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Bioengineering, Volume 10, Issue 5 (May 2023) – 124 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): To recapitulate the epithelial barrier function in the oral sulcus, we developed the 3D Oral Epi-mucosa platform. Our results showed that the epithelial barrier is modulated by tuning extracellular matrix stiffness, hydrostatic pressure, and the presence of fibronectin. Overall, this platform can be utilized to identify new mechanisms and develop new therapeutics for mucosal diseases, such as periodontitis. View this paper
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9 pages, 531 KiB  
Article
Lower Limb Biomechanics during the Golf Downswing in Individuals with and without a History of Knee Joint Injury
by Zi-Jun Lin, Yi-Chien Peng, Chun-Ju Yang, Chung-Yuan Hsu, Joseph Hamill and Wen-Tzu Tang
Bioengineering 2023, 10(5), 626; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering10050626 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2225
Abstract
Although prevention is better than treatment, after a knee injury occurs, the adjustment of the movement technique back to the posture before the injury and the restoration of accuracy is very important for professional and amateur players. This study aimed to compare the [...] Read more.
Although prevention is better than treatment, after a knee injury occurs, the adjustment of the movement technique back to the posture before the injury and the restoration of accuracy is very important for professional and amateur players. This study aimed to compare the differences in lower limb mechanics during the golf downswing between those with and without a history of knee joint injury. A total of 20 professional golfers with single-digit handicaps were recruited for this study, 10 of whom had a knee injury history (KIH+), while another 10 players were without a knee injury history (KIH−). From the 3D analysis, selected kinematic and kinetic parameters during the downswing were analyzed using an independent samples t-test with a significance level of α = 0.05. During the downswing, individuals with KIH+ exhibited a smaller hip flexion angle, smaller ankle abduction angle, and larger ankle adduction/abduction range of motion (ROM). Moreover, there was no significant difference found in the knee joint moment. Athletes with a history of knee injury can adjust the motion angles of their hip and ankle joints (e.g., by avoiding excessive forward leaning of the trunk and maintaining stable foot posture without inward or outward rotation) to minimize the impact of changes in their movement patterns resulting from the injury. Full article
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14 pages, 3088 KiB  
Article
Computational Modeling of Diffusion-Based Delamination for Active Implantable Medical Devices
by Minh-Hai Nguyen, Adrian Onken, Anika Wulff, Katharina Foremny, Patricia Torgau, Helmut Schütte, Sabine Hild and Theodor Doll
Bioengineering 2023, 10(5), 625; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering10050625 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1433
Abstract
Delamination at heterogeneous material interfaces is one of the most prominent failure modes in active implantable medical devices (AIMDs). A well-known example of an AIMD is the cochlear implant (CI). In mechanical engineering, a multitude of testing procedures are known whose data can [...] Read more.
Delamination at heterogeneous material interfaces is one of the most prominent failure modes in active implantable medical devices (AIMDs). A well-known example of an AIMD is the cochlear implant (CI). In mechanical engineering, a multitude of testing procedures are known whose data can be used for detailed modeling with respect to digital twins. Detailed, complex models for digital twins are still lacking in bioengineering since body fluid infiltration occurs both into the polymer substrate and along the metal-polymer interfaces. For a newly developed test for an AIMD or CI composed of silicone rubber and metal wiring or electrodes, a mathematical model of these mechanisms is presented. It provides a better understanding of the failure mechanisms in such devices and their validation against real-life data. The implementation utilizes COMSOL Multiphysics®, consisting of a volume diffusion part and models for interface diffusion (and delamination). For a set of experimental data, the necessary diffusion coefficient could be derived. A subsequent comparison of experimental and modeling results showed a good qualitative and functional match. The delamination model follows a mechanical approach. The results of the interface diffusion model, which follows a substance transport-based approach, show a very good approximation to the results of previous experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances of Medical Devices)
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17 pages, 11550 KiB  
Article
Customized Multichannel Measurement System for Microbial Fuel Cell Characterization
by Nicola Lovecchio, Valentina Di Meo and Andrea Pietrelli
Bioengineering 2023, 10(5), 624; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering10050624 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1410
Abstract
This work presents the development of an automatic and customized measuring system employing sigma-delta analog-to-digital converters and transimpedance amplifiers for precise measurements of voltage and current signals generated by microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The system can perform multi-step discharge protocols to accurately measure [...] Read more.
This work presents the development of an automatic and customized measuring system employing sigma-delta analog-to-digital converters and transimpedance amplifiers for precise measurements of voltage and current signals generated by microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The system can perform multi-step discharge protocols to accurately measure the power output of MFCs, and has been calibrated to ensure high precision and low noise measurements. One of the key features of the proposed measuring system is its ability to conduct long-term measurements with variable time steps. Moreover, it is portable and cost-effective, making it ideal for use in laboratories without sophisticated bench instrumentation. The system is expandable, ranging from 2 to 12 channels by adding dual-channel boards, which allows for testing of multiple MFCs simultaneously. The functionality of the system was tested using a six-channel setup, and the results demonstrated its ability to detect and distinguish current signals from different MFCs with varying output characteristics. The power measurements obtained using the system also allow for the determination of the output resistance of the MFCs being tested. Overall, the developed measuring system is a useful tool for characterizing the performance of MFCs, and can be helpful in the optimization and development of sustainable energy production technologies. Full article
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20 pages, 4358 KiB  
Article
Automatic Multiple Articulator Segmentation in Dynamic Speech MRI Using a Protocol Adaptive Stacked Transfer Learning U-NET Model
by Subin Erattakulangara, Karthika Kelat, David Meyer, Sarv Priya and Sajan Goud Lingala
Bioengineering 2023, 10(5), 623; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering10050623 - 22 May 2023
Viewed by 1623
Abstract
Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging has emerged as a powerful modality for investigating upper-airway function during speech production. Analyzing the changes in the vocal tract airspace, including the position of soft-tissue articulators (e.g., the tongue and velum), enhances our understanding of speech production. The [...] Read more.
Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging has emerged as a powerful modality for investigating upper-airway function during speech production. Analyzing the changes in the vocal tract airspace, including the position of soft-tissue articulators (e.g., the tongue and velum), enhances our understanding of speech production. The advent of various fast speech MRI protocols based on sparse sampling and constrained reconstruction has led to the creation of dynamic speech MRI datasets on the order of 80–100 image frames/second. In this paper, we propose a stacked transfer learning U-NET model to segment the deforming vocal tract in 2D mid-sagittal slices of dynamic speech MRI. Our approach leverages (a) low- and mid-level features and (b) high-level features. The low- and mid-level features are derived from models pre-trained on labeled open-source brain tumor MR and lung CT datasets, and an in-house airway labeled dataset. The high-level features are derived from labeled protocol-specific MR images. The applicability of our approach to segmenting dynamic datasets is demonstrated in data acquired from three fast speech MRI protocols: Protocol 1: 3 T-based radial acquisition scheme coupled with a non-linear temporal regularizer, where speakers were producing French speech tokens; Protocol 2: 1.5 T-based uniform density spiral acquisition scheme coupled with a temporal finite difference (FD) sparsity regularization, where speakers were producing fluent speech tokens in English, and Protocol 3: 3 T-based variable density spiral acquisition scheme coupled with manifold regularization, where speakers were producing various speech tokens from the International Phonetic Alphabetic (IPA). Segments from our approach were compared to those from an expert human user (a vocologist), and the conventional U-NET model without transfer learning. Segmentations from a second expert human user (a radiologist) were used as ground truth. Evaluations were performed using the quantitative DICE similarity metric, the Hausdorff distance metric, and segmentation count metric. This approach was successfully adapted to different speech MRI protocols with only a handful of protocol-specific images (e.g., of the order of 20 images), and provided accurate segmentations similar to those of an expert human. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue AI in MRI: Frontiers and Applications)
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17 pages, 12363 KiB  
Article
Differences in Water Dynamics between the Hydrated Chitin and Hydrated Chitosan Determined by Quasi-Elastic Neutron Scattering
by Yuki Hirota, Taiki Tominaga, Takashi Kawabata, Yukinobu Kawakita and Yasumitsu Matsuo
Bioengineering 2023, 10(5), 622; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering10050622 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1287
Abstract
Recently, it was reported that chitin and chitosan exhibited high-proton conductivity and function as an electrolyte in fuel cells. In particular, it is noteworthy that proton conductivity in the hydrated chitin becomes 30 times higher than that in the hydrated chitosan. Since higher [...] Read more.
Recently, it was reported that chitin and chitosan exhibited high-proton conductivity and function as an electrolyte in fuel cells. In particular, it is noteworthy that proton conductivity in the hydrated chitin becomes 30 times higher than that in the hydrated chitosan. Since higher proton conductivity is necessary for the fuel cell electrolyte, it is significantly important to clarify the key factor for the realization of higher proton conduction from a microscopic viewpoint for the future development of fuel cells. Therefore, we have measured proton dynamics in the hydrated chitin using quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) from the microscopic viewpoint and compared the proton conduction mechanism between hydrated chitin and chitosan. QENS results exhibited that a part of hydrogen atoms and hydration water in chitin are mobile even at 238 K, and the mobile hydrogen atoms and their diffusion increase with increasing temperature. It was found that the diffusion constant of mobile protons is two times larger and that the residence time is two times faster in chitin than that in chitosan. In addition, it is revealed from the experimental results that the transition process of dissociable hydrogen atoms between chitin and chitosan is different. To realize proton conduction in the hydrated chitosan, the hydrogen atoms of the hydronium ions (H3O+) should be transferred to another hydration water. By contrast, in hydrated chitin, the hydrogen atoms can transfer directly to the proton acceptors of neighboring chitin. It is deduced that higher proton conductivity in the hydrated chitin compared with that in the hydrated chitosan is yielded by the difference of diffusion constant and the residence time by hydrogen-atom dynamics and the location and number of proton acceptors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemical Engineering)
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21 pages, 4946 KiB  
Review
Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Applications in Neurodegenerative Disease Treatment and Integrated Omics Analysis for Successful Stem Cell Therapy
by Seok Gi Kim, Nimisha Pradeep George, Ji Su Hwang, Seokho Park, Myeong Ok Kim, Soo Hwan Lee and Gwang Lee
Bioengineering 2023, 10(5), 621; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering10050621 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2001
Abstract
Neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs), which are chronic and progressive diseases, are a growing health concern. Among the therapeutic methods, stem-cell-based therapy is an attractive approach to NDD treatment owing to stem cells’ characteristics such as their angiogenic ability, anti-inflammatory, paracrine, and anti-apoptotic effects, and [...] Read more.
Neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs), which are chronic and progressive diseases, are a growing health concern. Among the therapeutic methods, stem-cell-based therapy is an attractive approach to NDD treatment owing to stem cells’ characteristics such as their angiogenic ability, anti-inflammatory, paracrine, and anti-apoptotic effects, and homing ability to the damaged brain region. Human bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) are attractive NDD therapeutic agents owing to their widespread availability, easy attainability and in vitro manipulation and the lack of ethical issues. Ex vivo hBM-MSC expansion before transplantation is essential because of the low cell numbers in bone marrow aspirates. However, hBM-MSC quality decreases over time after detachment from culture dishes, and the ability of hBM-MSCs to differentiate after detachment from culture dishes remains poorly understood. Conventional analysis of hBM-MSCs characteristics before transplantation into the brain has several limitations. However, omics analyses provide more comprehensive molecular profiling of multifactorial biological systems. Omics and machine learning approaches can handle big data and provide more detailed characterization of hBM-MSCs. Here, we provide a brief review on the application of hBM-MSCs in the treatment of NDDs and an overview of integrated omics analysis of the quality and differentiation ability of hBM-MSCs detached from culture dishes for successful stem cell therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Advances in Stem Cell Therapy for Neurological Diseases)
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12 pages, 2403 KiB  
Article
Multifunctional Biosensing Platform Based on Nickel-Modified Laser-Induced Graphene
by Yao Tong, Yingying Zhang, Benkun Bao, Xuhui Hu, Jiuqiang Li, Han Wu, Kerong Yang, Senhao Zhang, Hongbo Yang and Kai Guo
Bioengineering 2023, 10(5), 620; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering10050620 - 21 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1922
Abstract
Nickel plating electrolytes prepared by using a simple salt solution can achieve nickel plating on laser-induced graphene (LIG) electrodes, which greatly enhances the electrical conductivity, electrochemical properties, wear resistance, and corrosion resistance of LIG. This makes the LIG–Ni electrodes well suited for electrophysiological, [...] Read more.
Nickel plating electrolytes prepared by using a simple salt solution can achieve nickel plating on laser-induced graphene (LIG) electrodes, which greatly enhances the electrical conductivity, electrochemical properties, wear resistance, and corrosion resistance of LIG. This makes the LIG–Ni electrodes well suited for electrophysiological, strain, and electrochemical sensing applications. The investigation of the mechanical properties of the LIG–Ni sensor and the monitoring of pulse, respiration, and swallowing confirmed that the sensor can sense insignificant deformations to relatively large conformal strains of skin. Modulation of the nickel-plating process of LIG–Ni, followed by chemical modification, may allow for the introduction of glucose redox catalyst Ni2Fe(CN)6 with interestingly strong catalytic effects, which gives LIG–Ni impressive glucose-sensing properties. Additionally, the chemical modification of LIG–Ni for pH and Na+ monitoring also confirmed its strong electrochemical monitoring potential, which demonstrates application prospects in the development of multiple electrochemical sensors for sweat parameters. A more uniform LIG–Ni multi-physiological sensor preparation process provides a prerequisite for the construction of an integrated multi-physiological sensor system. The sensor was validated to have continuous monitoring performance, and its preparation process is expected to form a system for non-invasive physiological parameter signal monitoring, thus contributing to motion monitoring, disease prevention, and disease diagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances of Biosensors for Biomedical Applications)
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4 pages, 199 KiB  
Editorial
Valorisation of Biomass Waste for Sustainable Bioenergy and Biofuel Production
by Pei-Ti Sun and Huadong Peng
Bioengineering 2023, 10(5), 619; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering10050619 - 21 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1596
Abstract
Although the rapid development of industrialisation has brought great benefits to our societies, waste accumulation and energy depletion have inevitably grown to be critical issues in recent decades [...] Full article
11 pages, 1596 KiB  
Article
Quantification of the Monomer Compositions of Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) and Poly(3-hydroxyvalerate) by Alkaline Hydrolysis and Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
by Kyo Saito, M. Venkateswar Reddy, Omprakash Sarkar, A. Naresh Kumar, DuBok Choi and Young-Cheol Chang
Bioengineering 2023, 10(5), 618; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering10050618 - 20 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1809
Abstract
With the growing interest in bioplastics, there is an urgent need to develop rapid analysis methods linked to production technology development. This study focused on the production of a commercially non-available homopolymer, poly(3-hydroxyvalerate) (P(3HV)), and a commercially available copolymer, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (P(3HB-co-3HV)), [...] Read more.
With the growing interest in bioplastics, there is an urgent need to develop rapid analysis methods linked to production technology development. This study focused on the production of a commercially non-available homopolymer, poly(3-hydroxyvalerate) (P(3HV)), and a commercially available copolymer, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (P(3HB-co-3HV)), through fermentation using two different bacterial strains. The bacteria Chromobacterium violaceum and Bacillus sp. CYR1 were used to produce P(3HV) and P(3HB-co-3HV), respectively. The bacterium Bacillus sp. CYR1 produced 415 mg/L of P(3HB-co-3HV) when incubated with acetic acid and valeric acid as the carbon sources, whereas the bacterium C. violaceum produced 0.198 g of P(3HV)/g dry biomass when incubated with sodium valerate as the carbon source. Additionally, we developed a fast, simple, and inexpensive method to quantify P(3HV) and P(3HB-co-3HV) using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). As the alkaline decomposition of P(3HB-co-3HV) releases 2-butenoic acid (2BE) and 2-pentenoic acid (2PE), we were able to determine the concentration using HPLC. Moreover, calibration curves were prepared using standard 2BE and 2PE, along with sample 2BE and 2PE produced by the alkaline decomposition of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and P(3HV), respectively. Finally, the HPLC results obtained by our new method were compared using gas chromatography (GC) analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Production, Volume 4)
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18 pages, 14858 KiB  
Article
Augmented Reality Surgical Navigation System Integrated with Deep Learning
by Shin-Yan Chiou, Li-Sheng Liu, Chia-Wei Lee, Dong-Hyun Kim, Mohammed A. Al-masni, Hao-Li Liu, Kuo-Chen Wei, Jiun-Lin Yan and Pin-Yuan Chen
Bioengineering 2023, 10(5), 617; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering10050617 - 20 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3886
Abstract
Most current surgical navigation methods rely on optical navigators with images displayed on an external screen. However, minimizing distractions during surgery is critical and the spatial information displayed in this arrangement is non-intuitive. Previous studies have proposed combining optical navigation systems with augmented [...] Read more.
Most current surgical navigation methods rely on optical navigators with images displayed on an external screen. However, minimizing distractions during surgery is critical and the spatial information displayed in this arrangement is non-intuitive. Previous studies have proposed combining optical navigation systems with augmented reality (AR) to provide surgeons with intuitive imaging during surgery, through the use of planar and three-dimensional imagery. However, these studies have mainly focused on visual aids and have paid relatively little attention to real surgical guidance aids. Moreover, the use of augmented reality reduces system stability and accuracy, and optical navigation systems are costly. Therefore, this paper proposed an augmented reality surgical navigation system based on image positioning that achieves the desired system advantages with low cost, high stability, and high accuracy. This system also provides intuitive guidance for the surgical target point, entry point, and trajectory. Once the surgeon uses the navigation stick to indicate the position of the surgical entry point, the connection between the surgical target and the surgical entry point is immediately displayed on the AR device (tablet or HoloLens glasses), and a dynamic auxiliary line is shown to assist with incision angle and depth. Clinical trials were conducted for EVD (extra-ventricular drainage) surgery, and surgeons confirmed the system’s overall benefit. A “virtual object automatic scanning” method is proposed to achieve a high accuracy of 1 ± 0.1 mm for the AR-based system. Furthermore, a deep learning-based U-Net segmentation network is incorporated to enable automatic identification of the hydrocephalus location by the system. The system achieves improved recognition accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 99.93%, 93.85%, and 95.73%, respectively, representing a significant improvement from previous studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artificial Intelligence in Biomedical Diagnosis and Prognosis)
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12 pages, 9676 KiB  
Technical Note
Concept for the Treatment of Class III Anomalies with a Skeletally Anchored Appliance Fabricated in the CAD/CAM Process—The MIRA Appliance
by Lutz D. Hodecker, Reinald Kühle, Frederic Weichel, Christoph J. Roser, Christopher J. Lux and Carolien A. J. Bauer
Bioengineering 2023, 10(5), 616; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering10050616 - 19 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1385
Abstract
Objective: Intermaxillary elastics, anchored skeletally, represent a promising concept for treatment in adolescent patients with skeletal Class III anomalies. A challenge in existing concepts is the survival rate of the miniscrews in the mandible or the invasiveness of the bone anchors. A novel [...] Read more.
Objective: Intermaxillary elastics, anchored skeletally, represent a promising concept for treatment in adolescent patients with skeletal Class III anomalies. A challenge in existing concepts is the survival rate of the miniscrews in the mandible or the invasiveness of the bone anchors. A novel concept, the mandibular interradicular anchor (MIRA) appliance, for improving skeletal anchorage in the mandible, will be presented and discussed. Clinical case: In a ten-year-old female patient with a moderate skeletal Class III, the novel MIRA concept, combined with maxillary protraction, was applied. This involved the use of a CAD/CAM-fabricated indirect skeletal anchorage appliance in the mandible, with interradicularly placed miniscrews distal to each canine (MIRA appliance), and a hybrid hyrax in the maxilla with paramedian placed miniscrews. The modified alt-RAMEC protocol involved an intermittent weekly activation for five weeks. Class III elastics were worn for a period of seven months. This was followed by alignment with a multi-bracket appliance. Discussion: The cephalometric analysis before and after therapy shows an improvement of the Wits value (+3.8 mm), SNA (+5°), and ANB (+3°). Dentally, a transversal postdevelopment in the maxilla (+4 mm) and a labial tip of the maxillary (+3.4°) and mandibular anterior teeth (+4.7°) with gap formation is observed. Conclusion: The MIRA appliance represents a less invasive and esthetic alternative to the existing concepts, especially with two miniscrews in the mandible per side. In addition, MIRA can be selected for complex orthodontic tasks, such as molar uprighting and mesialization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Appliance Design and Techniques in Orthodontics)
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15 pages, 3170 KiB  
Article
Conformer-Based Dental AI Patient Clinical Diagnosis Simulation Using Korean Synthetic Data Generator for Multiple Standardized Patient Scenarios
by Kangmin Kim, Chanjun Chun and Seong-Yong Moon
Bioengineering 2023, 10(5), 615; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering10050615 - 19 May 2023
Viewed by 1454
Abstract
The goal of clinical practice education is to develop the ability to apply theoretical knowledge in a clinical setting and to foster growth as a professional healthcare provider. One effective method of achieving this is through the utilization of Standardized Patients (SP) in [...] Read more.
The goal of clinical practice education is to develop the ability to apply theoretical knowledge in a clinical setting and to foster growth as a professional healthcare provider. One effective method of achieving this is through the utilization of Standardized Patients (SP) in education, which familiarizes students with real patient interviews and allows educators to assess their clinical performance skills. However, SP education faces challenges such as the cost of hiring actors and the shortage of professional educators to train them. In this paper, we aim to alleviate these issues by utilizing deep learning models to replace the actors. We employ the Conformer model for the implementation of the AI patient, and we develop a Korean SP scenario data generator to collect data for training responses to diagnostic questions. Our Korean SP scenario data generator is devised to generate SP scenarios based on the provided patient information, using pre-prepared questions and answers. In the AI patient training process, two types of data are employed: common data and personalized data. The common data are employed to develop natural general conversation skills, while personalized data, from the SP scenario, are utilized to learn specific clinical information relevant to a patient’s role. Based on these data, to evaluate the learning efficiency of the Conformer structure, a comparison was conducted with the Transformer using the BLEU score and WER as evaluation metrics. Experimental results showed that the Conformer-based model demonstrated a 3.92% and 6.74% improvement in BLEU and WER performance compared to the Transformer-based model, respectively. The dental AI patient for SP simulation presented in this paper has the potential to be applied to other medical and nursing fields, provided that additional data collection processes are conducted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosignal Processing)
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16 pages, 3791 KiB  
Article
Development of an Integrated Powered Hip and Microprocessor-Controlled Knee for a Hip–Knee–Ankle–Foot Prosthesis
by Yousef Bader, David Langlois, Natalie Baddour and Edward D. Lemaire
Bioengineering 2023, 10(5), 614; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering10050614 - 19 May 2023
Viewed by 1764
Abstract
Hip–knee–ankle–foot prostheses (HKAF) are full lower-limb devices for people with hip amputations that enable individuals to regain their mobility and move freely within their chosen environment. HKAFs typically have high rejection rates among users, as well as gait asymmetry, increased trunk anterior–posterior lean, [...] Read more.
Hip–knee–ankle–foot prostheses (HKAF) are full lower-limb devices for people with hip amputations that enable individuals to regain their mobility and move freely within their chosen environment. HKAFs typically have high rejection rates among users, as well as gait asymmetry, increased trunk anterior–posterior lean, and increased pelvic tilt. A novel integrated hip–knee (IHK) unit was designed and evaluated to address the limitations of existing solutions. This IHK combines powered hip and microprocessor-controlled knee joints into one structure, with shared electronics, sensors, and batteries. The unit is also adjustable to user leg length and alignment. ISO-10328:2016 standard mechanical proof load testing demonstrated acceptable structural safety and rigidity. Successful functional testing involved three able-bodied participants walking with the IHK in a hip prosthesis simulator. Hip, knee, and pelvic tilt angles were recorded and stride parameters were analyzed from video recordings. Participants were able to walk independently using the IHK and data showed that participants used different walking strategies. Future development of the thigh unit should include completion of a synergistic gait control system, improved battery-holding mechanism, and amputee user testing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioengineering for Physical Rehabilitation)
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7 pages, 237 KiB  
Editorial
Artificial Intelligence for Personalized Genetics and New Drug Development: Benefits and Cautions
by Crescenzio Gallo
Bioengineering 2023, 10(5), 613; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering10050613 - 19 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2273
Abstract
As the global health care system grapples with steadily rising costs, increasing numbers of admissions, and the chronic defection of doctors and nurses from the profession, appropriate measures need to be put in place to reverse this course before it is too late [...] Read more.
As the global health care system grapples with steadily rising costs, increasing numbers of admissions, and the chronic defection of doctors and nurses from the profession, appropriate measures need to be put in place to reverse this course before it is too late [...] Full article
15 pages, 3092 KiB  
Article
An Explainable Machine-Learning Model for Compensatory Reserve Measurement: Methods for Feature Selection and the Effects of Subject Variability
by Carlos N. Bedolla, Jose M. Gonzalez, Saul J. Vega, Víctor A. Convertino and Eric J. Snider
Bioengineering 2023, 10(5), 612; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering10050612 - 19 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1465
Abstract
Tracking vital signs accurately is critical for triaging a patient and ensuring timely therapeutic intervention. The patient’s status is often clouded by compensatory mechanisms that can mask injury severity. The compensatory reserve measurement (CRM) is a triaging tool derived from an [...] Read more.
Tracking vital signs accurately is critical for triaging a patient and ensuring timely therapeutic intervention. The patient’s status is often clouded by compensatory mechanisms that can mask injury severity. The compensatory reserve measurement (CRM) is a triaging tool derived from an arterial waveform that has been shown to allow for earlier detection of hemorrhagic shock. However, the deep-learning artificial neural networks developed for its estimation do not explain how specific arterial waveform elements lead to predicting CRM due to the large number of parameters needed to tune these models. Alternatively, we investigate how classical machine-learning models driven by specific features extracted from the arterial waveform can be used to estimate CRM. More than 50 features were extracted from human arterial blood pressure data sets collected during simulated hypovolemic shock resulting from exposure to progressive levels of lower body negative pressure. A bagged decision tree design using the ten most significant features was selected as optimal for CRM estimation. This resulted in an average root mean squared error in all test data of 0.171, similar to the error for a deep-learning CRM algorithm at 0.159. By separating the dataset into sub-groups based on the severity of simulated hypovolemic shock withstood, large subject variability was observed, and the key features identified for these sub-groups differed. This methodology could allow for the identification of unique features and machine-learning models to differentiate individuals with good compensatory mechanisms against hypovolemia from those that might be poor compensators, leading to improved triage of trauma patients and ultimately enhancing military and emergency medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Biomedical Signal Processing)
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5 pages, 216 KiB  
Editorial
The COVID-19 Pandemic: How Technology Is Reshaping Public Health and Medicine
by Luís Coelho, Dimitrios Glotsos and Sara Reis
Bioengineering 2023, 10(5), 611; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering10050611 - 19 May 2023
Viewed by 1403
Abstract
The outbreak of the novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has been a watershed moment in human history, causing a profound shift in the global landscape that has affected every aspect of our lives [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioengineering Techniques and Applications Against COVID-19)
11 pages, 40359 KiB  
Article
Pulp–Dentin Complex Regeneration with Cell Transplantation Technique Using Stem Cells Derived from Human Deciduous Teeth: Histological and Immunohistochemical Study in Immunosuppressed Rats
by Larissa Regina Kuntze dos Santos, André Antonio Pelegrine, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira Bueno, José Ricardo Muniz Ferreira, Antonio Carlos Aloise, Carolina Pessoa Stringheta, Elizabeth Ferreira Martinez and Rina Andréa Pelegrine
Bioengineering 2023, 10(5), 610; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering10050610 - 19 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1945
Abstract
The aim of this study was to histologically verify the performance of pulp-derived stem cells used in the pulp–dentin complex regeneration. Maxillary molars of 12 immunosuppressed rats were divided into two groups: the SC (stem cells) group, and the PBS (just standard phosphate-buffered [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to histologically verify the performance of pulp-derived stem cells used in the pulp–dentin complex regeneration. Maxillary molars of 12 immunosuppressed rats were divided into two groups: the SC (stem cells) group, and the PBS (just standard phosphate-buffered saline) group. After pulpectomy and canal preparation, the teeth received the designated materials, and the cavities were sealed. After 12 weeks, the animals were euthanized, and the specimens underwent histological processing and qualitative evaluation of intracanal connective tissue, odontoblast-like cells, intracanal mineralized tissue, and periapical inflammatory infiltrate. Immunohistochemical evaluation was performed to detect dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1). In the PBS group, an amorphous substance and remnants of mineralized tissue were observed throughout the canal, and abundant inflammatory cells were observed in the periapical region. In the SC group, an amorphous substance and remnants of mineralized tissue were observed throughout the canal; odontoblasts-like cells immunopositive for DMP1 and mineral plug were observed in the apical region of the canal; and a mild inflammatory infiltrate, intense vascularization, and neoformation of organized connective tissue were observed in the periapical region. In conclusion, the transplantation of human pulp stem cells promoted partial pulp tissue neoformation in adult rat molars. Full article
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20 pages, 2025 KiB  
Article
Transformer-Based Network with Optimization for Cross-Subject Motor Imagery Identification
by Xiyue Tan, Dan Wang, Jiaming Chen and Meng Xu
Bioengineering 2023, 10(5), 609; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering10050609 - 18 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1649
Abstract
Exploring the effective signal features of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals is an important issue in the research of brain–computer interface (BCI), and the results can reveal the motor intentions that trigger electrical changes in the brain, which has broad research prospects for feature extraction [...] Read more.
Exploring the effective signal features of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals is an important issue in the research of brain–computer interface (BCI), and the results can reveal the motor intentions that trigger electrical changes in the brain, which has broad research prospects for feature extraction from EEG data. In contrast to previous EEG decoding methods that are based solely on a convolutional neural network, the traditional convolutional classification algorithm is optimized by combining a transformer mechanism with a constructed end-to-end EEG signal decoding algorithm based on swarm intelligence theory and virtual adversarial training. The use of a self-attention mechanism is studied to expand the receptive field of EEG signals to global dependence and train the neural network by optimizing the global parameters in the model. The proposed model is evaluated on a real-world public dataset and achieves the highest average accuracy of 63.56% in cross-subject experiments, which is significantly higher than that found for recently published algorithms. Additionally, good performance is achieved in decoding motor intentions. The experimental results show that the proposed classification framework promotes the global connection and optimization of EEG signals, which can be further applied to other BCI tasks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosignal Processing)
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14 pages, 2835 KiB  
Article
OptEF-BCI: An Optimization-Based Hybrid EEG and fNIRS–Brain Computer Interface
by Muhammad Umair Ali, Kwang Su Kim, Karam Dad Kallu, Amad Zafar and Seung Won Lee
Bioengineering 2023, 10(5), 608; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering10050608 - 18 May 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1654
Abstract
Multimodal data fusion (electroencephalography (EEG) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)) has been developed as an important neuroimaging research field in order to circumvent the inherent limitations of individual modalities by combining complementary information from other modalities. This study employed an optimization-based feature selection [...] Read more.
Multimodal data fusion (electroencephalography (EEG) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)) has been developed as an important neuroimaging research field in order to circumvent the inherent limitations of individual modalities by combining complementary information from other modalities. This study employed an optimization-based feature selection algorithm to systematically investigate the complementary nature of multimodal fused features. After preprocessing the acquired data of both modalities (i.e., EEG and fNIRS), the temporal statistical features were computed separately with a 10 s interval for each modality. The computed features were fused to create a training vector. A wrapper-based binary enhanced whale optimization algorithm (E-WOA) was used to select the optimal/efficient fused feature subset using the support-vector-machine-based cost function. An online dataset of 29 healthy individuals was used to evaluate the performance of the proposed methodology. The findings suggest that the proposed approach enhances the classification performance by evaluating the degree of complementarity between characteristics and selecting the most efficient fused subset. The binary E-WOA feature selection approach showed a high classification rate (94.22 ± 5.39%). The classification performance exhibited a 3.85% increase compared with the conventional whale optimization algorithm. The proposed hybrid classification framework outperformed both the individual modalities and traditional feature selection classification (p < 0.01). These findings indicate the potential efficacy of the proposed framework for several neuroclinical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosignal Processing)
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21 pages, 3215 KiB  
Article
Optimized Solutions of Electrocardiogram Lead and Segment Selection for Cardiovascular Disease Diagnostics
by Jiguang Shi, Zhoutong Li, Wenhan Liu, Huaicheng Zhang, Qianxi Guo, Sheng Chang, Hao Wang, Jin He and Qijun Huang
Bioengineering 2023, 10(5), 607; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering10050607 - 18 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1378
Abstract
Most of the existing multi-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) detection methods are based on all 12 leads, which undoubtedly results in a large amount of calculation and is not suitable for the application in portable ECG detection systems. Moreover, the influence of different lead and [...] Read more.
Most of the existing multi-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) detection methods are based on all 12 leads, which undoubtedly results in a large amount of calculation and is not suitable for the application in portable ECG detection systems. Moreover, the influence of different lead and heartbeat segment lengths on the detection is not clear. In this paper, a novel Genetic Algorithm-based ECG Leads and Segment Length Optimization (GA-LSLO) framework is proposed, aiming to automatically select the appropriate leads and input ECG length to achieve optimized cardiovascular disease detection. GA-LSLO extracts the features of each lead under different heartbeat segment lengths through the convolutional neural network and uses the genetic algorithm to automatically select the optimal combination of ECG leads and segment length. In addition, the lead attention module (LAM) is proposed to weight the features of the selected leads, which improves the accuracy of cardiac disease detection. The algorithm is validated on the ECG data from the Huangpu Branch of Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital (defined as the SH database) and the open-source Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt diagnostic ECG database (PTB database). The accuracy for detection of arrhythmia and myocardial infarction under the inter-patient paradigm is 99.65% (95% confidence interval: 99.20–99.76%) and 97.62% (95% confidence interval: 96.80–98.16%), respectively. In addition, ECG detection devices are designed using Raspberry Pi, which verifies the convenience of hardware implementation of the algorithm. In conclusion, the proposed method achieves good cardiovascular disease detection performance. It selects the ECG leads and heartbeat segment length with the lowest algorithm complexity while ensuring classification accuracy, which is suitable for portable ECG detection devices. Full article
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19 pages, 6178 KiB  
Review
3D Bioprinting for Vascularization
by Amatullah Mir, Eugenia Lee, Wesley Shih, Sarah Koljaka, Anya Wang, Caitlin Jorgensen, Riley Hurr, Amartya Dave, Krupa Sudheendra and Narutoshi Hibino
Bioengineering 2023, 10(5), 606; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering10050606 - 18 May 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3721
Abstract
In the world of clinic treatments, 3D-printed tissue constructs have emerged as a less invasive treatment method for various ailments. Printing processes, scaffold and scaffold free materials, cells used, and imaging for analysis are all factors that must be observed in order to [...] Read more.
In the world of clinic treatments, 3D-printed tissue constructs have emerged as a less invasive treatment method for various ailments. Printing processes, scaffold and scaffold free materials, cells used, and imaging for analysis are all factors that must be observed in order to develop successful 3D tissue constructs for clinical applications. However, current research in 3D bioprinting model development lacks diverse methods of successful vascularization as a result of issues with scaling, size, and variations in printing method. This study analyzes the methods of printing, bioinks used, and analysis techniques in 3D bioprinting for vascularization. These methods are discussed and evaluated to determine the most optimal strategies of 3D bioprinting for successful vascularization. Integrating stem and endothelial cells in prints, selecting the type of bioink according to its physical properties, and choosing a printing method according to physical properties of the desired printed tissue are steps that will aid in the successful development of a bioprinted tissue and its vascularization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D-Bioprinting in Bioengineering)
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9 pages, 2516 KiB  
Communication
Refined Techniques for Enabling Long-Term Cryo-Repository Using Vitrification and Laser Warming
by Chiahsin Lin, Wen-Chung Hsieh, Kanokpron Loeslakwiboon, Cheng-Liang Huang, Ting-Chun Chen and Sujune Tsai
Bioengineering 2023, 10(5), 605; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering10050605 - 18 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1506
Abstract
Vitrification and ultrarapid laser warming are crucial for the cryopreservation of animal embryos, oocytes, and other cells of medicinal, genetic, and agricultural value. In the present study, we focused on alignment and bonding techniques for a special cryojig that combines a jig tool [...] Read more.
Vitrification and ultrarapid laser warming are crucial for the cryopreservation of animal embryos, oocytes, and other cells of medicinal, genetic, and agricultural value. In the present study, we focused on alignment and bonding techniques for a special cryojig that combines a jig tool and jig holder into one piece. This novel cryojig was used to obtain a high laser accuracy of 95% and a successful rewarming rate of 62%. The experimental results indicated that our refined device improved laser accuracy in the warming process after long-term cryo-storage through vitrification. We anticipate that our findings will lead to cryobanking applications that use vitrification and laser nanowarming to preserve cells and tissues from a wide range of species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomedical Engineering and Biomaterials)
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4 pages, 184 KiB  
Editorial
Women in Biosensors Science
by Rossana E. Madrid
Bioengineering 2023, 10(5), 603; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering10050603 - 18 May 2023
Viewed by 989
Abstract
From the first glucose biosensor from Updike and Hicks (1968), there was an explosion of research in biosensors for detecting a wide range of analytes [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women's Special Issue Series: Biosensors)
17 pages, 7319 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Artificial Intelligence-Based Applications for Mandible Segmentation: From Established Platforms to In-House-Developed Software
by Robert R. Ileșan, Michel Beyer, Christoph Kunz and Florian M. Thieringer
Bioengineering 2023, 10(5), 604; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering10050604 - 17 May 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2451
Abstract
Medical image segmentation, whether semi-automatically or manually, is labor-intensive, subjective, and needs specialized personnel. The fully automated segmentation process recently gained importance due to its better design and understanding of CNNs. Considering this, we decided to develop our in-house segmentation software and compare [...] Read more.
Medical image segmentation, whether semi-automatically or manually, is labor-intensive, subjective, and needs specialized personnel. The fully automated segmentation process recently gained importance due to its better design and understanding of CNNs. Considering this, we decided to develop our in-house segmentation software and compare it to the systems of established companies, an inexperienced user, and an expert as ground truth. The companies included in the study have a cloud-based option that performs accurately in clinical routine (dice similarity coefficient of 0.912 to 0.949) with an average segmentation time ranging from 3′54″ to 85′54″. Our in-house model achieved an accuracy of 94.24% compared to the best-performing software and had the shortest mean segmentation time of 2′03″. During the study, developing in-house segmentation software gave us a glimpse into the strenuous work that companies face when offering clinically relevant solutions. All the problems encountered were discussed with the companies and solved, so both parties benefited from this experience. In doing so, we demonstrated that fully automated segmentation needs further research and collaboration between academics and the private sector to achieve full acceptance in clinical routines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artificial Intelligence in Medical Image Processing and Segmentation)
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14 pages, 2950 KiB  
Article
Scalable and High-Throughput In Vitro Vibratory Platform for Vocal Fold Tissue Engineering Applications
by Andreea Biehl, Ramair Colmon, Anastasia Timofeeva, Ana Maria Gracioso Martins, Gregory R. Dion, Kara Peters and Donald O. Freytes
Bioengineering 2023, 10(5), 602; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering10050602 - 17 May 2023
Viewed by 1355
Abstract
The vocal folds (VFs) are constantly exposed to mechanical stimulation leading to changes in biomechanical properties, structure, and composition. The development of long-term strategies for VF treatment depends on the characterization of related cells, biomaterials, or engineered tissues in a controlled mechanical environment. [...] Read more.
The vocal folds (VFs) are constantly exposed to mechanical stimulation leading to changes in biomechanical properties, structure, and composition. The development of long-term strategies for VF treatment depends on the characterization of related cells, biomaterials, or engineered tissues in a controlled mechanical environment. Our aim was to design, develop, and characterize a scalable and high-throughput platform that mimics the mechanical microenvironment of the VFs in vitro. The platform consists of a 24-well plate fitted with a flexible membrane atop a waveguide equipped with piezoelectric speakers which allows for cells to be exposed to various phonatory stimuli. The displacements of the flexible membrane were characterized via Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV). Human VF fibroblasts and mesenchymal stem cells were seeded, exposed to various vibratory regimes, and the expression of pro-fibrotic and pro-inflammatory genes was analyzed. Compared to current bioreactor designs, the platform developed in this study can incorporate commercial assay formats ranging from 6- to 96-well plates which represents a significant improvement in scalability. This platform is modular and allows for tunable frequency regimes. Full article
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26 pages, 4178 KiB  
Review
Utilization of Engineering Advances for Detailed Biomechanical Characterization of the Mitral–Ventricular Relationship to Optimize Repair Strategies: A Comprehensive Review
by Antonia van Kampen, Jordan E. Morningstar, Guillaume Goudot, Neil Ingels, Jonathan F. Wenk, Yasufumi Nagata, Koushiar M. Yaghoubian, Russell A. Norris, Michael A. Borger, Serguei Melnitchouk, Robert A. Levine and Morten O. Jensen
Bioengineering 2023, 10(5), 601; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering10050601 - 17 May 2023
Viewed by 2089
Abstract
The geometrical details and biomechanical relationships of the mitral valve–left ventricular apparatus are very complex and have posed as an area of research interest for decades. These characteristics play a major role in identifying and perfecting the optimal approaches to treat diseases of [...] Read more.
The geometrical details and biomechanical relationships of the mitral valve–left ventricular apparatus are very complex and have posed as an area of research interest for decades. These characteristics play a major role in identifying and perfecting the optimal approaches to treat diseases of this system when the restoration of biomechanical and mechano-biological conditions becomes the main target. Over the years, engineering approaches have helped to revolutionize the field in this regard. Furthermore, advanced modelling modalities have contributed greatly to the development of novel devices and less invasive strategies. This article provides an overview and narrative of the evolution of mitral valve therapy with special focus on two diseases frequently encountered by cardiac surgeons and interventional cardiologists: ischemic and degenerative mitral regurgitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioengineering in Cardiovascular Surgery)
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12 pages, 2385 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Nutrient Limitation and Harvest Method on the Wet Preservation of Chlorella vulgaris Biomass
by Joran Verspreet, Christina M. Kuchendorf, Bärbel Ackermann and Leen Bastiaens
Bioengineering 2023, 10(5), 600; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering10050600 - 17 May 2023
Viewed by 1234
Abstract
The temporary storage of wet algae concentrates enables the decoupling in time of algae harvests and their biorefinery. However, the impact of cultivation and of the harvest conditions on algae quality during preservation is largely unknown. This study aimed to determine the impact [...] Read more.
The temporary storage of wet algae concentrates enables the decoupling in time of algae harvests and their biorefinery. However, the impact of cultivation and of the harvest conditions on algae quality during preservation is largely unknown. This study aimed to determine the impact of nutrient limitation and of harvest methods on the preservation of Chlorella vulgaris biomass. Algae were either well-fed until harvest or received no nutrients for one week, and were harvested by either batch or continuous centrifugation. The organic acid formation, lipid levels, and lipolysis were monitored. Nutrient limitation had a large impact and resulted in lower pH values (4.9 ± 0.4), high levels of lactic acid and acetic acid, and a slightly higher degree of lipid hydrolysis. Concentrates of well-fed algae had a higher pH (7.4 ± 0.2) and another pattern of fermentation products with mainly acetic acid, succinic acid, and, to a smaller extent, lactic acid and propionic acid. The effect of the harvest method was smaller, with, most often, higher lactic acid and acetic acid levels for algae harvested by continuous centrifugation than for those obtained by batch centrifugation. In conclusion, nutrient limitation, a well-known method to enhance algae lipid levels, can impact several quality attributes of algae during their wet storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemical Engineering)
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10 pages, 2019 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Pulling Angle on Rotator Cuff Mechanical Properties in a Canine In Vitro Model
by Qian Liu, Jun Qi, Weihong Zhu, Andrew R. Thoreson, Kai-Nan An, Scott P. Steinmann and Chunfeng Zhao
Bioengineering 2023, 10(5), 599; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering10050599 - 17 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1233
Abstract
The objective of this study was to examine the effect of pulling angle on time-zero mechanical properties of intact infraspinatus tendon or infraspinatus tendon repaired with the modified Mason-Allen technique in a canine model in vitro. Thirty-six canine shoulder samples were used. Twenty [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to examine the effect of pulling angle on time-zero mechanical properties of intact infraspinatus tendon or infraspinatus tendon repaired with the modified Mason-Allen technique in a canine model in vitro. Thirty-six canine shoulder samples were used. Twenty intact samples were randomly allocated into functional pull (135°) and anatomic pull (70°) groups (n = 10 per group). The remaining sixteen infraspinatus tendons were transected from the insertion and repaired using the modified Mason-Allen technique before being randomly allocated into functional pull or anatomic pull groups (n = 8 per group). Load to failure testing was performed on all specimens. The ultimate failure load and ultimate stress of the functional pulled intact tendons were significantly lower compared with anatomic pulled tendons (1310.2 ± 167.6 N vs. 1687.4 ± 228.2 N, p = 0.0005: 55.6 ± 8.4 MPa vs. 67.1 ± 13.3 MPa, p = 0.0334). For the tendons repaired with the modified Mason-Allen technique, no significant differences were observed in ultimate failure load, ultimate stress or stiffness between functional pull and anatomic pull groups. The variance of pulling angle had a significant influence on the biomechanical properties of the rotator cuff tendon in a canine shoulder model in vitro. Load to failure of the intact infraspinatus tendon was lower at the functional pulling position compared to the anatomic pulling position. This result indicates that uneven load distribution across tendon fibers under functional pull may predispose the tendon to tear. However, this mechanical character is not presented after rotator cuff repair using the modified Mason-Allen technique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomechanics and Sports Medicine)
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17 pages, 1830 KiB  
Article
Imaging Phenotypes and Evolution of Hepatic Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis on CT/MRI: A Retrospective Study of Clinical Cases and Literature Review
by Luwen Hao, Yuanqiu Li, Ziman Xiong, Yuchen Jiang, Xuemei Hu, Daoyu Hu, Zhen Li and Yaqi Shen
Bioengineering 2023, 10(5), 598; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering10050598 - 16 May 2023
Viewed by 1388
Abstract
(1) Background: pathological changes in hepatic Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) have been observed; however, corresponding imaging findings can appear vague to physicians and radiologists. The present study aimed to comprehensively illustrate the imaging findings of hepatic LCH and to investigate the evolution of [...] Read more.
(1) Background: pathological changes in hepatic Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) have been observed; however, corresponding imaging findings can appear vague to physicians and radiologists. The present study aimed to comprehensively illustrate the imaging findings of hepatic LCH and to investigate the evolution of LCH-associated lesions. (2) Methods: LCH patients with liver involvement treated at our institution were retrospectively reviewed along with prior studies in PubMed. Initial and follow-up computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were systematically reviewed, and three imaging phenotypes were created based on the lesion distribution pattern. Clinical features and prognoses were compared among the three phenotypes. Liver fibrosis was evaluated visually on T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the fibrotic areas were measured. Descriptive statistics and a comparative analysis were used to analyze the data. (3) Results: based on the lesion distribution pattern on CT/MRI scans, patients with liver involvement were categorized as the disseminated lesion phenotype, scattered lesion phenotype, and central periportal lesion phenotype. Patients with scattered lesion phenotype were typically adults, and only a few of them had hepatomegaly (npresent = 1, 1/6, 16.7%) and liver biochemical abnormalities (npresent = 2, 2/6, 33.3%); patients with central periportal lesion phenotype were typically young children, and hepatomegaly and biochemical abnormalities were more apparent in these patients than those with another phenotype; and those with the disseminated lesion phenotype were found in all age groups, and the lesions evolved rapidly on medical imaging. Follow-up MRI scans show more details and can better document the evolution of lesions than CT. T2-hypointense fibrotic changes, including the periportal halo sign (npresent = 2, 2/9, 22.2%), patchy liver parenchyma changes (npresent = 6, 6/9, 66.7%), and giant hepatic nodules close to the central portal vein (npresent = 1, 1/9, 11.1%), were found, while fibrotic changes were not observed in patients with the scattered lesion phenotype. The mean ADC value for the area of liver fibrosis in each patient was lower than the optimal cutoff for significant fibrosis (METAVIR Fibrosis Stage ≥ 2) in a previous study that assessed liver fibrosis in chronic viral hepatitis. (4) Conclusions: The infiltrative lesions and liver fibrosis of hepatic LCH can be well characterized on MRI scans with DWI. The evolution of these lesions was well demonstrated on follow-up MRI scans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosignal Processing)
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19 pages, 4130 KiB  
Article
β-TCP/S53P4 Scaffolds Obtained by Gel Casting: Synthesis, Properties, and Biomedical Applications
by Suelen Simões Amaral, Beatriz Samara de Sousa Lima, Sarah Oliveira Marco Avelino, Bruno Roberto Spirandeli, Tiago Moreira Bastos Campos, Gilmar Patrocínio Thim, Eliandra de Sousa Trichês, Renata Falchete do Prado and Luana Marotta Reis de Vasconcellos
Bioengineering 2023, 10(5), 597; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering10050597 - 16 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1431
Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the osteogenic and antimicrobial effect of bioactive glass S53P4 incorporated into β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds in vitro and the bone neoformation in vivo. β-TCP and β-TCP/S53P4 scaffolds were prepared by the gel casting method. Samples [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to investigate the osteogenic and antimicrobial effect of bioactive glass S53P4 incorporated into β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds in vitro and the bone neoformation in vivo. β-TCP and β-TCP/S53P4 scaffolds were prepared by the gel casting method. Samples were morphologically and physically characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). In vitro tests were performed using MG63 cells. American Type Culture Collection reference strains were used to determine the scaffold’s antimicrobial potential. Defects were created in the tibia of New Zealand rabbits and filled with experimental scaffolds. The incorporation of S53P4 bioglass promotes significant changes in the crystalline phases formed and in the morphology of the surface of the scaffolds. The β-TCP/S53P4 scaffolds did not demonstrate an in vitro cytotoxic effect, presented similar alkaline phosphatase activity, and induced a significantly higher protein amount when compared to β-TCP. The expression of Itg β1 in the β-TCP scaffold was higher than in the β-TCP/S53P4, and there was higher expression of Col-1 in the β-TCP/S53P4 group. Higher bone formation and antimicrobial activity were observed in the β-TCP/S53P4 group. The results confirm the osteogenic capacity of β-TCP ceramics and suggest that, after bioactive glass S53P4 incorporation, it can prevent microbial infections, demonstrating to be an excellent biomaterial for application in bone tissue engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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