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Batteries, Volume 10, Issue 7 (July 2024) – 33 articles

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14 pages, 1598 KiB  
Article
Surface Reduction of Li2CO3 on LLZTO Solid-State Electrolyte via Scalable Open-Air Plasma Treatment
by Mohammed Sahal, Jinzhao Guo, Candace K. Chan and Nicholas Rolston
Batteries 2024, 10(7), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10070249 - 12 Jul 2024
Viewed by 342
Abstract
We report on the use of an atmospheric pressure, open-air plasma treatment to remove Li2CO3 species from the surface of garnet-type tantalum-doped lithium lanthanum zirconium oxide (Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12, LLZTO) solid-state electrolyte [...] Read more.
We report on the use of an atmospheric pressure, open-air plasma treatment to remove Li2CO3 species from the surface of garnet-type tantalum-doped lithium lanthanum zirconium oxide (Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12, LLZTO) solid-state electrolyte pellets. The Li2CO3 layer, which we show forms on the surface of garnets within 3 min of exposure to ambient moisture and CO2, increases the interface (surface) resistance of LLZTO. The plasma treatment is carried out entirely in ambient and is enabled by use of a custom-built metal shroud that is placed around the plasma nozzle to prevent moisture and CO2 from reacting with the sample. After the plasma treatment, N2 compressed gas is flowed through the shroud to cool the sample and prevent atmospheric species from reacting with the LLZTO. We demonstrate that this approach is effective for removing the Li2CO3 from the surface of LLZTO. The surface chemistry is characterized with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to evaluate the effect of process parameters (plasma exposure time and shroud gas chemistry) on removal of the surface species. We also show that the open-air plasma treatment can significantly reduce the interface resistance. This platform demonstrates a path towards open-air processed solid-state batteries. Full article
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24 pages, 4258 KiB  
Article
Holistic Testing and Characterization of Commercial 18650 Lithium-Ion Cells
by Nicolò Zatta, Bernardo De Cesaro, Enrico Dal Cin, Gianluca Carraro, Giovanni Cristofoli, Andrea Trovò, Andrea Lazzaretto and Massimo Guarnieri
Batteries 2024, 10(7), 248; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10070248 - 11 Jul 2024
Viewed by 353
Abstract
Reduced-order electrothermal models play a key role in the design and control of lithium-ion cell stacks, calling for accurate model parameter calibration. This paper presents a complete electrical and thermal experimental characterization procedure for the coupled modeling of cylindrical lithium-ion cells in order [...] Read more.
Reduced-order electrothermal models play a key role in the design and control of lithium-ion cell stacks, calling for accurate model parameter calibration. This paper presents a complete electrical and thermal experimental characterization procedure for the coupled modeling of cylindrical lithium-ion cells in order to implement them in a prototype Formula SAE hybrid racing car. The main goal of the tests is to determine how the cell capacity varies with the temperature and the discharge current to predict the open-circuit voltage of the cell and its entropic component. A simple approach for the characterization of the battery equivalent electrical circuit and a two-step thermal characterization method are also shown. The investigations are carried out on four commercial 18650 NMC lithium cells. The model was shown to predict the battery voltage with an RMS error lower than 20 mV and the temperature with an RMS error equal to 0.5 °C. The authors hope that this manuscript can contribute to the development of standardized characterization techniques for such cells while offering experimental data and validated models that can be used by researchers and BMS designers in different applications. Full article
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16 pages, 5585 KiB  
Article
EIS Ageing Prediction of Lithium-Ion Batteries Depending on Charge Rates
by Olivia Bruj and Adrian Calborean
Batteries 2024, 10(7), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10070247 - 11 Jul 2024
Viewed by 234
Abstract
In the automotive industry, ageing mechanisms and diagnosis of Li-ion batteries depending on charge rate are of tremendous importance. With this in mind, we have investigated the lifetime degradation of lithium-ion battery cells at three distinct charging rates using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). [...] Read more.
In the automotive industry, ageing mechanisms and diagnosis of Li-ion batteries depending on charge rate are of tremendous importance. With this in mind, we have investigated the lifetime degradation of lithium-ion battery cells at three distinct charging rates using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). Impedance spectra of high-energy Panasonic NCR18650B batteries have been analysed in light of two distinct approaches, namely the time-dependent evaluation of the Constant Phase Element (CPE), and the single parameter investigation of resonance frequency of the circuit. SOH percentages were used to validate our approach. By monitoring the CPE-Q parameter at different charge rates of 0.5 C, 1 C, and 1.5 C, respectively, we applied a degradation speed analysis, allowing us to predict a quantitative value of the LIBs. The results are in complete agreement with the resonance frequency single parameter analysis, in which quite a similar trend was obtained after the spline fitting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-Health Estimation of Batteries)
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18 pages, 5528 KiB  
Article
Fabrication of Cu2O/CuO Nanowires by One-Step Thermal Oxidation of Flexible Copper Mesh for Supercapacitor Applications
by Mina-Ionela Morariu (Popescu), Mircea Nicolaescu, Iosif Hulka, Narcis Duţeanu, Corina Orha, Carmen Lăzău and Cornelia Bandas
Batteries 2024, 10(7), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10070246 - 10 Jul 2024
Viewed by 470
Abstract
This study focuses on the growth of Cu2O/CuO nanowires by one-step thermal oxidation using a flexible copper mesh at oxidation temperatures in the range of 300 to 600 °C in a controlled atmosphere of mixed-flow Ar and O2 gases. Thermal [...] Read more.
This study focuses on the growth of Cu2O/CuO nanowires by one-step thermal oxidation using a flexible copper mesh at oxidation temperatures in the range of 300 to 600 °C in a controlled atmosphere of mixed-flow Ar and O2 gases. Thermal oxidation is one of the simplest used methods to obtain nanowires on a metal surface, offering advantages such as low production costs and the ability to produce metal oxides on a large scale without the use of hazardous chemical compounds. The growth of metal oxides on a conductive substrate, forming metal/oxide structures, has proven to be an effective method for enhancing charge-transfer efficiency. The as-synthesized Cu/Cu2O/CuO (Nw) electrodes were structurally and morphologically characterized using techniques such as XRD and SEM/EDX analysis to investigate the structure modification and morphologies of the materials. The supercapacitor properties of the as-developed Cu/Cu2O/CuO (Nw) electrodes were then examined using cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge–discharge (GCD) measurements, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The CV curves show that the Cu/Cu2O/CuO (Nw) structure acts as a positive electrode, and, at a scan rate of 5 mV s −1, the highest capacitance values reached 26.158 mF cm−2 for the electrode oxidized at a temperature of 300 °C. The assessment of the flexibility of the electrodes was performed at various bending angles, including 0°, 45°, 90°, 135°, and 180°. The GCD analysis revealed a maximum specific capacitance of 21.198 mF cm−2 at a low power density of 0.5 mA cm−2 for the oxidation temperature of 300 °C. The cycle life assessment of the all of the as-obtained Cu/Cu2O/CuO (Nw) electrodes over 500 cycles was performed by GCD analysis, which confirmed their electrochemical stability. Full article
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13 pages, 2017 KiB  
Article
Validity of LiPON Conductivity Determined by Impedance Spectroscopy
by Alexander Rudy, Alena Novozhilova and Julia Egorova
Batteries 2024, 10(7), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10070245 - 9 Jul 2024
Viewed by 250
Abstract
A hypothesis that the generally accepted value of the LiPON conductivity should be attributed to the absorption and displacement currents is substantiated. The reason is a small contribution of the drift current due to field screening by the electric double layer. The basis [...] Read more.
A hypothesis that the generally accepted value of the LiPON conductivity should be attributed to the absorption and displacement currents is substantiated. The reason is a small contribution of the drift current due to field screening by the electric double layer. The basis for this assumption is the measurement of the LiPON absorption capacitance, according to which its dielectric constant is about 106. An alternative equivalent circuit containing a non-ideal absorption element is proposed and its impedance is calculated. It is shown that the Bode diagrams of the alternative circuit approximate the experimental curves well. Parameters and the magnitude of electric field screening are calculated based on a proposed model of a double electric layer. Considering the screening effect, the drift conductivity of LiPON is obtained, which is in good agreement with the data on lithium concentration and ion mobility. Full article
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14 pages, 1236 KiB  
Article
Development of Printed Pouch Film and Flexible Battery
by Gyeongseok Oh, Snigdha Paramita Mantry, Jae Ho Sim, Hyeon Woo Cho, Mijin Won, Hwamok Park, Jiyoung Park, Juhwan Lee and Dong Soo Kim
Batteries 2024, 10(7), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10070244 - 8 Jul 2024
Viewed by 266
Abstract
This study investigates the properties of various adhesives and assesses the effects of the coating and drying conditions of aluminum surface treatment agents on adhesion strength and chemical resistance. The adhesion between aluminum and the polymer film is improved through the application of [...] Read more.
This study investigates the properties of various adhesives and assesses the effects of the coating and drying conditions of aluminum surface treatment agents on adhesion strength and chemical resistance. The adhesion between aluminum and the polymer film is improved through the application of a surface treatment agent to the aluminum surface. This study examines the initial adhesive strength of a manufactured pouch film with respect to the drying temperature and time and evaluates its adhesive strength in the presence of moisture. The results indicate that the residual moisture on the aluminum surface weakens the adhesive strength and significantly affects electrolyte resistance. A noticeable reduction in strength was observed after water spraying, when the drying temperature and time were relatively low during the initial strength measurement. Among the adhesives used for aluminum and CPP lamination, olefin adhesives exhibit less susceptibility to electrolyte effects and have higher adhesive strengths compared to urethane and ester adhesives. Leveraging these characteristics, flexible pouch cells were manufactured and their stability was evaluated. The results confirm that the flexible cells demonstrate excellent stability, exhibiting potential for application in wearable devices. Full article
16 pages, 2303 KiB  
Article
Experimental Investigation on Thermal Runaway of Lithium-Ion Batteries under Low Pressure and Low Temperature
by Di Meng, Jingwen Weng and Jian Wang
Batteries 2024, 10(7), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10070243 - 6 Jul 2024
Viewed by 355
Abstract
Understanding the thermal runaway mechanism of lithium-ion batteries under low pressure and low temperature is paramount for their application and transportation in the aviation industry. This work investigated the coupling effects of ambient pressure (100 kPa, 70 kPa, 40 kPa) and ambient temperature [...] Read more.
Understanding the thermal runaway mechanism of lithium-ion batteries under low pressure and low temperature is paramount for their application and transportation in the aviation industry. This work investigated the coupling effects of ambient pressure (100 kPa, 70 kPa, 40 kPa) and ambient temperature (−15 °C, 0 °C, 25 °C) on thermal behaviors in an altitude temperature chamber. The experimental results indicate that lowering ambient pressure and temperature could attenuate the thermal runaway intensity, which is mainly attributable to the reduction in oxygen concentration and the increase in heat loss. Such a dual effect leads to the maximum temperature decreasing from 811.9 °C to 667.5 °C, and the maximum temperature rate declines up to 2.6 times. Correspondingly, the whole thermal runaway process is deferred, the total time increases from 370 s to 503 s, and the time interval, Δt, from safety venting gains by 32.3% as the ambient pressure and temperature decrease. This work delivers an in-depth understanding of the thermal characteristics under low pressure and low temperature and provides meritorious guidance for the safety of cell transportation in aviation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Battery Performance, Ageing, Reliability and Safety)
14 pages, 2095 KiB  
Article
Digital Twin-Enhanced Control for Fuel Cell and Lithium-Ion Battery Hybrid Vehicles
by Xu Kang, Yujie Wang, Cong Jiang and Zonghai Chen
Batteries 2024, 10(7), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10070242 - 5 Jul 2024
Viewed by 330
Abstract
With the development of lithium-ion batteries and fuel cells, the application of hybrid power systems is becoming more and more widespread. To better optimize the energy management problem of fuel cell hybrid systems, the accuracy of system modeling and simulation is very important. [...] Read more.
With the development of lithium-ion batteries and fuel cells, the application of hybrid power systems is becoming more and more widespread. To better optimize the energy management problem of fuel cell hybrid systems, the accuracy of system modeling and simulation is very important. The hybrid system is formed by connecting the battery to the fuel cell through an active topology. Digital twin technology is applicable to the mapping of physical entities to each other with high interactivity and fast optimization iterations. In this paper, a relevant model based on mathematical logic is established by collecting actual operational data; subsequently, the accuracy of the model is verified by combining relevant operating conditions and simulating the model. Subsequently, a three-dimensional visualization model of a hybrid power system-based sightseeing vehicle and its operating environment was established using digital twin technology to improve the model simulation of the fuel cell hybrid power system. At low speeds, the simulation results of the hybrid power system-based sightseeing vehicle have a small error compared with the actual running state, and the accuracy of the data related to each internal subcomponent is high. In the simple interaction between the model display vehicle and the environment, the communication state can meet the basic requirements of the digital twin model because the amount of data to be transferred is small. This study makes a preliminary attempt at digital parallelism by combining mathematical logic with visualization models and can be used as a basis for the subsequent development of more mature digital twin models. Full article
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13 pages, 18089 KiB  
Article
Experimental Investigation of Thermal Runaway Characteristics of Large-Format Li(Ni0.8Co0.1Mn0.1)O2 Battery under Different Heating Powers and Areas
by Jingru Huang, Zhuwei Fan, Chengshan Xu, Fachao Jiang and Xuning Feng
Batteries 2024, 10(7), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10070241 - 4 Jul 2024
Viewed by 362
Abstract
This study experimentally investigates the effects of different heating powers and areas on the jet behavior and thermal runaway (TR) of 75 Ah LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 pouch lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in an open environment. TR, a critical safety [...] Read more.
This study experimentally investigates the effects of different heating powers and areas on the jet behavior and thermal runaway (TR) of 75 Ah LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 pouch lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in an open environment. TR, a critical safety concern for LIBs, can occur under overheating conditions. The TR behavior of LIBs was characterized by flame behavior, temperature characteristics, mass variation, jet dynamics, and residue formations. The results reveal that the heating power density primarily influences the time to initiate TR. Lower power densities extend the heating time and require higher energy to induce TR, thereby exerting a more considerable impact on the battery. The heating area predominantly affects the input energy and the extent of damage. Larger areas lead to more stable jet flames, consistent peak temperatures ranging between 1000 °C and 1300 °C, and mass loss ratios ranging from 44% to 53% compared to 43% to 47% for small-area heaters. These findings provide references for the safety design of battery assemblies and the prevention of TR propagation, contributing to the safer monitoring of LIBs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Battery Thermal Performance and Management: Advances and Challenges)
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34 pages, 4331 KiB  
Review
Sustainability Development of Stationary Batteries: A Circular Economy Approach for Vanadium Flow Batteries
by Nick Blume, Thomas Turek and Christine Minke
Batteries 2024, 10(7), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10070240 - 3 Jul 2024
Viewed by 405
Abstract
In the literature, the hierarchy of value retention strategies (R-strategies) is utilized to describe the impacts on various circular economy (CE) factors. However, this approach is not suitable for batteries, such as the vanadium flow battery (VFB), due to its technical complexity. The [...] Read more.
In the literature, the hierarchy of value retention strategies (R-strategies) is utilized to describe the impacts on various circular economy (CE) factors. However, this approach is not suitable for batteries, such as the vanadium flow battery (VFB), due to its technical complexity. The presented model primarily focuses on VFBs, as a deep technical understanding is identified as a fundamental prerequisite for a comprehensive CE analysis. Based on the R-strategies, a new model called the dynamic multi-dimensional value retention strategy model (DDS) is developed accordingly. The DDS divides the R-strategies into three dimensions, as changes in the studied object each have a unilateral influence on the underlying dimensions. In addition, interactions among the R-strategies within the dimensions are observed. Moreover, the model enables the transparent and comprehensible examination of various CE objective factors. Through the model, future adjustments to CE for batteries can be analyzed and quantified. In particular, the analysis yields new insights into individual end-of-life (EoL) strategies, based on new findings regarding the VFB. Consequently, important new perspectives on the VFB are also illuminated. The DDS model is applicable to other complex technologies as well as simple product systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Batteries)
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21 pages, 5186 KiB  
Review
Active Methods for the Equalization of a Serially Connected Lithium-Ion Battery Pack: A Review
by Longsheng Yuan, Tuo Ji and Lijun Zhang
Batteries 2024, 10(7), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10070239 - 3 Jul 2024
Viewed by 426
Abstract
Traditional fuel vehicles are currently still the main means of transportation when people travel. It brings convenience to their travels, but it also causes energy shortages and environmental pollution. With the development of science and technology and the popularization of green environmental protection, [...] Read more.
Traditional fuel vehicles are currently still the main means of transportation when people travel. It brings convenience to their travels, but it also causes energy shortages and environmental pollution. With the development of science and technology and the popularization of green environmental protection, electric vehicles have gradually entered people’s lives, greatly alleviating these problems. As a power supply device for electric vehicles, the performance of batteries directly affects various indicators of vehicles. Due to their long lifespan and high energy density, lithium-ion batteries are now the preferred source of power for electric vehicles. However, due to various factors in the manufacturing and operation of lithium-ion batteries, there are often differences among individual cells. The power balance and performance of a battery pack are closely related. Thus, battery equalization is an important standard for a battery management system to work normally, and it is also one of the various battery management application problems. This paper reviews battery equalization systems and various active equalization circuits and summarizes the working principle and research progress of each active equalization circuit. Then, various active equalization circuits are analyzed and compared, and dynamic equalization for a second-life battery is introduced to enrich this review of equalization technology. Finally, the above contents are summarized and prospected. In order to obtain the best outcomes, different equalization circuits need to be chosen for various situations. Full article
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16 pages, 7267 KiB  
Article
Diffusion-Equation-Based Electrical Modeling for High-Power Lithium Titanium Oxide Batteries
by Haoze Chen, Weige Zhang, Caiping Zhang, Bingxiang Sun, Sijia Yang and Dinghong Chen
Batteries 2024, 10(7), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10070238 - 3 Jul 2024
Viewed by 479
Abstract
Lithium titanium oxide (LTO) batteries offer superior performance compared to graphite-based anodes in terms of rapid charge/discharge capability and chemical stability, making them promising candidates for fast-charging and power-assist vehicle applications. However, commonly used battery models often struggle to accurately describe the current–voltage [...] Read more.
Lithium titanium oxide (LTO) batteries offer superior performance compared to graphite-based anodes in terms of rapid charge/discharge capability and chemical stability, making them promising candidates for fast-charging and power-assist vehicle applications. However, commonly used battery models often struggle to accurately describe the current–voltage characteristics of LTO batteries, particularly before the charge/discharge cutoff conditions. In this work, a novel electrical model based on the solid-phase diffusion equation is proposed to capture the unique electrochemical phenomena arising from the diffusion mismatch between the positive and negative electrodes in high-power LTO batteries. The robustness of the proposed model is evaluated under various loading conditions, including constant current and dynamic current tests, and the results are compared against experimental data. The experimental results for LTO batteries exhibit remarkable alignment with the model estimation, demonstrating a maximum voltage error below 3%. Full article
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19 pages, 4550 KiB  
Article
Edible Gelatin and Cosmetic Activated Carbon Powder as Biodegradable and Replaceable Materials in the Production of Supercapacitors
by Rodica-Cristina Negroiu, Cristina-Ioana Marghescu, Irina-Bristena Bacis, Madalina-Irina Burcea, Andrei Drumea, Laurentiu Dinca and Ion Razvan Radulescu
Batteries 2024, 10(7), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10070237 - 1 Jul 2024
Viewed by 447
Abstract
Environmental pollution is currently one of the most worrying factors that endangers human health. Therefore, attempts are being made to reduce it by various means. One of the most important sources of pollution in terms of the current RoHS and REACH directives is [...] Read more.
Environmental pollution is currently one of the most worrying factors that endangers human health. Therefore, attempts are being made to reduce it by various means. One of the most important sources of pollution in terms of the current RoHS and REACH directives is the pollution caused by the use of chemical products for the production of sources for the storage and generation of electricity. The aim of this article is therefore to develop supercapacitors made of biodegradable materials and to investigate their electrical performance. Among the materials used to make these electrodes, activated carbon was identified as the main material and different combinations of gelatin, calligraphy ink and glycerol were used as the binders. The electrolyte consists of a hydrogel based on gelatin, NaCl 20 wt% solution and glycerol. In the context of this research, the electrolyte, which has the consistency of a gel, fulfills the dual function of the separator in the structure of the manufactured cells. Due to its structure, the electrolyte has good mechanical properties and can easily block the contact between the two electrodes. Most of the materials used for the production of supercapacitor cells are interchangeable materials, which are mainly used in other application fields such as the food or cosmetics industries, but were also successfully used for the investigations carried out in this research. Thus, remarkable results were recorded regarding a specific capacitance between 101.46 F/g and 233.26 F/g and an energy density between 3.52 Wh/kg and 8.09 Wh/kg, with a slightly lower power density between 66.66 W/kg and 85.76 W/kg for the manufactured supercapacitors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Batteries)
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20 pages, 17799 KiB  
Article
Single-Use Vape Batteries: Investigating Their Potential as Ignition Sources in Waste and Recycling Streams
by Andrew Gausden and Burak Can Cerik
Batteries 2024, 10(7), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10070236 - 1 Jul 2024
Viewed by 557
Abstract
This study investigates the potential link between the increasing prevalence of single-use vapes (SUVs) and the rising frequency of waste and recycling fires in the UK. Incorrectly discarded Li-ion cells from SUVs can suffer mechanical damage, potentially leading to thermal runaway (TR) depending [...] Read more.
This study investigates the potential link between the increasing prevalence of single-use vapes (SUVs) and the rising frequency of waste and recycling fires in the UK. Incorrectly discarded Li-ion cells from SUVs can suffer mechanical damage, potentially leading to thermal runaway (TR) depending on the cells’ state of charge (SOC). Industry-standard abuse tests (short-circuit and nail test) and novel impact and crush tests, simulating damage during waste management processes, were conducted on Li-ion cells from two market-leading SUVs. The novel tests created internal short circuits, generating higher temperatures than the short-circuit test required for product safety. The cells in used SUVs had an average SOC ≤ 50% and reached a maximum temperature of 131 °C, below the minimum ignition temperature of common waste materials. The high temperatures were short-lived and had limited heat transfer to adjacent materials. The study concludes that Li-ion cells in used SUVs at ≤50% SOC cannot generate sufficient heat and temperature to ignite common waste and recycling materials. These findings have implications for understanding the fire risk associated with discarded SUVs in waste management facilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Battery Processing, Manufacturing and Recycling)
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20 pages, 5964 KiB  
Article
Study on the Preventive Effect of Au/CeO2 on Lithium-Ion Battery Thermal Runaway Caused by Overcharging
by Tian Zhou, Jie Sun, Jigang Li, Shouping Wei, Fan Zhang and Jing Chen
Batteries 2024, 10(7), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10070235 - 28 Jun 2024
Viewed by 363
Abstract
In this study, a flower-like Au/CeO2 supported catalyst composite anode was prepared to explore its impact on thermal runaway triggered by overcharging and flame. Through structural and performance characterization, it was found that the catalyst has a high specific surface area and [...] Read more.
In this study, a flower-like Au/CeO2 supported catalyst composite anode was prepared to explore its impact on thermal runaway triggered by overcharging and flame. Through structural and performance characterization, it was found that the catalyst has a high specific surface area and good CO catalytic oxidation capability, with a CO removal rate higher than 99.97% at room temperature. Through electrical performance testing, it was discovered that, compared to batteries without the catalyst, batteries using the composite anode did not exhibit significant capacity degradation. In overcharge testing, the catalyst prolonged the voltage rise time and peak voltage occurrence time of the battery. In thermal runaway testing, the addition of the catalyst delayed the detection time of CO and significantly reduced the concentration of thermal runaway products, especially the peak concentration and integrated concentration of CO, demonstrating its effectiveness in reducing thermal runaway products. Therefore, this study provides a new approach for improving the safety of lithium-ion batteries. The catalyst exhibits good performance in reducing toxic gases generated after thermal runaway and delaying the occurrence of thermal runaway, providing strong support for the safe application of lithium-ion batteries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Battery Performance, Ageing, Reliability and Safety)
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21 pages, 4792 KiB  
Article
Estimation Procedure for the Degradation of a Lithium-Ion Battery Pack
by Natascia Andrenacci, Manlio Pasquali, Francesco Vellucci and Alberto Venanzoni
Batteries 2024, 10(7), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10070234 - 28 Jun 2024
Viewed by 406
Abstract
This paper proposes a test procedure for evaluating the degradation of cells in a battery pack. The test can be performed using only the charger’s converters and the battery management system (BMS) without requiring sophisticated instrumentation. The method circumvents the difficulties related to [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a test procedure for evaluating the degradation of cells in a battery pack. The test can be performed using only the charger’s converters and the battery management system (BMS) without requiring sophisticated instrumentation. The method circumvents the difficulties related to the evaluation of derivative quantities for estimating the state of health (SOH) using integral quantities in the evaluation. The method introduces a ‘degradation function’ that is calculated with respect to the reference performance of pristine cells. The procedure was applied to the JuiceRoll Race Edition system, an innovative electric vehicle (EV) DC charger with internal storage, made in ENEL X and used during the MotoE championship races. Using this procedure, the degradation of performance in individual groups of cells composing the battery pack was quantified in comparison to the reference group. The procedure helps identify modules that have aged too early or show reliability issues. The method is mature for field operational applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Towards a Smarter Battery Management System)
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20 pages, 11800 KiB  
Article
A Practical Methodology for Real-Time Adjustment of Kalman Filter Process Noise for Lithium Battery State-of-Charge Estimation
by Cynthia Thamires da Silva, Bruno Martin de Alcântara Dias, Rui Esteves Araújo, Eduardo Lorenzetti Pellini and Armando Antônio Maria Laganá
Batteries 2024, 10(7), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10070233 - 28 Jun 2024
Viewed by 374
Abstract
The methodology presented in this work allows for the creation of a real-time adjustment of Kalman Filter process noise for lithium battery state-of-charge estimation. This work innovates by creating a methodology for adjusting the process (Q) and measurement (R) [...] Read more.
The methodology presented in this work allows for the creation of a real-time adjustment of Kalman Filter process noise for lithium battery state-of-charge estimation. This work innovates by creating a methodology for adjusting the process (Q) and measurement (R) Kalman Filter noise matrices in real-time. The filter algorithm with this adaptative mechanism achieved an average accuracy of 99.56% in real tests by comparing the estimated battery voltage and measured battery voltage. A cell-balancing strategy was also implemented, capable of guaranteeing the safety and efficiency of the battery pack in all conducted tests. This work presents all the methods, equations, and simulations necessary for the development of a battery management system and applies the system in a practical, real environment. The battery management system hardware and firmware were developed, evaluated, and validated on a battery pack with eight LiFePO4 cells, achieving excellent performance on all conducted tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Battery Modelling, Simulation, Management and Application)
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14 pages, 4124 KiB  
Article
The Suppression Effect of Water Mist Released at Different Stages on Lithium-Ion Battery Flame Temperature, Heat Release, and Heat Radiation
by Bin Miao, Jiangfeng Lv, Qingbiao Wang, Guanzhang Zhu, Changfang Guo, Guodong An and Jianchun Ou
Batteries 2024, 10(7), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10070232 - 28 Jun 2024
Viewed by 497
Abstract
Thermal runaway (TR) is a serious thermal disaster that occurs in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) under extreme conditions and has long been an obstacle to their further development. Water mist (WM) is considered to have excellent cooling capacity and is widely used in the [...] Read more.
Thermal runaway (TR) is a serious thermal disaster that occurs in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) under extreme conditions and has long been an obstacle to their further development. Water mist (WM) is considered to have excellent cooling capacity and is widely used in the field of fire protection. When used in TR suppression, WM also exhibits strong fire-extinguishing and anti-re-ignition abilities. Therefore, it has received widespread attention and research interest among scholars. However, most studies have focused on the cooling rate and suppression effect of TR propagation, and few have mentioned the effect of WM on flame heat transfer, which is a significant index in TR propagation suppression. This study has explored the suppression effect of WM released at different TR stages and has analyzed flame temperature, heat release, and heat radiation under WM conditions. Results show that the flame extinguishing duration for WM under different TR stages was different. WM could directly put out the flame within several seconds of being released when SV opened, 3 min after SV opening and when TR ended, and 3 min for WM when TR was triggered. Moreover, the heat radiation of the flame in relation to the battery QE could be calculated, and the case of WM released 3 min after SV opening exhibited the greatest proportion of heat radiation cooling η (with a value of 88.4%), which was same for the specific cooling capacity of WM Qm with a value of 1.7 × 10−3 kJ/kg. This is expected to provide a novel focus for TR suppression in LIBs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Safety of Lithium Ion Batteries)
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17 pages, 15020 KiB  
Article
Stress Analysis of Electrochemical and Force-Coupling Model for Ternary Lithium-Ion Batteries
by Wei Shi, Ruofan Xu, Changjiang Han, Bingxiang Sun, Jin Chai, Jiachang Liu, Xuewen Jiao, Jiale Xiong and Yinghao Li
Batteries 2024, 10(7), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10070231 - 27 Jun 2024
Viewed by 467
Abstract
The mechanical pressure that arises from the external structure of the automotive lithium battery module and its fixed devices can give rise to the concentration and damage of the internal stress inside the battery and increase the risks of battery degradation and failure. [...] Read more.
The mechanical pressure that arises from the external structure of the automotive lithium battery module and its fixed devices can give rise to the concentration and damage of the internal stress inside the battery and increase the risks of battery degradation and failure. Commercial batteries cannot be disassembled, and the diffusion stress distribution at different times during discharge is notoriously difficult to determine. This paper, therefore, establishes the electrochemical force-coupling model based on the electrochemical and diffusion mechanics principles of batteries and studies the internal stress distribution of the battery under the diffusion stress of the electrode-material level and external pressure. Mainly driven by the electrochemical potential of the electrode particle diffusion stress stemming from the lithium-concentration difference inside and outside the particles, rupture is more likely to occur at the surface of the negative-electrode active particle at the end of discharge or the beginning of charging, as shown in simulation analysis. The variation in the volume of electrode material also leads to different stress and strain inside different areas, with the order of strain and stress being negative active material > negative collector fluid > positive active material > positive fluid. Therefore, huge stress and deformation will first cause the negative active particles to deviate from the fluid gradually and squeeze the diaphragm, resulting in mechanical failure accordingly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Battery Modelling, Simulation, Management and Application)
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11 pages, 3974 KiB  
Article
Ni3S2@NiMo-LDH Composite for Flexible Hybrid Capacitors
by Qi He and Xiang Wu
Batteries 2024, 10(7), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10070230 - 26 Jun 2024
Viewed by 784
Abstract
Ni3S2 is a kind of transition metal sulfide (TMD) with excellent electrical conductivity and electrochemical activity. To further enhance the specific capacity of Ni3S2-based supercapacitors, we synthesize several nanosheet-decorated Ni3S2@NiMo-LDH nanostructures by [...] Read more.
Ni3S2 is a kind of transition metal sulfide (TMD) with excellent electrical conductivity and electrochemical activity. To further enhance the specific capacity of Ni3S2-based supercapacitors, we synthesize several nanosheet-decorated Ni3S2@NiMo-LDH nanostructures by a combination of hydrothermal and electrodeposition processes. The mesoporous structure provides a large number of electroactive sites, which shortens the charge transfer distance and increases the specific surface area of electrode materials. The assembled asymmetric supercapacitor shows an energy density of 62.8 W h kg−1 at 2701.6 W kg−1 and long-term cycling stability. Full article
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15 pages, 4088 KiB  
Article
Attention Mechanism-Based Neural Network for Prediction of Battery Cycle Life in the Presence of Missing Data
by Yixing Wang and Benben Jiang
Batteries 2024, 10(7), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10070229 - 26 Jun 2024
Viewed by 780
Abstract
As batteries become widespread applications across various domains, the prediction of battery cycle life has attracted increasing attention. However, the intricate internal mechanisms of batteries pose challenges to achieving accurate battery lifetime prediction, and the inherent patterns within temporal data from battery experiments [...] Read more.
As batteries become widespread applications across various domains, the prediction of battery cycle life has attracted increasing attention. However, the intricate internal mechanisms of batteries pose challenges to achieving accurate battery lifetime prediction, and the inherent patterns within temporal data from battery experiments are often elusive. Meanwhile, the commonality of missing data in real-world battery usage further complicates accurate lifetime prediction. To address these issues, this article develops a self-attention-based neural network (NN) to precisely forecast battery cycle life, leveraging an attention mechanism that proficiently manages time-series data without the need for recurrent frameworks and adeptly handles the data-missing scenarios. Furthermore, a two-stage training approach is adopted, where certain network hyperparameters are fine-tuned in a sequential manner to enhance training efficacy. The results show that the proposed self-attention-based NN approach not only achieves superior predictive precision compared with the benchmarks including Elastic Net and CNN-LSTM but also maintains resilience against missing-data scenarios, ensuring reliable battery lifetime predictions. This work highlights the superior performance of utilizing attention mechanism for battery cycle life prognostics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Machine Learning for Advanced Battery Systems)
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24 pages, 688 KiB  
Article
Optimal Battery Energy Storage Dispatch for the Day-Ahead Electricity Market
by Julio Gonzalez-Saenz and Victor Becerra
Batteries 2024, 10(7), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10070228 - 25 Jun 2024
Viewed by 896
Abstract
This work presents an innovative application of optimal control theory to the strategic scheduling of battery storage in the day-ahead electricity market, focusing on enhancing profitability while factoring in battery degradation. This study incorporates the effects of battery degradation on the dynamics in [...] Read more.
This work presents an innovative application of optimal control theory to the strategic scheduling of battery storage in the day-ahead electricity market, focusing on enhancing profitability while factoring in battery degradation. This study incorporates the effects of battery degradation on the dynamics in the optimisation framework. Considering this cost in economic analysis and operational strategies is essential to optimise long-term performance and economic viability. Neglecting degradation costs can lead to suboptimal operation and dispatch strategies. We employ a continuous-time representation of the dynamics, in contrast with many other studies that use a discrete-time approximation with rather coarse intervals. We adopt an equivalent circuit model coupled with empirical degradation parameters to simulate a battery cell’s behaviour and degradation mechanisms with good support from experimental data. Utilising direct collocation methods with mesh refinement allows for precise numerical solutions to the complex, nonlinear dynamics involved. Through a detailed case study of Belgium’s day-ahead electricity market, we determine the optimal charging and discharging schedules under varying objectives: maximising net revenues, maximising profits considering capacity degradation, and maximising profits considering both capacity degradation and internal resistance increase due to degradation. The results demonstrate the viability of our approach and underscore the significance of integrating degradation costs into the market strategy for battery operators, alongside its effects on the battery’s dynamic behaviour. Our methodology extends previous work by offering a more comprehensive model that empirically captures the intricacies of battery degradation, including a fine and adaptive time domain representation, focusing on the day-ahead market, and utilising accurate direct methods for optimal control. This paper concludes with insights into the potential of optimal control applications in energy markets and suggestions for future research avenues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Control and Optimization of Battery Energy Storage Systems)
17 pages, 2225 KiB  
Article
Utilizing Electronic Resistance Measurement for Tailoring Lithium-Ion Battery Cathode Formulations
by Christoph Seidl, Sören Thieme, Martin Frey, Kristian Nikolowski and Alexander Michaelis
Batteries 2024, 10(7), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10070227 - 25 Jun 2024
Viewed by 849
Abstract
Cathode formulation, which describes the amount of cathode active material (CAM), conductive additives (CAs), and binder within a cathode compound, is decisive for the performance metrics of lithium-ion battery (LIB) cells. The direct measurement of electronic resistance can be an enabler for more [...] Read more.
Cathode formulation, which describes the amount of cathode active material (CAM), conductive additives (CAs), and binder within a cathode compound, is decisive for the performance metrics of lithium-ion battery (LIB) cells. The direct measurement of electronic resistance can be an enabler for more time- and cost-efficient cathode formulation improvements. Within this work, we correlate the electronic resistance with the electrochemical performance of cathodes. Two different high Nickel NCM cathode materials and numerous CAs are used to validate the findings. A detailed look into the resistance reduction potential of carbon black (CB) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and their mixtures is made. Finally, an impact estimation of cathode formulation changes on LIB key performance factors, such as energy density and cost, is shown. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Battery Performance, Ageing, Reliability and Safety)
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19 pages, 8576 KiB  
Article
Joint Concern over Battery Health and Thermal Degradation in the Cruise Control of Intelligently Connected Electric Vehicles Using a Model-Assisted DRL Approach
by Xiangheng Cheng and Xin Chen
Batteries 2024, 10(7), 226; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10070226 - 25 Jun 2024
Viewed by 441
Abstract
Eco-driving aims to enhance vehicle efficiency by optimizing speed profiles and driving patterns. However, ensuring safe following distances during eco-driving can lead to excessive use of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), causing accelerated battery wear and potential safety concerns. This study addresses this issue by [...] Read more.
Eco-driving aims to enhance vehicle efficiency by optimizing speed profiles and driving patterns. However, ensuring safe following distances during eco-driving can lead to excessive use of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), causing accelerated battery wear and potential safety concerns. This study addresses this issue by proposing a novel, multi-physics-constrained cruise control strategy for intelligently connected electric vehicles (EVs) using deep reinforcement learning (DRL). Integrating a DRL framework with an electrothermal model to estimate unmeasurable states, this strategy simultaneously manages battery degradation and thermal safety while maintaining safe following distances. Results from hardware-in-the-loop simulation testing demonstrated that this approach reduced overall driving costs by 18.72%, decreased battery temperatures by 4 °C to 8 °C in high-temperature environments, and reduced state-of-health (SOH) degradation by up to 46.43%. These findings highlight the strategy’s superiority in convergence efficiency, battery thermal safety, and cost reduction compared to existing methods. This research contributes to the advancement of eco-driving practices, ensuring both vehicle efficiency and battery longevity. Full article
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13 pages, 1266 KiB  
Article
Enhanced Dendrite Resistance in Reversible Electrochemical Pneumatic Batteries with Nanoimprinted Nanowire Anodes for Jamming Robots
by Junyu Ge, Yuchen Zhao, Yifan Wang and Hong Li
Batteries 2024, 10(7), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10070225 - 24 Jun 2024
Viewed by 437
Abstract
Traditional electric robots often rely on heavy gear units or expensive force–torque sensors, whereas pneumatic robots offer a cost-effective and simple alternative. However, their dependence on noisy and bulky pneumatic systems, such as compressed air technology, limits their portability and adaptability. To overcome [...] Read more.
Traditional electric robots often rely on heavy gear units or expensive force–torque sensors, whereas pneumatic robots offer a cost-effective and simple alternative. However, their dependence on noisy and bulky pneumatic systems, such as compressed air technology, limits their portability and adaptability. To overcome these challenges, we have developed a reversible electrochemical pneumatic battery (REPB) that is compact, noise-free, energy-efficient, and portable. This innovative REPB, principled by the electrochemical redox reactions of zinc–air batteries, can simultaneously supply both electric and pneumatic power, either positive or negative pressure. Its modular, multi-stack structure allows for the easy customization of power output and capacity to suit various applications. We demonstrate the utility of REPB through its application in jamming robots, such as a novel soft yet robust gripper that merges the strengths of hard and soft grippers, enabling universal robotic gripping. This work presents a groundbreaking approach to powering devices that require pneumatic support. Full article
24 pages, 2538 KiB  
Review
Comparative Review of Thermal Management Systems for BESS
by Nixon Kerwa Mdachi and Chang Choong-koo
Batteries 2024, 10(7), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10070224 - 24 Jun 2024
Viewed by 493
Abstract
The integration of renewable energy sources necessitates effective thermal management of Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESS) to maintain grid stability. This study aims to address this need by examining various thermal management approaches for BESS, specifically within the context of Virtual Power Plants [...] Read more.
The integration of renewable energy sources necessitates effective thermal management of Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESS) to maintain grid stability. This study aims to address this need by examining various thermal management approaches for BESS, specifically within the context of Virtual Power Plants (VPP). It evaluates the effectiveness, safety features, reliability, cost-efficiency, and appropriateness of these systems for VPP applications. Among the various hybrid cooling options, two notably promising combinations are highlighted. First, the integration of heat pipes with phase change materials, which effectively conduct heat away from sources with minimal temperature differences, enabling swift heat transfer. Second, the combination of heat pipes with liquid passive cooling, which utilizes the efficient heat transfer properties of heat pipes and the steady cooling offered by liquid systems. This study offers recommendations for choosing the best thermal management system based on climate conditions and geographic location, thereby enhancing BESS performance and sustainability within VPPs. Full article
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34 pages, 9881 KiB  
Review
Hierarchically Porous Vanadium-Based Cathode Materials for High-Performance Na-Ion Batteries
by Kanakaraj Aruchamy, Subramaniyan Ramasundaram, Athinarayanan Balasankar, Sivasubramani Divya, Ling Fei and Tae Hwan Oh
Batteries 2024, 10(7), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10070223 - 24 Jun 2024
Viewed by 556
Abstract
Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) have emerged as a promising alternative to lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in sectors requiring extensive energy storage. The abundant availability of sodium at a low cost addresses concerns associated with lithium, such as environmental contamination and limited availability. However, SIBs exhibit [...] Read more.
Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) have emerged as a promising alternative to lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in sectors requiring extensive energy storage. The abundant availability of sodium at a low cost addresses concerns associated with lithium, such as environmental contamination and limited availability. However, SIBs exhibit lower energy density and cyclic stability compared to LIBs. One of the key challenges in improving the performance of SIBs lies in the electrochemical properties of the cathode materials. Among the various cathodes utilized in SIBs, sodium vanadium phosphates (NVPs) and sodium vanadium fluorophosphates (NVPFs) are particularly advantageous. These vanadium-based cathodes offer high theoretical capacity and are cost-effective. Commercialization of SIBs with NVPF cathodes has already begun. However, the poor conductivity of these cathode materials leads to a short cycle life and inferior rate performance. Various synthesis methods have been explored to enhance the conductivity, including heteroatom doping (N, S, and Co), surface modification, the fabrication of porous nanostructures, and composite formation with conductive carbon materials. In particular, cathodes with interconnected hierarchical micro- and nano-porous morphologies have shown promise. This review focuses on the diverse synthesis methods reported for preparing hierarchically porous cathodes. With increased attention, particular emphasis has been placed on carbon composites of NVPs and NVPFs. Additionally, the synthesis of vanadium pentoxide-based cathodes is also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Performance Materials for Sodium-Ion Batteries)
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12 pages, 4528 KiB  
Article
Conductive Zinc-Based Metal–Organic Framework Nanorods as Cathodes for High-Performance Zn-Ion Capacitors
by Jinfeng Sun, Qian Zhang, Chanjuan Liu, Anning Zhang, Linrui Hou and Changzhou Yuan
Batteries 2024, 10(7), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10070222 - 24 Jun 2024
Viewed by 405
Abstract
Zinc-ion capacitors (ZICs), combining the merits of both high-energy zinc-ion batteries and high-power supercapacitors, are known as high-potential electrochemical energy storage (EES) devices. However, the research on ZICs still faces many challenges because of the lack of appropriate cathode materials with robust crystal [...] Read more.
Zinc-ion capacitors (ZICs), combining the merits of both high-energy zinc-ion batteries and high-power supercapacitors, are known as high-potential electrochemical energy storage (EES) devices. However, the research on ZICs still faces many challenges because of the lack of appropriate cathode materials with robust crystal structures and rich channels for stable and fast Zn2+ ion transport. In this study, we synthesized a robust, conductive, two-dimensional metal–organic framework (MOF) material, zinc-benzenehexathiolate (Zn-BHT), and investigated its electrochemical performance for zinc storage. Zn2+ ions could insert into/extricate from the host structure with a high diffusion rate, enabling the Zn-BHT cathode to exhibit a surface-controlled charge storage mechanism. Due to its unique structure, Zn-BHT exhibited a good reversible discharge capacity approaching 90.4 mAh g−1 at 0.1 A g−1, as well as a desirable rate capability and good cycling performance. In addition, a ZIC device was fabricated using the Zn-BHT cathode and a polyaniline-derived porous carbon (PC) anode, which depicted a high working voltage of up to 1.8 V and a high energy density of ~37.2 Wh kg−1. This work shows that conductive MOFs are high-potential electrode materials for ZICs and provide new enlightenment for the development of electrode materials for EES devices. Full article
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12 pages, 2459 KiB  
Article
Extraction Strategies from Black Alloy Leachate: A Comparative Study of Solvent Extractants
by Namho Koo, Byungseon Kim, Hong-In Kim and Kyungjung Kwon
Batteries 2024, 10(7), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10070221 - 23 Jun 2024
Viewed by 528
Abstract
Recycling spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is crucial to prevent environmental pollution and recover valuable metals. Traditional methods for recycling spent LIBs include hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy. Among these methods, solvent extraction can selectively extract valuable metals in spent LIB leachate. Meanwhile, spent LIBs that [...] Read more.
Recycling spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is crucial to prevent environmental pollution and recover valuable metals. Traditional methods for recycling spent LIBs include hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy. Among these methods, solvent extraction can selectively extract valuable metals in spent LIB leachate. Meanwhile, spent LIBs that underwent pyrometallurgical treatment generate a so-called ‘black alloy’ of Ni, Co, Cu, and so on. These elements in the black alloy need to be separated by solvent extraction and there have been few studies on extracting valuable metals from black alloy. Therefore, it is necessary to examine the extraction behavior of elements in black alloy and optimize the solvent extraction process to recover valuable metals. In this paper, four types of organic extractants are used to extract metals from simulated black alloy leachate: di-(2ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA), bis-(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinic acid (Cyanex272), 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (PC88A), and neodecanoic acid (Versatic acid 10). Based on the pH isotherms, D2EHPA would be the most reasonable for Mn extraction and impurity removal. Cyanex 272 would be more suitable for Co separation than PC88A, and Versatic acid 10 is preferred for Cu extraction over other metals. In conclusion, the optimal combination of extractants is suggested for the recovery of valuable metals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lithium-Ion Battery Recycling)
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34 pages, 4228 KiB  
Review
Exploring Lithium-Ion Battery Degradation: A Concise Review of Critical Factors, Impacts, Data-Driven Degradation Estimation Techniques, and Sustainable Directions for Energy Storage Systems
by Tuhibur Rahman and Talal Alharbi
Batteries 2024, 10(7), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10070220 - 22 Jun 2024
Viewed by 488
Abstract
Batteries play a crucial role in the domain of energy storage systems and electric vehicles by enabling energy resilience, promoting renewable integration, and driving the advancement of eco-friendly mobility. However, the degradation of batteries over time remains a significant challenge. This paper presents [...] Read more.
Batteries play a crucial role in the domain of energy storage systems and electric vehicles by enabling energy resilience, promoting renewable integration, and driving the advancement of eco-friendly mobility. However, the degradation of batteries over time remains a significant challenge. This paper presents a comprehensive review aimed at investigating the intricate phenomenon of battery degradation within the realm of sustainable energy storage systems and electric vehicles (EVs). This review consolidates current knowledge on the diverse array of factors influencing battery degradation mechanisms, encompassing thermal stresses, cycling patterns, chemical reactions, and environmental conditions. The key degradation factors of lithium-ion batteries such as electrolyte breakdown, cycling, temperature, calendar aging, and depth of discharge are thoroughly discussed. Along with the key degradation factor, the impacts of these factors on lithium-ion batteries including capacity fade, reduction in energy density, increase in internal resistance, and reduction in overall efficiency have also been highlighted throughout the paper. Additionally, the data-driven approaches of battery degradation estimation have taken into consideration. Furthermore, this paper delves into the multifaceted impacts of battery degradation on the performance, longevity, and overall sustainability of energy storage systems and EVs. Finally, the main drawbacks, issues and challenges related to the lifespan of batteries are addressed. Recommendations, best practices, and future directions are also provided to overcome the battery degradation issues towards sustainable energy storage system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Battery Aging Diagnosis and Prognosis)
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