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Fluids, Volume 4, Issue 3 (September 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
CFD Julia: A Learning Module Structuring an Introductory Course on Computational Fluid Dynamics
Fluids 2019, 4(3), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids4030159 (registering DOI) - 23 Aug 2019
Viewed by 161
Abstract
CFD Julia is a programming module developed for senior undergraduate or graduate-level coursework which teaches the foundations of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The module comprises several programs written in general-purpose programming language Julia designed for high-performance numerical analysis and computational science. The paper [...] Read more.
CFD Julia is a programming module developed for senior undergraduate or graduate-level coursework which teaches the foundations of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The module comprises several programs written in general-purpose programming language Julia designed for high-performance numerical analysis and computational science. The paper explains various concepts related to spatial and temporal discretization, explicit and implicit numerical schemes, multi-step numerical schemes, higher-order shock-capturing numerical methods, and iterative solvers in CFD. These concepts are illustrated using the linear convection equation, the inviscid Burgers equation, and the two-dimensional Poisson equation. The paper covers finite difference implementation for equations in both conservative and non-conservative form. The paper also includes the development of one-dimensional solver for Euler equations and demonstrate it for the Sod shock tube problem. We show the application of finite difference schemes for developing two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes solvers with different boundary conditions applied to the lid-driven cavity and vortex-merger problems. At the end of this paper, we develop hybrid Arakawa-spectral solver and pseudo-spectral solver for two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Additionally, we compare the computational performance of these minimalist fashion Navier-Stokes solvers written in Julia and Python. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Teaching and Learning of Fluid Mechanics)
Open AccessArticle
Impact of Longitudinal Acceleration and Deceleration on Bluff Body Wakes
Fluids 2019, 4(3), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids4030158 - 18 Aug 2019
Viewed by 261
Abstract
This study investigated the unsteady acceleration aerodynamics of bluff bodies through the study of a channel mounted square cylinder undergoing free-stream acceleration of ±20m/s2 with Reynolds numbers spanning 3.2e4 to 3.6e5. To achieve this, a numerical simulation was [...] Read more.
This study investigated the unsteady acceleration aerodynamics of bluff bodies through the study of a channel mounted square cylinder undergoing free-stream acceleration of ± 20 m / s 2 with Reynolds numbers spanning 3.2e4 to 3.6e5. To achieve this, a numerical simulation was created with a commercial finite volume unstructured computational fluid dynamics code, which was first validated using Improved Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation against experimental and direct numerical simulated results. Then, the free stream conditions were subjected to a periodic velocity signal where data were recorded and ensemble averaged over at least 30 distinct acceleration and deceleration data points. This enabled the comparison of body forces and flow field variations among accelerating, steady and decelerating free-stream conditions. Body force analysis determined that decelerating and accelerating drag forces varied −47% and 44%, respectively, in comparison to steady free-stream conditions. In addition, several differences were also observed and explored such as near-body flow structures, wake dynamics, Kármán vortices and vorticity production during the aforementioned conditions. The primary interest of this study was for the future application towards road vehicles for predictive dynamic modeling and aerodynamic development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Turbulence and Transitional Modeling of Aerodynamic Flows)
Open AccessArticle
Modelling of Self-Ignition in Spark-Ignition Engine Using Reduced Chemical Kinetics for Gasoline Surrogates
Fluids 2019, 4(3), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids4030157 - 17 Aug 2019
Viewed by 228
Abstract
A numerical and experimental investigation in to the role of gasoline surrogates and their reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms in spark ignition (SI) engine knocking has been carried out. In order to predict autoignition of gasoline in a spark ignition engine three reduced chemical [...] Read more.
A numerical and experimental investigation in to the role of gasoline surrogates and their reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms in spark ignition (SI) engine knocking has been carried out. In order to predict autoignition of gasoline in a spark ignition engine three reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms have been coupled with quasi-dimensional thermodynamic modelling approach. The modelling was supported by measurements of the knocking tendencies of three fuels of very different compositions yet an equivalent Research Octane Number (RON) of 90 (ULG90, PRF90 and 71.5% by volume toluene blended with n-heptane) as well as iso-octane. The experimental knock onsets provided a benchmark for the chemical kinetic predictions of autoignition and also highlighted the limitations of characterisation of the knock resistance of a gasoline in terms of the Research and Motoring octane numbers and the role of these parameters in surrogate formulation. Two approaches used to optimise the surrogate composition have been discussed and possible surrogates for ULG90 have been formulated and numerically studied. A discussion has also been made on the various surrogates from the literature which have been tested in shock tube and rapid compression machines for their autoignition times and are a source of chemical kinetic mechanism validation. The differences in the knock onsets of the tested fuels have been explained by modelling their reactivity using semi-detailed chemical kinetics. Through this work, the weaknesses and challenges of autoignition modelling in SI engines through gasoline surrogate chemical kinetics have been highlighted. Adequacy of a surrogate in simulating the autoignition behaviour of gasoline has also been investigated as it is more important for the surrogate to have the same reactivity as the gasoline at all engine relevant p T conditions than having the same RON and Motored Octane Number (MON). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Numerical Simulations of Turbulent Combustion)
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Open AccessArticle
Temperature Error Reduction of DPD Fluid by Using Partitioned Runge-Kutta Time Integration Scheme
Fluids 2019, 4(3), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids4030156 - 17 Aug 2019
Viewed by 243
Abstract
This study puts emphasis on reducing the temperature error of dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) fluid by directly applying a minimal-stage third-order partitioned Runge-Kutta (PRK3) method to the time integration, which does not include any of additional governing equations and change in the DPD [...] Read more.
This study puts emphasis on reducing the temperature error of dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) fluid by directly applying a minimal-stage third-order partitioned Runge-Kutta (PRK3) method to the time integration, which does not include any of additional governing equations and change in the DPD thermostat formulation. The error is estimated based on the average values of both kinetic and configurational temperatures. The result shows that the errors in both temperatures errors are greatly reduced by using the PRK3 scheme as comparing them to those of previous studies. Additionally, the comparison among three different PRK3 schemes demonstrates our recent findings that the symplecticity conservation of the system is important to reduce the temperature error of DPD fluid especially for large time increments. The computational efficiencies are also estimated for the PRK3 scheme as well as the existing ones. It was found from the estimation that the simulation using the PRK3 scheme is more than twice as efficient as those using the existing ones. Finally, the roles of both kinetic and configurational temperatures as error indicators are discussed by comparing them to the velocity autocorrelation function and the radial distribution function. It was found that the errors of these temperatures involve different characteristics, and thus both temperatures should be taken into account to comprehensively evaluate the numerical error of DPD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coupled Flow and Heat or Mass Transport)
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Open AccessArticle
Uncertainty Quantification of Non-Dimensional Parameters for a Film Cooling Configuration in Supersonic Conditions
Fluids 2019, 4(3), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids4030155 - 10 Aug 2019
Viewed by 368
Abstract
In transonic high-pressure turbine stages, oblique shocks originating from vane trailing edges impact the suction side of each adjacent vane. High-pressure vanes are cooled to tolerate the combustor exit-temperature levels, then it is highly probable that shock impingement will occur in proximity to [...] Read more.
In transonic high-pressure turbine stages, oblique shocks originating from vane trailing edges impact the suction side of each adjacent vane. High-pressure vanes are cooled to tolerate the combustor exit-temperature levels, then it is highly probable that shock impingement will occur in proximity to a row of cooling holes. The presence of such a shock, together with the inevitable manufacturing deviations, alters the location of the shock impingement and of the performance parameters of each cooling hole. The present work provides a general description of the aero-thermal field that occurs on the rear suction side of a cooled vane. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used to evaluate the deterministic response of the selected configurations in terms of adiabatic effectiveness, discharge coefficient, blowing ratio, density ratio, and momentum ratio. Turbulence is modelled by using both the Shear Stress Transport method (SST) and the Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) implemented in ANSYS ® FLUENT ® . The obtained results are compared with the experimental data obtained by the Institut für Thermische Strömungsmaschinen in Karlsruhe. Two uncertainty quantification methodologies based on Hermite polynomials and Padè–Legendre approximants are used to consider the probability distribution of the geometrical parameters and to evaluate the response surfaces for the system response quantities. Trailing-edge and cooling-hole diameters have been considered to be aleatory unknowns. Uncertainty quantification analysis allows for the assessment of the mutual effects on global and local parameters of the cooling device. Obtained results demonstrate that most of the parameters are independent by the variation of the aleatory unknowns while the standard deviation of the blowing ratio associated with the hole diameter uncertainty is around 12 % , with no impact by the trailing-edge thickness. No relevant advantages are found using either SST model or RSM in combination with Hermite polynomials and Padè–Legendre approximants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Turbomachinery Flow Analysis)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Modeling Flow and Pressure Fields in Porous Media with High Conductivity Flow Channels and Smart Placement of Branch Cuts for Variant and Invariant Complex Potentials
Fluids 2019, 4(3), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids4030154 - 09 Aug 2019
Viewed by 274
Abstract
A long overdue distinction between so-called variant and invariant complex potentials is proposed here for the first time. Invariant complex potentials describe physical flows where a switch of the real and imaginary parts of the function will still describe the same type of [...] Read more.
A long overdue distinction between so-called variant and invariant complex potentials is proposed here for the first time. Invariant complex potentials describe physical flows where a switch of the real and imaginary parts of the function will still describe the same type of physical flow (but only rotated by π/2). Such invariants can be formulated with Euler’s formula to depict the same flow for any arbitrary orientation with respect to the coordinate system used. In contrast, variant complex potentials, when swapping their real and imaginary parts, will result in two fundamentally different physical flows. Next, we show that the contour integrals of the real and imaginary part of simple variant and invariant complex potentials generally do not generate any discernable branch cut problems. However, complex potentials due to the multiple superpositions of simple flows, even when invariant, may involve many options for selecting the branch cut locations. Examples of such branch cut choices are given for so-called areal doublets and areal dipoles, which are powerful tools to describe the streamlines and pressure fields for flow in porous media with enhanced permeability flow channels. After a discussion of the branch cut solutions, applications to a series of synthetic and field examples with enhanced permeability flow channels are given with examples of the streamline and pressure field solutions. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Wind Turbine Wake Modeling in Accelerating Wind Field: A Preliminary Study on a Two-Dimensional Hill
Fluids 2019, 4(3), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids4030153 - 09 Aug 2019
Viewed by 296
Abstract
Complex terrain can influence wind turbine wakes and wind speed profiles in a wind farm. Consequently, predicting the performance of wind turbines and energy production over complex terrain is more difficult than it is over flat terrain. In this preliminary study, an engineering [...] Read more.
Complex terrain can influence wind turbine wakes and wind speed profiles in a wind farm. Consequently, predicting the performance of wind turbines and energy production over complex terrain is more difficult than it is over flat terrain. In this preliminary study, an engineering wake model, that considers acceleration on a two-dimensional hill, was developed based on the momentum theory. The model consists of the wake width and wake wind speed. The equation to calculate the rotor thrust, which is calculated by the wake wind speed profiles, was also formulated. Then, a wind-tunnel test was performed in simple flow conditions in order to investigate wake development over a two-dimensional hill. After this the wake model was compared with the wind-tunnel test, and the results obtained by using the new wake model were close to the wind-tunnel test results. Using the new wake model, it was possible to estimate the wake shrinkage in an accelerating two-dimensional wind field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Turbomachinery Flow Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle
On the Bound Wave Phase Lag
Fluids 2019, 4(3), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids4030152 - 09 Aug 2019
Viewed by 283
Abstract
More than three decades ago, it was noted that the ocean infragravity bound wave increasingly lags behind the forcing short-wave groups when propagating towards the shore. To date, the most recent theoretical prediction of this so-called phase lag remained a first-order approximation in [...] Read more.
More than three decades ago, it was noted that the ocean infragravity bound wave increasingly lags behind the forcing short-wave groups when propagating towards the shore. To date, the most recent theoretical prediction of this so-called phase lag remained a first-order approximation in terms of depth variations. Here, a new semi-analytical solution is proposed which does not rely on this approximation. Strong agreement is obtained when the new solution is compared with high-resolution laboratory data involving both bichromatic and random wave conditions. This newly proposed theoretical phase lag is then extensively compared with the former one, highlighting an increasing discrepancy between the two solutions as the relative bottom slope increases. The four influencing parameters, namely the bottom slope, the water depth, the incident short-wave peak period and the incident group period, are shown to impact, each in a specific way, the bound wave phase lag. While the latter is seen to increase with lower water depths and/or with higher short-wave peak periods, both the bottom slope and the group period can affect the phase lag in a different manner. Indeed, steeper bed slopes induce lower phase lags in shallow water but higher ones in deep water, while higher group periods induce higher phase lags for gentle slopes but lower ones for steep slopes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling and Analysis of the Effects of Noise Barrier Shape and Inflow Conditions on Highway Automobiles Emission Dispersion
Fluids 2019, 4(3), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids4030151 - 08 Aug 2019
Viewed by 229
Abstract
Recent research has suggested that noise barriers have significant impacts on near-road automobile emissions reduction. T-shaped noise barriers have better performance on reducing noise than others, however, their effects on automobile emissions reduction are not clear. In this research, commercial software ANSYS® [...] Read more.
Recent research has suggested that noise barriers have significant impacts on near-road automobile emissions reduction. T-shaped noise barriers have better performance on reducing noise than others, however, their effects on automobile emissions reduction are not clear. In this research, commercial software ANSYS®Fluent 19.2 (Ansys Inc., Canonsburg, PA, USA) was applied to simulate the noise barrier shape and different inflow wind shear condition effects on highway automobiles emission dispersion. Various Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) models were tested. The realizable k-ε turbulence model was selected to simulate the turbulent flow caused by fast moving vehicles on highway based on the comparison results. A non-reacting species transport model was applied to simulate emission dispersion. Results showed that the T-shaped barrier was able to help reduce highway automobiles emission concentration in downstream areas more than the rectangular barrier. An optimized range of the T-shape was proposed; under the inflow condition without wind shear, the noise barrier shape effects on automobiles emission reduction were not significant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Simulation of Pollution Dispersion)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Laser-Plasma Accelerated Protons: Energy Increase in Gas-Mixtures Using High Mass Number Atomic Species
Fluids 2019, 4(3), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids4030150 - 08 Aug 2019
Viewed by 279
Abstract
The idea of using a gas-mixture comprising atoms with a high mass number in order to increase proton energies in laser induced plasma acceleration at critical density is investigated by means of 2D PIC (Particle-In-Cell) simulations. Comparing and discussing the case of a [...] Read more.
The idea of using a gas-mixture comprising atoms with a high mass number in order to increase proton energies in laser induced plasma acceleration at critical density is investigated by means of 2D PIC (Particle-In-Cell) simulations. Comparing and discussing the case of a pure hydrogen plasma and that of a plasma containing higher mass number species with a small percentage of hydrogen, we demonstrate that the mixture enhances the energies of the accelerated protons. We also show that using a gas-mixture introduces the possibility of using the densities ratio in order to change the relative acceleration of the species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling of Plasma Flow)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of Hydrodynamically Dominated Membrane Rupture, Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics–Finite Element Method
Fluids 2019, 4(3), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids4030149 - 03 Aug 2019
Viewed by 402
Abstract
The rupturing process of a membrane, located between two fluids at the center of a three-dimensional channel, is numerically investigated. The smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) and the finite element method (FEM) are used, respectively, for modeling the fluid and solid phases. A range [...] Read more.
The rupturing process of a membrane, located between two fluids at the center of a three-dimensional channel, is numerically investigated. The smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) and the finite element method (FEM) are used, respectively, for modeling the fluid and solid phases. A range of pressure differences and membrane thicknesses are studied and two different rupturing processes are identified. These processes differ in the time scale of the rupture, the location of the rupture initiation, the level of destruction and the driving mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Mechanics of Non-Newtonian Fluids)
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Open AccessArticle
Turbulence Modeling Effects on the CFD Predictions of Flow over a Detailed Full-Scale Sedan Vehicle
Fluids 2019, 4(3), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids4030148 - 01 Aug 2019
Viewed by 363
Abstract
In today’s road vehicle design processes, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has emerged as one of the major investigative tools for aerodynamics analyses. The age-old CFD methodology based on the Reynolds Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) approach is still considered as the most popular turbulence modeling [...] Read more.
In today’s road vehicle design processes, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has emerged as one of the major investigative tools for aerodynamics analyses. The age-old CFD methodology based on the Reynolds Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) approach is still considered as the most popular turbulence modeling approach in automotive industries due to its acceptable accuracy and affordable computational cost for predicting flows involving complex geometries. This popular use of RANS still persists in spite of the well-known fact that, for automotive flows, RANS turbulence models often fail to characterize the associated flow-field properly. It is even true that more often, the RANS approach fails to predict correct integral aerodynamic quantities like lift, drag, or moment coefficients, and as such, they are used to assess the relative magnitude and direction of a trend. Moreover, even for such purposes, notable disagreements generally exist between results predicted by different RANS models. Thanks to fast advances in computer technology, increasing popularity has been seen in the use of the hybrid Detached Eddy Simulation (DES), which blends the RANS approach with Large Eddy Simulation (LES). The DES methodology demonstrated a high potential of being more accurate and informative than the RANS approaches. Whilst evaluations of RANS and DES models on various applications are abundant in the literature, such evaluations on full-car models are relatively fewer. In this study, four RANS models that are widely used in engineering applications, i.e., the realizable k ε two-layer, Abe–Kondoh–Nagano (AKN) k ε low-Reynolds, SST k ω , and V2F are evaluated on a full-scale passenger vehicle with two different front-end configurations. In addition, both cases are run with two DES models to assess the differences between the flow predictions obtained using RANS and DES. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Turbulence and Transitional Modeling of Aerodynamic Flows)
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Open AccessReview
Instability and Convection in Rotating Porous Media: A Review
Fluids 2019, 4(3), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids4030147 - 01 Aug 2019
Viewed by 303
Abstract
A review on instability and consequent natural convection in rotating porous media is presented. Taylor-Proudman columns and geostrophic flows exist in rotating porous media just the same as in pure fluids. The latter leads to a tendency towards two-dimensionality. Natural convection resulting from [...] Read more.
A review on instability and consequent natural convection in rotating porous media is presented. Taylor-Proudman columns and geostrophic flows exist in rotating porous media just the same as in pure fluids. The latter leads to a tendency towards two-dimensionality. Natural convection resulting from density gradients in a gravity field as well as natural convection induced by density gradients due to the centripetal acceleration are being considered. The former is the result of gravity-induced buoyancy, the latter is due to centripetally-induced buoyancy. The effect of Coriolis acceleration is also discussed. Linear stability analysis as well as weak nonlinear solutions are being derived and presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Convective Instability in Porous Media, Volume II)
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Investigation of Pressure Influence on the Confined Turbulent Boundary Layer Flashback Process
Fluids 2019, 4(3), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids4030146 - 01 Aug 2019
Viewed by 292
Abstract
Boundary layer flashback from the combustion chamber into the premixing section is a threat associated with the premixed combustion of hydrogen-containing fuels in gas turbines. In this study, the effect of pressure on the confined flashback behaviour of hydrogen-air flames was investigated numerically. [...] Read more.
Boundary layer flashback from the combustion chamber into the premixing section is a threat associated with the premixed combustion of hydrogen-containing fuels in gas turbines. In this study, the effect of pressure on the confined flashback behaviour of hydrogen-air flames was investigated numerically. This was done by means of large eddy simulations with finite rate chemistry as well as detailed chemical kinetics and diffusion models at pressures between 0 . 5 and 3 . It was found that the flashback propensity increases with increasing pressure. The separation zone size and the turbulent flame speed at flashback conditions decrease with increasing pressure, which decreases flashback propensity. At the same time the quenching distance decreases with increasing pressure, which increases flashback propensity. It is not possible to predict the occurrence of boundary layer flashback based on the turbulent flame speed or the ratio of separation zone size to quenching distance alone. Instead the interaction of all effects has to be accounted for when modelling boundary layer flashback. It was further found that the pressure rise ahead of the flame cannot be approximated by one-dimensional analyses and that the assumptions of the boundary layer theory are not satisfied during confined boundary layer flashback. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Numerical Simulations of Turbulent Combustion)
Open AccessArticle
Conjugate Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow Modeling for Liquid Microjet Impingement Cooling with Alternating Feeding and Draining Channels
Fluids 2019, 4(3), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids4030145 - 01 Aug 2019
Viewed by 355
Abstract
Liquid microjet impingement cooling has shown the potential to be the solution for heat removal from electronic devices such as very-large-scale integration (VLSI) chips. The post-impingement dynamics of the jet, specifically the interaction between the liquid fronts on the surface engendered by the [...] Read more.
Liquid microjet impingement cooling has shown the potential to be the solution for heat removal from electronic devices such as very-large-scale integration (VLSI) chips. The post-impingement dynamics of the jet, specifically the interaction between the liquid fronts on the surface engendered by the jets is a critical criterion improving the heat transfer characteristics. While some seminally important experimental studies have investigated this attribute, the amount of accurate data and analysis is limited by the shortcomings of real-life experiments. In this article, numerical investigations into the fluid dynamics and heat transfer in microjet cooling systems are carried out. Specifically, this paper addresses the question regarding the necessary fidelity of the simulations. Different Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) models are compared to the Large Eddy Simulations (LES) simulation and the potential fidelity of different eddy-viscosity-based closures is clearly shown. Recommendations are made regarding the RANS closures that should give the best performance. It is demonstrated that the transition Shear Stress Transport (SST) model and k - ω SST model both show excellent ability to predict the local or average Nu, and also local level pressure coefficient f with less than 5% difference in the range of 30 < Red < 4000, compared with the reference LES model. For the experimental measurements in the range of 130 < Red < 1400, the LES model, transition SST model and k - ω SST model all show less than 25% prediction error. Moreover, it is shown that the validity of the unit cell assumption for the temperature and flow distribution depends on the flow rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coupled Flow and Heat or Mass Transport)
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Open AccessArticle
Direct Numerical Simulation of a Warm Cloud Top Model Interface: Impact of the Transient Mixing on Different Droplet Population
Fluids 2019, 4(3), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids4030144 - 01 Aug 2019
Viewed by 324
Abstract
Turbulent mixing through atmospheric cloud and clear air interface plays an important role in the life of a cloud. Entrainment and detrainment of clear air and cloudy volume result in mixing across the interface, which broadens the cloud droplet spectrum. In this study, [...] Read more.
Turbulent mixing through atmospheric cloud and clear air interface plays an important role in the life of a cloud. Entrainment and detrainment of clear air and cloudy volume result in mixing across the interface, which broadens the cloud droplet spectrum. In this study, we simulate the transient evolution of a turbulent cloud top interface with three initial mono-disperse cloud droplet population, using a pseudo-spectral Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) along with Lagrangian droplet equations, including collision and coalescence. Transient evolution of in-cloud turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), density of water vapour and temperature is carried out as an initial value problem exhibiting transient decay. Mixing in between the clear air and cloudy volume produced turbulent fluctuations in the density of water vapour and temperature, resulting in supersaturation fluctuations. Small scale turbulence, local supersaturation conditions and gravitational forces have different weights on the droplet population depending on their sizes. Larger droplet populations, with initial 25 and 18 μ m radii, show significant growth by droplet-droplet collision and a higher rate of gravitational sedimentation. However, the smaller droplets, with an initial 6 μ m radius, did not show any collision but a large size distribution broadening due to differential condensation/evaporation induced by the mixing, without being influenced by gravity significantly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multiscale Turbulent Transport)
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental and Numerical Study of Blood Flow in μ-vessels: Influence of the Fahraeus–Lindqvist Effect
Fluids 2019, 4(3), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids4030143 - 01 Aug 2019
Viewed by 312
Abstract
The study of hemodynamics is particularly important in medicine and biomedical engineering as it is crucial for the design of new implantable devices and for understanding the mechanism of various diseases related to blood flow. In this study, we experimentally identify the cell [...] Read more.
The study of hemodynamics is particularly important in medicine and biomedical engineering as it is crucial for the design of new implantable devices and for understanding the mechanism of various diseases related to blood flow. In this study, we experimentally identify the cell free layer (CFL) width, which is the result of the Fahraeus–Lindqvist effect, as well as the axial velocity distribution of blood flow in microvessels. The CFL extent was determined using microscopic photography, while the blood velocity was measured by micro-particle image velocimetry (μ-PIV). Based on the experimental results, we formulated a correlation for the prediction of the CFL width in small caliber (D < 300 μm) vessels as a function of a modified Reynolds number (Re) and the hematocrit (Hct). This correlation along with the lateral distribution of blood viscosity were used as input to a “two-regions” computational model. The reliability of the code was checked by comparing the experimentally obtained axial velocity profiles with those calculated by the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. We propose a methodology for calculating the friction loses during blood flow in μ-vessels, where the Fahraeus–Lindqvist effect plays a prominent role, and show that the pressure drop may be overestimated by 80% to 150% if the CFL is neglected. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Stability Analysis on Nonequilibrium Supersonic Boundary Layer Flow with Velocity-Slip Boundary Conditions
Fluids 2019, 4(3), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids4030142 - 31 Jul 2019
Viewed by 298
Abstract
This paper presents our recent work on investigating velocity slip boundary conditions’ effects on supersonic flat plate boundary layer flow stability. The velocity-slip boundary conditions are adopted and the flow properties are obtained by solving boundary layer equations. Stability analysis of two such [...] Read more.
This paper presents our recent work on investigating velocity slip boundary conditions’ effects on supersonic flat plate boundary layer flow stability. The velocity-slip boundary conditions are adopted and the flow properties are obtained by solving boundary layer equations. Stability analysis of two such boundary layer flows is performed by using the Linear stability theory. A global method is first utilized to obtain approximate discrete mode values. A local method is then utilized to refine these mode values. All the modes in these two scenarios have been tracked upstream-wisely towards the leading edge and also downstream-wisely. The mode values for the no-slip flows agree well with the corresponding past results in the literature. For flows with slip boundary conditions, a stable and an unstable modes are detected. Mode tracking work is performed and the results illustrate that the resonance phenomenon between the stable and unstable modes is delayed with slip boundary conditions. The enforcement of the slip boundary conditions also shortens the unstable mode region. As to the conventional second mode, flows with slip boundary conditions can be more stable streamwisely when compared with the results for corresponding nonslip flows. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Turbulence and Transitional Modeling of Aerodynamic Flows)
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Open AccessArticle
Synchronized Multiple Drop Impacts into a Deep Pool
Fluids 2019, 4(3), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids4030141 - 27 Jul 2019
Viewed by 312
Abstract
Drop impacts (onto dry or wet surfaces or into deep pools) are important in a wide range of applications, and, consequently, many studies, both experimental and numerical, are available in the literature. However, such works are focused either on statistical analyses of drop [...] Read more.
Drop impacts (onto dry or wet surfaces or into deep pools) are important in a wide range of applications, and, consequently, many studies, both experimental and numerical, are available in the literature. However, such works are focused either on statistical analyses of drop populations or on single drops. The literature is heavily lacking in information about the mutual interactions between a few drops during the impact. This work describes a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study on the impact of two, three, and four synchronized drops into a deep pool. The two-phase finite-volume solver interFoam of the open source CFD package OpenFOAM® was used. After validation with respect to high speed videos, to confirm the performance of the solver in this field, impact conditions and aspects that would have been difficult to obtain and to study in experiments were investigated: namely, the energy conversion during the crater evolution, the effect of varying drop interspace and surface tension, and multiple drop impacts. The results show the very significant effect of these aspects. This implies that an extension of the results of single-drop, distilled-water laboratory experiments to real applications may not be reliable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Numerical Advances in Fluid Mechanics)
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Open AccessArticle
Bulbous Pier: An Alternative to Bridge Pier Extensions as a Countermeasure against Bridge Deck Splashing
Fluids 2019, 4(3), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids4030140 - 24 Jul 2019
Viewed by 442
Abstract
Bridge deck splashing causes deterioration to a bridge’s structure and renders the bridge unsafe for motorists and pedestrians. The traditional countermeasure for bridge deck splashing has been pier extension. Pier extensions move the pier wave and the associated splash away from the bridge [...] Read more.
Bridge deck splashing causes deterioration to a bridge’s structure and renders the bridge unsafe for motorists and pedestrians. The traditional countermeasure for bridge deck splashing has been pier extension. Pier extensions move the pier wave and the associated splash away from the bridge deck, but retrofitting existing bridges with pier extensions is costly. This research evaluates the use of a bulbous added to the pier as an alternative to pier extension. A bulb placed on the upstream side of a bridge pier affects the splashing. The energy in the passing water is redirected from the impact by streamlining the flow. This study proposes a mathematical model for bulbous pier design, based on a model used for a mono-hull ship. Under the mono-hull model, the bulb length extends, reaching the region where viscous resistance is dominant. Unlike wave-making resistance, which is achieved through modeling, the proposed model does not require modeling to calculate pier wave reduction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Spurious PIV Vector Correction Using Linear Stochastic Estimation
Fluids 2019, 4(3), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids4030139 - 22 Jul 2019
Viewed by 416
Abstract
Techniques for the experimental determination of velocity fields such as particle image velocimetry (PIV) can often be hampered by spurious vectors or sparse regions of measurement which may occur due to a number of reasons. Commonly used methods for detecting and replacing erroneous [...] Read more.
Techniques for the experimental determination of velocity fields such as particle image velocimetry (PIV) can often be hampered by spurious vectors or sparse regions of measurement which may occur due to a number of reasons. Commonly used methods for detecting and replacing erroneous values are often based on statistical measures of the surrounding vectors and may be influenced by further poor data quality in the region. A new method is presented in this paper using Linear Stochastic Estimation for vector replacement (LSEVR) which allows for increased flexibility in situations with regions of spurious vectors. LSEVR is applied to PIV dataset to demonstrate and assess its performance relative to commonly used bilinear and bicubic interpolation methods. For replacement of a single vector, all methods performed well, with LSEVR having an average error of 11% in comparison to 14% and 18% for bilinear and bicubic interpolation respectively. A more significant difference was found in replacement of clusters of vectors which showed average vector angle errors of 10°, 9° and 6° for bilinear, bicubic and LSEVR respectively. Error in magnitude was 3% for both interpolation techniques and 1% for LSEVR showing a clear benefit to using LSEVR for conditions that require multiple clustered vectors to be replaced. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Data-Driven Model Reduction for Coupled Flow and Geomechanics Based on DMD Methods
Fluids 2019, 4(3), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids4030138 - 19 Jul 2019
Viewed by 368
Abstract
Learning reservoir flow dynamics is of primary importance in creating robust predictive models for reservoir management including hydraulic fracturing processes. Physics-based models are to a certain extent exact, but they entail heavy computational infrastructure for simulating a wide variety of parameters and production [...] Read more.
Learning reservoir flow dynamics is of primary importance in creating robust predictive models for reservoir management including hydraulic fracturing processes. Physics-based models are to a certain extent exact, but they entail heavy computational infrastructure for simulating a wide variety of parameters and production scenarios. Reduced-order models offer computational advantages without compromising solution accuracy, especially if they can assimilate large volumes of production data without having to reconstruct the original model (data-driven models). Dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) entails the extraction of relevant spatial structure (modes) based on data (snapshots) that can be used to predict the behavior of reservoir fluid flow in porous media. In this paper, we will further enhance the application of the DMD, by introducing sparse DMD and local DMD. The former is particularly useful when there is a limited number of sparse measurements as in the case of reservoir simulation, and the latter can improve the accuracy of developed DMD models when the process dynamics show a moving boundary behavior like hydraulic fracturing. For demonstration purposes, we first show the methodology applied to (flow only) single- and two-phase reservoir models using the SPE10 benchmark. Both online and offline processes will be used for evaluation. We observe that we only require a few DMD modes, which are determined by the sparse DMD structure, to capture the behavior of the reservoir models. Then, we applied the local DMDc for creating a proxy for application in a hydraulic fracturing process. We also assessed the trade-offs between problem size and computational time for each reservoir model. The novelty of our method is the application of sparse DMD and local DMDc, which is a data-driven technique for fast and accurate simulations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Modelling of Air Pollutant Dispersion in Complex Urban Areas: Investigation of City Parts from Downtowns Hanover and Frankfurt
Fluids 2019, 4(3), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids4030137 - 18 Jul 2019
Viewed by 354
Abstract
Hazardous gas dispersion within a complex urban environment in 1:1 scaled geometry of German cities, Hanover and Frankfurt, is predicted using an advanced turbulence model. The investigation involves a large group of real buildings with a high level of details. For this purpose, [...] Read more.
Hazardous gas dispersion within a complex urban environment in 1:1 scaled geometry of German cities, Hanover and Frankfurt, is predicted using an advanced turbulence model. The investigation involves a large group of real buildings with a high level of details. For this purpose, Computer Aided Design (CAD) of two configurations are cleaned, then fine grids meshed in. Weather conditions are introduced using power law velocity profiles at inlets boundary. The investigation focused on the effects of release locations and material properties of the contaminants (e.g., densities) on the convection/diffusion of pollutants within complex urban area. Two geometries demonstrating different topologies and boundaries conditions are investigated. Pollutants are introduced into the computational domain through chimney and/or pipe leakages in various locations. Simulations are carried out using Large Eddy Simulation (LES) turbulence model and species transport for the pollutants. The weather conditions are accounted for using a logarithmic velocity profile at inlets. CH4 and CO2 distributions, as well as turbulence quantities and velocity profiles, show important influences on the dispersion behavior of the hazardous gas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Numerical Advances in Fluid Mechanics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Progress in Phenomenological Modeling of Turbulence Damping around a Two-Phase Interface
Fluids 2019, 4(3), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids4030136 - 18 Jul 2019
Viewed by 339
Abstract
The presence of a moving interface in two-phase flows challenges the accurate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling, especially when the flow is turbulent. For such flows, single-phase-based turbulence models are usually used for the turbulence modeling together with certain modifications including the turbulence [...] Read more.
The presence of a moving interface in two-phase flows challenges the accurate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling, especially when the flow is turbulent. For such flows, single-phase-based turbulence models are usually used for the turbulence modeling together with certain modifications including the turbulence damping around the interface. Due to the insufficient understanding of the damping mechanism, the phenomenological modeling approach is always used. Egorov’s model is the most widely-used turbulence damping model due to its simple formulation and implementation. However, the original Egorov model suffers from the mesh size dependency issue and uses a questionable symmetric treatment for both liquid and gas phases. By introducing more physics, this paper introduces a new length scale for Egorov’s model, making it independent of mesh sizes in the tangential direction of the interface. An asymmetric treatment is also developed, which leads to more physical predictions for both the turbulent kinetic energy and the velocity field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Free surface flows)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A New Model for Thermodynamic Characterization of Hemoglobin
Fluids 2019, 4(3), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids4030135 - 17 Jul 2019
Viewed by 323
Abstract
In this paper, we formulate a thermodynamic model of hemoglobin that describes, by a physical point of view, phenomena favoring the binding of oxygen to the protein. Our study is based on theoretical methods extrapolated by experimental data. After some remarks on the [...] Read more.
In this paper, we formulate a thermodynamic model of hemoglobin that describes, by a physical point of view, phenomena favoring the binding of oxygen to the protein. Our study is based on theoretical methods extrapolated by experimental data. After some remarks on the non-equilibrium thermodynamic theory with internal variables, some thermodynamic functions are determined by the value of the complex dielectric constant. In previous papers, we determined the explicit expression of a dielectric constant as a function of a complex dielectric modulus and frequency. The knowledge of these functions allows a new characterization of the material and leads to the study of new phenomena that has yet to be studied. In detail, we introduce the concept of “hemoglobe”, a model that considers the hemoglobin molecule as a plane capacitor, the dielectric of which is almost entirely constituted by the quaternary structure of the protein. This model is suggested by considering a phenomenological coefficient of the non-equilibrium thermodynamic theory related to the displacement polarization current. The comparison of the capacity determined by the mean of this coefficient, and determined by geometrical considerations, gives similar results; although more thermodynamic information is derived by the capacity determined considering the aforementioned coefficient. This was applied to the normal human hemoglobin, homozygous sickle hemoglobin, and sickle cell hemoglobin C disease. Moreover, the energy of the capacitor of the three hemoglobin was determined. Through the identification of displacement currents, the introduction of this model presents new perspectives and helps to explain hemoglobin functionality through a physical point of view. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Mechanics of Non-Newtonian Fluids)
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Open AccessArticle
Cross-Correlation of POD Spatial Modes for the Separation of Stochastic Turbulence and Coherent Structures
Fluids 2019, 4(3), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids4030134 - 16 Jul 2019
Viewed by 453
Abstract
This article describes a proper-orthogonal-decomposition (POD) based methodology proposed for the identification and separation of coherent and turbulent velocity fluctuations. Typically, POD filtering requires assumptions to be made on the cumulative energy content of coherent modes and can therefore exclude smaller, but important [...] Read more.
This article describes a proper-orthogonal-decomposition (POD) based methodology proposed for the identification and separation of coherent and turbulent velocity fluctuations. Typically, POD filtering requires assumptions to be made on the cumulative energy content of coherent modes and can therefore exclude smaller, but important contributions from lower energy modes. This work introduces a suggested new metric to consider in the selection of POD modes to be included in a reconstruction of coherent and turbulent features. Cross-correlation of POD spatial modes derived from independent samples is used to identify modes descriptive of either coherent (high-correlation) or incoherent (low-correlation) features. The technique is demonstrated through application to a cylinder in cross-flow allowing appropriate analysis to be carried out on the coherent and turbulent velocity fields separately. This approach allows identification of coherent motions associated with cross-flow transport and vortex shedding, such as integral length scales. Turbulent flow characteristics may be analysed independently from the coherent motions, allowing for the extraction of properties such as turbulent length scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Numerical Advances in Fluid Mechanics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Optimal Boundary Control of Non-Isothermal Viscous Fluid Flow
Fluids 2019, 4(3), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids4030133 - 16 Jul 2019
Viewed by 307
Abstract
We study an optimal control problem for the mathematical model that describes steady non-isothermal creeping flows of an incompressible fluid through a locally Lipschitz bounded domain. The control parameters are the pressure and the temperature on the in-flow and out-flow parts of the [...] Read more.
We study an optimal control problem for the mathematical model that describes steady non-isothermal creeping flows of an incompressible fluid through a locally Lipschitz bounded domain. The control parameters are the pressure and the temperature on the in-flow and out-flow parts of the boundary of the flow domain. We propose the weak formulation of the problem and prove the existence of weak solutions that minimize a given cost functional. It is also shown that the marginal function of this control system is lower semi-continuous. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Mechanics of Non-Newtonian Fluids)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Shock Capturing in Large Eddy Simulations by Adaptive Filtering
Fluids 2019, 4(3), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids4030132 - 15 Jul 2019
Viewed by 394
Abstract
A method for shock capturing by adaptive filtering for use with high-resolution, high-order schemes for Large Eddy Simulations (LES) is presented. The LES method used in all the examples here employs the Explicit Filtering approach and the spatial derivatives are obtained with sixth-order, [...] Read more.
A method for shock capturing by adaptive filtering for use with high-resolution, high-order schemes for Large Eddy Simulations (LES) is presented. The LES method used in all the examples here employs the Explicit Filtering approach and the spatial derivatives are obtained with sixth-order, compact, finite differences. The adaptation is to drop the order of the explicit filter to two at gridpoints where a shock is detected, and to then increase the order from 2 to 10 in steps at successive gridpoints away from the shock. The method is found to be effective in a series of tests of common inviscid 1D and 2D problems of shock propagation and propagation of waves through shocks. As a prelude to LES, the 3D Taylor–Green problem for the inviscid and a finite viscosity case were simulated. An assessment of the overall performance of the method for LES was carried out by simulating an underexpanded round jet at a Reynolds number of 6.09 million, based in centerline velocity and diameter at nozzle exit plane. Very close quantitative agreement was found for the development of centerline mean pressure when compared to experiment. Simulations on several increasingly finer grids showed a monotonic extension of the computed part of the inertial range, with little change to low frequency content. Amplitudes and locations of large changes in pressure through several cells were captured accurately. A similar performance was observed for LES of an impinging jet containing normal and curved shocks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Numerical Advances in Fluid Mechanics)
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Open AccessEditorial
Editorial for Special Issue “Advances in Experimental and Computational Rheology”
Fluids 2019, 4(3), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids4030131 - 12 Jul 2019
Viewed by 321
Abstract
Rheology, defined as the science of deformation and flow of matter, is a multidisciplinary scientific field, covering both fundamental and applied approaches [...] Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Three-Dimensional Interaction of Viscous Fingering and Gravitational Segregation in Porous Media
Fluids 2019, 4(3), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids4030130 - 12 Jul 2019
Viewed by 370
Abstract
Viscous fingering is fluid dynamics instability induced on the displacement front when a less viscous fluid (LVF) displaces a more viscous fluid (MVF), thereby reducing the displacement efficiency. The displacement of a denser fluid by a less dense fluid produces a gravitational tongue. [...] Read more.
Viscous fingering is fluid dynamics instability induced on the displacement front when a less viscous fluid (LVF) displaces a more viscous fluid (MVF), thereby reducing the displacement efficiency. The displacement of a denser fluid by a less dense fluid produces a gravitational tongue. This gravitational segregation also reduces the displacement efficiency. In this study, the three-dimensional structure of the fingering pattern at the viscous fingering to gravitational segregation boundary was examined using X-ray microtomography on a packed bed of particles. At low gravity numbers, viscous fingering resembled that without gravity characterized by nonlinear interaction including tip-splitting, shielding, and coalescence. At intermediate gravity numbers, viscous fingering is associated with the gravitational tongue due to segregation. At high gravity numbers, a clear gravitational tongue penetrates from the inlet to the outlet. Consequently, the concentration near the injection point decreases and exhibits a flat profile in the flow direction. The displacement efficiency decreases with increasing gravity number, with the highest value achieved without gravity but depends on many factors, including the viscosity ratio and Péclet number. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Convective Instability in Porous Media, Volume II)
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