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Fluids, Volume 8, Issue 12 (December 2023) – 19 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Fluids (ISSN 2311-5521) is an open-access journal, which provides an advanced forum for studies on all aspects of fluid and its applications, including mathematical modeling, numerical simulation, and experiments. Our aim is to publish state-of-the-art papers, including original research papers, reviews, case reports, as well as technical notes and meeting reports. There is no restriction on the maximum length of the papers. View this paper
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21 pages, 4781 KiB  
Article
A Physics-Guided Bi-Fidelity Fourier-Featured Operator Learning Framework for Predicting Time Evolution of Drag and Lift Coefficients
Fluids 2023, 8(12), 323; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8120323 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1274
Abstract
In the pursuit of accurate experimental and computational data while minimizing effort, there is a constant need for high-fidelity results. However, achieving such results often requires significant computational resources. To address this challenge, this paper proposes a deep operator learning-based framework that requires [...] Read more.
In the pursuit of accurate experimental and computational data while minimizing effort, there is a constant need for high-fidelity results. However, achieving such results often requires significant computational resources. To address this challenge, this paper proposes a deep operator learning-based framework that requires a limited high-fidelity dataset for training. We introduce a novel physics-guided, bi-fidelity, Fourier-featured deep operator network (DeepONet) framework that effectively combines low- and high-fidelity datasets, leveraging the strengths of each. In our methodology, we begin by designing a physics-guided Fourier-featured DeepONet, drawing inspiration from the intrinsic physical behavior of the target solution. Subsequently, we train this network to primarily learn the low-fidelity solution, utilizing an extensive dataset. This process ensures a comprehensive grasp of the foundational solution patterns. Following this foundational learning, the low-fidelity deep operator network’s output is enhanced using a physics-guided Fourier-featured residual deep operator network. This network refines the initial low-fidelity output, achieving the high-fidelity solution by employing a small high-fidelity dataset for training. Notably, in our framework, we employ the Fourier feature network as the trunk network for the DeepONets, given its proficiency in capturing and learning the oscillatory nature of the target solution with high precision. We validate our approach using a well-known 2D benchmark cylinder problem, which aims to predict the time trajectories of lift and drag coefficients. The results highlight that the physics-guided Fourier-featured deep operator network, serving as a foundational building block of our framework, possesses superior predictive capability for the lift and drag coefficients compared to its data-driven counterparts. The bi-fidelity learning framework, built upon the physics-guided Fourier-featured deep operator, accurately forecasts the time trajectories of lift and drag coefficients. A thorough evaluation of the proposed bi-fidelity framework confirms that our approach closely matches the high-fidelity solution, with an error rate under 2%. This confirms the effectiveness and reliability of our framework, particularly given the limited high-fidelity dataset used during training. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges and Directions in Fluid Structure Interaction)
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12 pages, 2188 KiB  
Article
An Exploratory Wind Tunnel Study of Air Jet Wheel Spoilers
Fluids 2023, 8(12), 322; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8120322 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1040
Abstract
Wheels and wheelhouses are a significant source of aerodynamic drag on passenger cars. The use of air jets, in the form of an air curtain, to smooth the airflow around front wheel housings on cars has become common practice, as it produces a [...] Read more.
Wheels and wheelhouses are a significant source of aerodynamic drag on passenger cars. The use of air jets, in the form of an air curtain, to smooth the airflow around front wheel housings on cars has become common practice, as it produces a small drag benefit. This paper reports an initial small-scale wind tunnel study of an air jet employed as an effective wheel spoiler to reduce the drag produced by the front wheels and wheel housings of passenger cars. For this investigation, the air jet was created using an external compressed-air supply and was applied to a highly simplified car body shape. The data presented suggest that the air jet has some potential as a drag-reduction device. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aerodynamics and Aeroacoustics of Vehicles, 3rd Edition)
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26 pages, 55948 KiB  
Article
Task-Driven Path Planning for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle-Based Bridge Inspection in Wind Fields
Fluids 2023, 8(12), 321; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8120321 - 16 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1081
Abstract
Using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for bridge inspection is becoming increasingly popular due to its ability to improve efficiency and ensure the safety of monitoring personnel. Compared to traditional manual monitoring methods, UAV inspections are a safer and more efficient alternative. This paper [...] Read more.
Using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for bridge inspection is becoming increasingly popular due to its ability to improve efficiency and ensure the safety of monitoring personnel. Compared to traditional manual monitoring methods, UAV inspections are a safer and more efficient alternative. This paper examines the impact of meteorological conditions on UAV-based bridge monitoring during specific tasks, with the aim of enhancing the safety of the UAV’s costly components. The wake vortex behind a bridge structure can vary over time due to airflow, which can have a direct impact on the safety of UAV flights. To assess this impact, numerical analysis is conducted based on monitoring requirements specific to different tasks, taking into account wind speed, wind direction, and air temperature. In order to optimize UAV trajectory, it is important to consider the wake vortex intensity and its associated influence region, which can pose a potential danger to UAV flight. Additionally, the analysis should take into account the aerodynamic effects of different types of bridge columns on the wake vortex. An optimization algorithm was utilized to optimize the trajectory of a UAV during bridge inspections within the safe region affected by wind fields. This resulted in the determination of an effective and safe flight path. The study reveals that varying wind speeds have an impact on the safe flight zone of UAVs, even if they are below the operational requirements. Therefore, when monitoring bridges using UAVs, it is important to take into account the influence of meteorological conditions. Furthermore, it was observed that the flight path of UAVs during square cylinder column monitoring is longer and more time-consuming than round cylinder column monitoring. Determining an effective UAV inspection path is crucial for completing bridge monitoring tasks in windy conditions, establishing bridge inspection standards, and developing the Intelligent Bridge Inspection System (IBIS). Full article
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39 pages, 15284 KiB  
Article
Flight Dynamic Characteristics of Wide-Body Aircraft with Wind Gust and Turbulence
Fluids 2023, 8(12), 320; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8120320 - 16 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1002
Abstract
In this research, a wide-body aircraft was analyzed with critical monitoring of its states, a function of several control inputs (wind gust, turbulence, and microburst). The aerodynamic and stability coefficients of a Boeing 747-200 were obtained from previously published works and 6- DOF [...] Read more.
In this research, a wide-body aircraft was analyzed with critical monitoring of its states, a function of several control inputs (wind gust, turbulence, and microburst). The aerodynamic and stability coefficients of a Boeing 747-200 were obtained from previously published works and 6- DOF equations were formulated. Simulations were conducted for various control inputs to determine the aircraft’s free response, as well as the forced response. In order to understand the nature of the atmosphere, three different models were incorporated, including (i) the Dryden Model, (ii) wind gust, and (iii) microburst. The aircraft was found to be stable in the longitudinal and lateral flight modes, with trim conditions agreeing with published data. For a vertical wind gust of −10 ft/s, the AoA and pitch rate were observed to oscillate sinusoidally and became stable with new trim conditions. These states were found to regain trim conditions once the gust was removed. In the case of 3D gust, it was found that the longitudinal modes achieved a new trim condition through Phugoid oscillations, whereas the lateral modes underwent short-period oscillations. For the case of turbulence, random fluctuations were observed for trim conditions with no unstable behavior. When considering the microburst case, it was found that the aircraft initially gained altitude in the region of the headwind; this was followed by a sharp descent under the influence of a vertical velocity component. Full article
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20 pages, 4349 KiB  
Article
Influence of a Subsidiary Weir on the Stability of a Main Structure Built on a Finite Stratum
Fluids 2023, 8(12), 319; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8120319 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1149
Abstract
Some dams globally have negatively affected downstream structures. Constructing subsidiary weirs may solve this problem. This novel study focuses on investigating the parameters of seepage beneath the original structure and the proposed subsidiary weir. Conformal mapping and finite element methods are used for [...] Read more.
Some dams globally have negatively affected downstream structures. Constructing subsidiary weirs may solve this problem. This novel study focuses on investigating the parameters of seepage beneath the original structure and the proposed subsidiary weir. Conformal mapping and finite element methods are used for the analysis. The proposed subsidiary weir consists of a sloping central apron, flat aprons on both the downstream and upstream ends, and upstream and downstream sheet piles of varying depths. The existing structure also has sheet piles of different depths at its upstream and downstream ends, with an impervious layer situated at a specific depth below both the structures. The study derives equations for the simulation of the upwards pressure on both the structures, seepage rate, and exit gradient along the downstream bed and the filter at an intermediate location. Our own developed software for the analysis and a commercial software for numerical methods named Finite Element Heat Transfer (FEHT)-version-1are used to calculate these parameters. The accuracy of the analytical and numerical methods is verified by comparing the results with experimental data, which demonstrate a good level of agreement. This study also simulates the impacts of various factors, such as sheet pile configurations, the depth of the stratum beneath the structure, the ratio of effective heads, and the length of the intermediate filter. Full article
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16 pages, 10042 KiB  
Article
Demonstrating the Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability Using a Low-Cost Experimental Apparatus and Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations
Fluids 2023, 8(12), 318; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8120318 - 12 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1152
Abstract
A Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is formed when two fluids of different densities exert a shear on one another at their interface when flowing in opposite directions. This paper presents a step-by-step guide for the design of a low-cost, small-scale, experimental tilt tube apparatus and [...] Read more.
A Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is formed when two fluids of different densities exert a shear on one another at their interface when flowing in opposite directions. This paper presents a step-by-step guide for the design of a low-cost, small-scale, experimental tilt tube apparatus and a corresponding computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model that can be used to introduce the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability to undergraduate mechanical engineering students in several courses. A thermal-fluids laboratory course is taken by our fourth-year mechanical engineering students, and the overall variety of experiments has been limited by the cost of commercial teaching equipment. The tilt tube apparatus allows students to induce and record the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, and no ongoing costs are involved in incorporating this experiment into the course. In our introductory CFD course, students perform CFD simulations as part of the design and analysis process. Developing a two-dimensional (2D) CFD model with two different fluids is well within their capabilities after completing initial software and simulation tutorial exercises and homework. Representative experiments were conducted with fresh water and salt water of different densities, and results showed that both the amplitude of the waves and the amount of time the instability was visible decreased with increasing salt water salinity. Results from a 2D CFD model developed in Ansys Fluent exhibited the same trends as the experimental data. Full article
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20 pages, 5906 KiB  
Article
A Constructal-Theory-Based Methodology to Determine the Configuration of Empty Channels Used in the Resin Impregnation of a Square Porous Plate
Fluids 2023, 8(12), 317; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8120317 - 10 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1130
Abstract
Liquid composite molding techniques are largely used to produce pieces such as truck cabins or wind turbine blades. The liquid resin infusion processes use a network of injection channels to improve the resin flow through a porous-reinforced medium. The present numerical study predicts [...] Read more.
Liquid composite molding techniques are largely used to produce pieces such as truck cabins or wind turbine blades. The liquid resin infusion processes use a network of injection channels to improve the resin flow through a porous-reinforced medium. The present numerical study predicts the positioning of empty channels by applying constructal theory to an idealized problem. The channels’ position and size were not predefined but instead constructed (made to grow) from an elemental channel. Two strategies were tested for channel growth: each new elemental channel was placed next to the region with the lowest or highest resistance to resin flow. The geometric configuration of the channels was constructed using a control function instead of using pre-defined shapes. The conservation of mass and momentum and an additional transport equation for the resin volume fraction were solved using the finite volume method. The volume of the fluid model was used for the treatment of the multiphase flow (air + resin). The growth of an empty channel with the lowest resistance strategy led to a decrease in the injection time and waste of resin. The size (resolution) of the elemental channel also affected the performance indicators and geometric configuration of the injection channels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Computational Mechanics of Non-Newtonian Fluids)
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21 pages, 3017 KiB  
Article
A Mathematical Model of Blood Loss during Renal Resection
Fluids 2023, 8(12), 316; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8120316 - 10 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1201
Abstract
In 2021, approximately 51% of patients diagnosed with kidney tumors underwent surgical resections. One possible way to reduce complications from surgery is to minimise the associated blood loss, which, in the case of partial nephrectomy, is caused by the inadequate repair of branching [...] Read more.
In 2021, approximately 51% of patients diagnosed with kidney tumors underwent surgical resections. One possible way to reduce complications from surgery is to minimise the associated blood loss, which, in the case of partial nephrectomy, is caused by the inadequate repair of branching arteries within the kidney cut during the tumor resection. The kidney vasculature is particularly complicated in nature, consisting of various interconnecting blood vessels and numerous bifurcation, trifurcation, tetrafurcation, and pentafurcation points. In this study, we present a mathematical lumped-parameter model of a whole kidney, assuming a non-Newtonian Carreau fluid, as a first approximation of estimating the blood loss arising from the cutting of single or multiple vessels. It shows that severing one or more blood vessels from the kidney vasculature results in a redistribution of the blood flow rates and pressures to the unaltered section of the kidney. The model can account for the change in the total impedance of the vascular network and considers a variety of multiple cuts. Calculating the blood loss for numerous combinations of arterial cuts allows us to identify the appropriate surgical protocols required to minimise blood loss during partial nephrectomy as well as enhance our understanding of perfusion and account for the possibility of cellular necrosis. This model may help renal surgeons during partial organ resection in assessing whether the remaining vascularisation is sufficient to support organ viability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mathematical and Computational Fluid Mechanics)
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13 pages, 4989 KiB  
Article
Transporting Particles with Vortex Rings
Fluids 2023, 8(12), 315; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8120315 - 05 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1274
Abstract
Due to their long-lived nature, vortex rings are highly promising for the non-contact transportation of colloidal microparticles. However, because of the high complexity of the structures, their description using rigorous, closed-form mathematical expressions is challenging, particularly in the presence of strongly inhomogeneous colloidal [...] Read more.
Due to their long-lived nature, vortex rings are highly promising for the non-contact transportation of colloidal microparticles. However, because of the high complexity of the structures, their description using rigorous, closed-form mathematical expressions is challenging, particularly in the presence of strongly inhomogeneous colloidal suspensions. In this work, we comprehensively study this phenomenon, placing special emphasis on a quantitative description of the ability of vortex rings to move the particles suspended in a liquid over distances significantly exceeding the ring’s dimensions. Moreover, within the study, we present straightforward analytical approximations extracted by using the fitting of the experimental and numerical simulation observations that reveal the dynamics of vortex rings transporting the microparticles. It includes both the dependence of the concentration on the distance traveled by the vortex ring and coefficients describing the evolution of vortex ring shape in time, which were not presented in the literature before. It turns out that despite the fact that 2D modeling is a simplification of the full 3D problem solution and is unable to capture some of the minor effects of real behavior, it has demonstrated a good consistency with the results obtained via experiments regarding the process of particles transportation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vortical Flows in Memory of Professor Ippolit Stepanovich Gromeka)
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12 pages, 2935 KiB  
Article
Identification of Local Isotropic Turbulence Conditions in Various Bubble Columns Based on Several Reliable Parameters
Fluids 2023, 8(12), 314; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8120314 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1114
Abstract
Bubble columns (BCs) are widely used in the chemical industry. In many industrial applications, these important gas-liquid contactors operate in a churn-turbulent flow regime. In principle, it is essential to determine the operating conditions in every BC reactor, in which local isotropic turbulence [...] Read more.
Bubble columns (BCs) are widely used in the chemical industry. In many industrial applications, these important gas-liquid contactors operate in a churn-turbulent flow regime. In principle, it is essential to determine the operating conditions in every BC reactor, in which local isotropic turbulence is established. In this work, it was demonstrated that several different parameters (Kolmogorov entropy, correlation dimension and novel hybrid index) follow a monotonic decreasing trend. This finding could be explained by the constantly increasing coalesced bubble size, which brings more order into the gas-liquid system and thus any entropic or chaotic parameter should decrease with the increase in the superficial gas velocity Ug. The profiles of the new parameters in various gas-liquid systems were studied. They were extracted from different pressure signals (gauge or absolute). In this research, BCs of different diameter and equipped with different gas distributors were used. It was demonstrated that the studied parameters could be successfully correlated with the length scale of the micro eddies and thus the Ug range of applicability of the local isotropic turbulence theory under various operating conditions was indirectly determined. The overall gas holdup profiles were analyzed and, based on the exponent of the Ug value, it was found that in the aqueous solutions of alcohols studied, the conditions in the bubble bed (BB) are homogeneous, whereas in the air-tap water system aerated in different BCs, the conditions in the BB are heterogeneous. This result implies that the local isotropic turbulence conditions predominate mainly around the corresponding measurement positions. Full article
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36 pages, 14240 KiB  
Review
Research Progress on Active Secondary Jet Technology in Supersonic Flow Field of Aerospace Propulsion Systems
Fluids 2023, 8(12), 313; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8120313 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1310
Abstract
As humans continue to explore the aerospace field, higher demands have been placed on new types of propulsion systems. Meanwhile, active secondary flow has been applied to various aspects of engines over the past seventy years, significantly enhancing engine performance. For the new [...] Read more.
As humans continue to explore the aerospace field, higher demands have been placed on new types of propulsion systems. Meanwhile, active secondary flow has been applied to various aspects of engines over the past seventy years, significantly enhancing engine performance. For the new generation of propulsion systems, active secondary flow remains a highly promising technology. This article provides an overview of the application of active secondary flow in engines, including a review of the past research on the secondary jet flow field, and an introduction of the more prominent applications of the jet in engines and its research progress. Finally, the problems existing in the current application of the secondary jet are summarized, and the future direction of the research is anticipated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Speed Flows, 2nd Edition)
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14 pages, 3084 KiB  
Article
Prediction of Flow Properties of Porous Triply Periodic Minimal Surface (TPMS) Structures
Fluids 2023, 8(12), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8120312 - 29 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1280
Abstract
The flow through geometrically complex structures is an important engineering problem. In this work, the laminar flow through Triply Periodic Minimal Surface (TPMS) structures is numerically analyzed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. Two different TPMS structures were designed, and their porosity was [...] Read more.
The flow through geometrically complex structures is an important engineering problem. In this work, the laminar flow through Triply Periodic Minimal Surface (TPMS) structures is numerically analyzed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. Two different TPMS structures were designed, and their porosity was characterized as a function of the isovalue. Then, CFD simulations were implemented to compute the pressure drop by systematically varying the flow velocity and the porosity of the structure. A Darcy–Forchheimer model was fitted to CFD results to calculate the inertial and permeability coefficients as functions of the porosity. These types of results can be very useful for designing fluid flow applications and devices (for instance, heat exchangers), as well as for integrating these TPMS structures since the flow can be very well estimated when using the porous medium model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fluid Mechanics)
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18 pages, 6200 KiB  
Article
Forced Convection in Porous Medium Using Triply Periodical Minimum Surfaces
Fluids 2023, 8(12), 311; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8120311 - 29 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1181
Abstract
Recent developments in the 3D printing of metals are attracting many researchers and engineers. Tailoring a porous structure using triply periodic minimum surfaces is becoming an excellent approach for cooling electronic equipment. The availability of metallic 3D printing encourages researchers to study cooling [...] Read more.
Recent developments in the 3D printing of metals are attracting many researchers and engineers. Tailoring a porous structure using triply periodic minimum surfaces is becoming an excellent approach for cooling electronic equipment. The availability of metallic 3D printing encourages researchers to study cooling systems using porous media. In the present article, we designed a porous structure using a gyroid model produced using 3D printing. Porous aluminum has a 0.7, 0.8, and 0.9 porosity, respectively. The porous medium is tested experimentally using distilled fluid as the cooling liquid, while the structure is subject to bottom heating with a heat flux of 30,000 W/m2. A different inlet velocity from 0.05 m/s to 0.25 m/s is applied. On the numerical side, the porous medium is modeled as a porous structure, and only the Navier–Stokes equations and the energy equation were solved using the finite element technique. In addition, an excellent agreement between the experimental measurement and numerical calculation, an optimum porosity of 0.8 was obtained. The performance evaluation criterion led us to believe that pressure drop plays a significant role in heat enhancement for this type of gyroid structure. As the porosity increases, the boundary layer becomes more noticeable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phase Change and Convective Heat Transfer)
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26 pages, 8807 KiB  
Article
Numerical Investigation of Critical Hydraulic Parameters Using FLOW-3D: A Case Study of Taunsa Barrage, Pakistan
Fluids 2023, 8(12), 310; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8120310 - 28 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1119
Abstract
Hydraulic structures, such as barrages, play an important role in the sustainable development of several regions worldwide. The aim of this novel study is to identify the critical hydraulic parameters (CHPs) of Taunsa Barrage, built on the Indus River. These CHPs, including free [...] Read more.
Hydraulic structures, such as barrages, play an important role in the sustainable development of several regions worldwide. The aim of this novel study is to identify the critical hydraulic parameters (CHPs) of Taunsa Barrage, built on the Indus River. These CHPs, including free surface profiles, flow depths, Froude number, velocity profiles, energy dissipation and turbulence kinetic energy, were investigated using simulation via FLOW-3D numerical models. Incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations on each computational cell were solved using the numerical methods available in FLOW-3D. The simulation results indicated that the locations of hydraulic jumps (HJs) were lower than that were reported in the previous one-dimensional study. Similarly, the distances of the HJs from the downstream toe of the glacis were reached at 2.97 m and 6 m at 129.10 m and 130.30 m tailwater levels, respectively, which deviated from the previous studies. In higher tailwater, the sequent depth ratio also deviated from the previous data. The maximum turbulent kinetic energies were observed in the developing regions of HJs, which were found to be decreased as the distance from the HJ was increased. The results of this research will be highly useful for engineers working in the field of design of hydraulic structures. Full article
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19 pages, 6170 KiB  
Article
Effect of a Control Mechanism on the Interaction between a Rectangular Jet and a Slotted Plate: Experimental Study of the Aeroacoustic Field
Fluids 2023, 8(12), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8120309 - 28 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1307
Abstract
The aeroacoustic field of a rectangular subsonic jet impinging on a slotted plate was investigated experimentally using microphones and stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (S-PIV). The study was carried out with a Reynolds number of 6700 and an impact distance of 4 cm. The [...] Read more.
The aeroacoustic field of a rectangular subsonic jet impinging on a slotted plate was investigated experimentally using microphones and stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (S-PIV). The study was carried out with a Reynolds number of 6700 and an impact distance of 4 cm. The current configuration represents a benchmark standpoint, featuring high levels of generated noise. A control mechanism consisting of a thin rod was introduced downstream from the jet exit to suppress the self-sustained tones. A total of 1085 positions of the rod between the jet exit and impinging plate were tested to identify positions of optimal noise reduction. Two zones were distinguished in terms of control efficacy: a zone where the sound pressure level (SPL) dropped by up to 19 dB and another zone where the SPL increased by up to 14 dB. The velocity fields show that the presence of the rod divides the jet into two lateral secondary jets on both sides of the main jet axis. The outer part of the secondary jets expanded radially with less interaction with the plate compared to the case without the control. This behavior affected the deformation of vortices against the slot. Proper orthogonal decomposition was applied to the velocity field for a better understanding of the turbulence dynamics with and without the control rod. Full article
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48 pages, 6734 KiB  
Review
Fluid Flow in Helically Coiled Pipes
Fluids 2023, 8(12), 308; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8120308 - 27 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1757
Abstract
Helically coiled pipes are widely used in many industrial and engineering applications because of their compactness, larger heat transfer area per unit volume and higher efficiency in heat and mass transfer compared to other pipe geometries. They are commonly encountered in heat exchangers, [...] Read more.
Helically coiled pipes are widely used in many industrial and engineering applications because of their compactness, larger heat transfer area per unit volume and higher efficiency in heat and mass transfer compared to other pipe geometries. They are commonly encountered in heat exchangers, steam generators in power plants and chemical reactors. The most notable feature of flow in helical pipes is the secondary flow (i.e., the cross-sectional circulatory motion) caused by centrifugal forces due to the curvature. Other important features are the stabilization effects of turbulent flow and the higher Reynolds number at which the transition from a laminar to a turbulent state occurs compared to straight pipes. A survey of the open literature on helical pipe flows shows that a good deal of experimental and theoretical work has been conducted to derive appropriate correlations to predict frictional pressure losses under laminar and turbulent conditions as well as to study the dependence of the flow characteristics and heat transfer capabilities on the Reynolds number, the Nusselt number and the geometrical parameters of the helical pipe. Despite the progress made so far in understanding the flow and heat transfer characteristics of helical pipe flow, there is still much work to be completed to address the more complex problem of multiphase flows and the impact of pipe deformation and corrugation on single- and multiphase flow. The aim of this paper is to provide a review on the state-of-the-art experimental and theoretical research concerning the flow in helically coiled pipes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pipe Flow: Research and Applications)
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14 pages, 5645 KiB  
Article
Portable Air Purifiers’ Predicted Efficacy in Mitigating Airborne Pathogen Transmission in an Office Room Featuring Mixing Ventilation
Fluids 2023, 8(12), 307; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8120307 - 27 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1229
Abstract
Portable air purifiers have been extensively used to improve indoor air quality and mitigate the transmission of airborne diseases. However, the efficacy of mitigation is strongly affected by the interactions between jet flows of processed air from the air purifiers and the background [...] Read more.
Portable air purifiers have been extensively used to improve indoor air quality and mitigate the transmission of airborne diseases. However, the efficacy of mitigation is strongly affected by the interactions between jet flows of processed air from the air purifiers and the background airflows driven by the ventilation system. Critical factors in this context include the position and capacity of air purifiers and the ventilation rate of the heating ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system. These factors are investigated in this study via computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and the infection probability for different scenarios is quantified using the latest airborne infection predictive model incorporating recent pathological and clinical data for SARS-CoV-2. The results show that the use of air purifiers can significantly reduce the concentration of particulate matter, thus contributing to a generally lower risk of airborne transmission. However, the position of air purifiers affects their overall efficacy remarkably. Comparatively, a central HVAC system is more efficient at removing airborne particles under an equivalent ventilation rate assuming it uses a mixing ventilation scheme. Full article
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14 pages, 4780 KiB  
Article
Reducing Scour around Semi-Elliptical Bridge Abutments: Application of Roughness Elements
Fluids 2023, 8(12), 306; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8120306 - 25 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1016
Abstract
Bridge abutments in river channels induce local scour. Recent research indicates that introducing roughness elements on the surface of the bridge abutments can influence the flow pattern around the abutment, reducing the intensity of eddies and diverting the flow away from the abutment. [...] Read more.
Bridge abutments in river channels induce local scour. Recent research indicates that introducing roughness elements on the surface of the bridge abutments can influence the flow pattern around the abutment, reducing the intensity of eddies and diverting the flow away from the abutment. The roughness elements protruding from the abutment surface, with specific thickness, protrusion, and spacing, influence the scour process by enhancing turbulence. This study investigates the impact of roughness elements and their spacing on clear water scour at bridge abutments. The results reveal a noteworthy reduction in scour depth as the spacing between roughness elements decreases and their thickness increases on the abutment surface. Furthermore, an increase in the roughness spacing to roughness protrusion ratio (s/p) leads to an amplified scour depth. Additionally, the presence of roughness on the abutment surface alters the slope characteristics of the scour hole in response to changes in flow depth. In particular, the absence of roughness exhibits an increased slope as flow depth increases, while the presence of roughness results in a reduced slope across all three flow depths examined. Notably, the maximum slope and depth of the scour hole under the influence of roughness elements occurs at angles of 50 to 70 degrees. Also, the slope and depth of the scour hole decrease to a minimum value at specific roughness dimensions (s = 0.17 L and p = 0.17 L). Full article
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23 pages, 5969 KiB  
Article
Measurements and Prediction of Ash Deposition in a Cyclone-Fired Boiler Operating under Variable Load Conditions
Fluids 2023, 8(12), 305; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8120305 - 23 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1146
Abstract
Measurements of ash deposition rates were made between the secondary superheater and reheater sections of a 450 MW cyclone-fired lignite boiler as the operational load varied from 33 to 100%. Significant reductions in deposition rates with a decrease in operational load were observed. [...] Read more.
Measurements of ash deposition rates were made between the secondary superheater and reheater sections of a 450 MW cyclone-fired lignite boiler as the operational load varied from 33 to 100%. Significant reductions in deposition rates with a decrease in operational load were observed. To uncover the causative mechanisms behind these observations, operational data from the power plant were used to carry out computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations of the boiler. After ascertaining that the gas temperatures and velocities at various sections within the boiler were being represented adequately, decoupled simulations of the ash deposition process on the deposit probe were carried out using a finely resolved boundary layer mesh. Fly ash particle size distribution (PSD) and its concentration for the decoupled calculations were determined from stand-alone cyclone barrel simulations. The ash partitioning (mass %) between the fly ash and slag was found to be ~50:50, which was in line with previous field observations, and it did not vary significantly across different cyclone loads. The predicted PSD of the deposit ash was concentrated in the size range 10–30 microns, which was in agreement with cross-sectional images of the deposit obtained from the measurements. At lower loads, sharp variations in the deposition rates were predicted in the gas temperature range 950–1150 K. The particle kinetic energy—particle viscosity-based capture methodology utilized in this study in conjunction with appropriate ash compositions, ash viscosity models and gas temperature estimates can help estimate slagging propensities at different loads reasonably well in these systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Challenges and Advances in Heat and Mass Transfer)
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