, 6(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety6020020 - 09 Apr 2020
Viewed by 992
Abstract
The research presented in this paper is focused on the definition of a new methodology for evaluating how illuminated crosswalks influence drivers’ behavior when approaching the zebra in nighttime conditions. The proposed methodology is based on in situ speed measurements, and cars’ speed [...] Read more.
The research presented in this paper is focused on the definition of a new methodology for evaluating how illuminated crosswalks influence drivers’ behavior when approaching the zebra in nighttime conditions. The proposed methodology is based on in situ speed measurements, and cars’ speed was detected in an urban road segment of the city of Rome with a Telelaser instrument. Vehicles speed profiles are measured in the same road segment both in LED-illuminated conditions and in non-illuminated conditions. Results have shown a promising impact of the LED lighting system on pedestrian safety. In fact, cars’ mean speed decreases by 19.3% at the crosswalk section in illuminated conditions. Moreover, a positive effect on safety, in terms of mean speed reduction (−16.4%), was found even in the absence of pedestrians. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Visual Flight into Instrument Meteorological Condition: A Post Accident Analysis
Safety 2020, 6(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety6020019 - 09 Apr 2020
Viewed by 1115
Abstract
The phenomenon of encountering instrument meteorological conditions (IMCs) while operating an aircraft under visual flight rules (VFRs) remains a primary area of concern. Studies have established that pilots operating under VFRs that continue to operate under IMCs remains a significant cause of accidents [...] Read more.
The phenomenon of encountering instrument meteorological conditions (IMCs) while operating an aircraft under visual flight rules (VFRs) remains a primary area of concern. Studies have established that pilots operating under VFRs that continue to operate under IMCs remains a significant cause of accidents in general aviation (GA), resulting in hundreds of fatalities. This research used the Australian Transport Safety Bureau (ATSB) database, which contained a total of 196 VFR to IMC occurrences, from 2003 to 2019, with 26 having formal reports. An explanatory design was adopted, commencing with a qualitative study of the 26 occurrences with reports followed by a quantitative study of all 196 occurrences. Factors investigated included the locations and date of the occurrences, involved aircraft (manufacturer, model, type), pilot details (licenses, ratings, h, and medical), number of fatalities, and causal factors. Fisher’s exact tests were used to highlight significant relationships. Results showed occurrences were more likely to end fatally if (1) they involved private operations, (2) pilots only had a night VFR rating, (3) the pilot chose to push on into IMCs, (4) the pilot did not undertake proper preflight planning consulting aviation weather services, and (5) the pilot had more than 500 h of flight experience. Further results showed occurrences were less likely to end fatally if the meteorological condition was clouds without precipitation, if the pilot held a full instrument rating, or the pilot was assisted via radio. Analysis of the data using the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) framework revealed that errors and violations occur with slightly greater frequency for fatal occurrences than non-fatal occurrences. Quantitative analyses demonstrated that the number of VFR to IMC occurrences have not decreased even though initiatives have been implemented in an attempt to address the issue. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Improved Strategies for the Maritime Industry to Target Vessels for Inspection and to Select Inspection Priority Areas
Safety 2020, 6(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety6020018 - 31 Mar 2020
Viewed by 1062
Abstract
Inspection authorities such as the Port State Control Memoranda of Understanding use different policies and targeting methods to select vessels for inspections and rely primarily on past inspection outcomes. One of the main goals of inspections is to improve the safety quality of [...] Read more.
Inspection authorities such as the Port State Control Memoranda of Understanding use different policies and targeting methods to select vessels for inspections and rely primarily on past inspection outcomes. One of the main goals of inspections is to improve the safety quality of vessels and to reduce the probability of future incidents. This study shows there is room for improvement in targeting vessels for inspections and in determining vessel-specific inspection priority areas (e.g., bridge management versus machinery related items). For the year 2018, sixty percent of vessels that experienced very serious or serious (VSS) incidents were not selected for inspection up to three months prior to the incident and forty percent of the vessels that were inspected still had incidents of which only four percent were detained. Furthermore, one can observe a very low correlation (−0.04) between the probabilities of detention and incidents (VSS) for the year 2018. The proposed approach treats detention and incident types as separate risk dimensions and evaluates seven targeting methods against random selection of vessels using empirical data for 2018. The analysis is based on three comprehensive data sets that cover the world fleet and shows potential gains (reduction of false negative events) of 14–27 percent compared to random selection. This can be further improved by adding eight inspection priority risk areas that help inspectors to focus inspections by providing insight in the individual risk profile of vessels. Policy makers can further customize the approach by classifying the risk of vessels into categories and by selecting inspection targets and benchmark samples. A small application example is provided to demonstrate feasibility of the proposed approach for policy makers and inspection authorities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maritime Safety and Operations)
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