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Hydrology, Volume 11, Issue 5 (May 2024) – 13 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Coal mining produces profound alterations in hydrological and pedological conditions, disturbing processes such as overland flow, infiltration, and percolation. The formation of Technosols in coal mining residue deposition areas induces changes in the water circulation in the unsaturated zone and increases the leaching of major ions and Potentially Toxic Elements (PTEs). This study was carried out through an integrative approach in the scope of the project “SHS–Soil health surrounding former mining areas: characterization, risk analysis, and intervention” to assess changes in the hydropedological conditions in an area with a coal mining waste pile that underwent self-burning. The research results express substantial contrasts regarding hydropedological zoning, including the development of different soil profiles, diverse PTE geochemistry and mineralogy… View this paper
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21 pages, 3708 KiB  
Review
A Systematic Review of Social Sustainability Indicators for Water Use along the Agricultural Value Chain
by Pascalina Matohlang Pilane, Henry Jordaan and Yonas T. Bahta
Hydrology 2024, 11(5), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology11050072 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 1224
Abstract
The concept of sustainable water use serves as an indicator of environmental, economic, and social pressure on freshwater resources globally; however, the social element of sustainability is not well researched within water-consumption studies. The objective of this paper is to consider the current [...] Read more.
The concept of sustainable water use serves as an indicator of environmental, economic, and social pressure on freshwater resources globally; however, the social element of sustainability is not well researched within water-consumption studies. The objective of this paper is to consider the current state of the literature on social sustainability indicators for water use in agriculture, as well as to describe the social (people) element of sustainability and establish water use as an element of society. By combining viewpoints, systematic literature reviews address research topics with a strength that no single work can have. From 314 papers published between 2013 and 2023, 42 papers were eligible for the review. This work employed a mixed-methods approach that included a systematic review following the (PRISMA) framework, scientific mapping through VOSviewer software (version 1.6.19), thematic reviews, and a review of the grey literature retrieved from artificial intelligence and deep learning technologies. The findings indicate that social sustainability indicators are based on environmental indicators. There are no set standards for what to consider as a social indicator of water use or for how these indictors can be measured. Life-cycle assessment and water-footprint assessment frameworks have shown progress with indicators that capture the social value of water such as productivity-reducing externalities, equity, and jobs per cubic metre of water. Full article
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18 pages, 7299 KiB  
Article
Integration of GIS and Water-Quality Index for Preliminary Assessment of Groundwater Suitability for Human Consumption and Irrigation in Semi-Arid Region
by Kaddour Benmarce, Karim Zighmi, Riheb Hadji, Younes Hamed, Matteo Gentilucci, Maurizio Barbieri and Gilberto Pambianchi
Hydrology 2024, 11(5), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology11050071 - 19 May 2024
Viewed by 1137
Abstract
The Setifian high-plains region, Northeast of Algeria, grapples with challenges in water resource management. As the water demand intensifies across a diverse range of sectors, assessing groundwater quality becomes indispensable. This article responds to the critical need for a thorough assessment of groundwater [...] Read more.
The Setifian high-plains region, Northeast of Algeria, grapples with challenges in water resource management. As the water demand intensifies across a diverse range of sectors, assessing groundwater quality becomes indispensable. This article responds to the critical need for a thorough assessment of groundwater quality in the Wadi Boussellam sub-watershed. Employing a GIS-based method, we evaluate groundwater geochemistry by estimating the Water Quality Index (WQI), offering a comprehensive overview of water consumption. The analysis of groundwater samples reveals distinct facies, including calcic bicarbonate, calcic chloride, calcic sulfate, and magnesium sulfate, contributing to an enhanced understanding of the hydrochemical composition in the Setif region. Hydrochemical indices, specifically the WQI, Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR), and Na% are applied to assess groundwater suitability for various applications. The results indicate that most crops are generally suitable for irrigation, though they advise exercising caution with regard to human consumption. This study underscores the significance of regular monitoring to avert groundwater contamination and ensure sustainable use in the Setif region, providing insights that emphasize the ongoing necessity for efforts in water resource management and the preservation of this vital resource’s quality. Full article
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19 pages, 27849 KiB  
Article
Temporal Assessment of Phosphorus Speciation in a Model Ramsar Lake System in Asia
by Anjali Venukumar, Abdugani M. Azimov, Gani M. Iztleuov, Vishnu S. Moorchilot, Usha K. Aravind, Marat I. Sataev, Valsamma J. Koshy and Charuvila T. Aravindakumar
Hydrology 2024, 11(5), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology11050070 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 907
Abstract
This study focused on monitoring phosphorus (P) concentrations in the water of the Ramsar site, Lake Vembanad, with a special focus on the mouths of the river bodies draining into the lake, a known hotspot for eutrophication. Four phosphorus fractions—total reactive phosphorus (TRP), [...] Read more.
This study focused on monitoring phosphorus (P) concentrations in the water of the Ramsar site, Lake Vembanad, with a special focus on the mouths of the river bodies draining into the lake, a known hotspot for eutrophication. Four phosphorus fractions—total reactive phosphorus (TRP), total acid hydrolysable phosphorus (TAHP), total organic phosphorus (TOP), and total phosphorus (TP)—were monitored during the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. The results revealed high levels of all monitored phosphorus fractions, with an average concentration exceeding 300 ppb P across both seasons, indicating a highly eutrophic state. Notably, TRP, TOP, and TP showed high concentrations in both the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon periods. These data suggest significant phosphorus input into the lake’s surface water, potentially triggering excessive algal growth and threatening the biodiversity of this rich wetland ecosystem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Surface Waters and Groundwaters)
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21 pages, 6155 KiB  
Article
Effects of Cascading Dams on Streamflow within the Downstream Areas of the Rufiji River Basin in Tanzania
by Samson Stephen Mwitalemi, Sameh Ahmed Kantoush and Binh Quang Nguyen
Hydrology 2024, 11(5), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology11050069 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 1019
Abstract
Despite their popularity, the construction and operation of hydropower reservoirs pose challenges to water resources. This study investigated the impacts of cascading dams on streamflow in Tanzania’s Rufiji River Basin. The SWAT model was developed to represent the entire Rufiji River Basin. The [...] Read more.
Despite their popularity, the construction and operation of hydropower reservoirs pose challenges to water resources. This study investigated the impacts of cascading dams on streamflow in Tanzania’s Rufiji River Basin. The SWAT model was developed to represent the entire Rufiji River Basin. The model simulated the streamflow for 41 years, from 1982 to 2022, and developed two main scenarios: with-dam and without-dam. To capture the influence of all dams, the results were emphasized from 2000 to 2022, when all three dams were operating. Calibration and validation were applied at the Rufiji-Stiegler and Kilombero-Swero stations with good performance. The results show that cascading dams annually decrease the streamflow by 1% at Rufiji-Stiegler station. In contrast, individually, the Mtera Dam displayed a 5% decrease while the Kidatu and Kihansi Dams exerted a 1% increase on the annual streamflow downstream at Rufiji-Stiegler. During 2000–2022, the Rufiji River Basin showed an annual reduction in streamflow contribution of 104.97 m3/s. Therefore, the reservoir’s operation significantly impacts the downstream streamflow. The findings are expected to guide policymakers, water resource managers, and environmentalists in mitigating potential adverse effects while optimizing the benefits of hydropower generation and water regulation within the region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Catchments Hydrology and Sediment Dynamics)
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25 pages, 9871 KiB  
Article
Investigating the Morphometry and Hydrometeorological Variability of a Fragile Tropical Karstic Lake of the Yucatán Peninsula: Bacalar Lagoon
by Laura Carrillo, Mario Yescas, Mario Oscar Nieto-Oropeza, Manuel Elías-Gutiérrez, Juan C. Alcérreca-Huerta, Emilio Palacios-Hernández and Oscar F. Reyes-Mendoza
Hydrology 2024, 11(5), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology11050068 - 11 May 2024
Viewed by 1238
Abstract
Comprehensive morphometric and hydrometeorological studies on Bacalar Lagoon, Mexico’s largest tropical karstic lake and a significant aquatic system of the Yucatán Peninsula, are lacking. This study provides a detailed analysis of its bathymetry, morphometry, and hydrometeorological characteristics. The lake’s main basin stretches more [...] Read more.
Comprehensive morphometric and hydrometeorological studies on Bacalar Lagoon, Mexico’s largest tropical karstic lake and a significant aquatic system of the Yucatán Peninsula, are lacking. This study provides a detailed analysis of its bathymetry, morphometry, and hydrometeorological characteristics. The lake’s main basin stretches more than 52.7 km in length, with widths varying from 0.18 km to 2.28 km. It has a volume of 554.4 million cubic meters, with an average depth of 8.85 m, reaching depths of up to 26 m in the north and featuring sub-lacustrine dolines in the south, with depths of 38 m, 48.5 m, and 63.6 m. The study reveals seasonal variations in surface water temperature, closely linked to air temperature (r = 0.89), and immediate responses of water levels to hydrometeorological events. Water level fluctuations also exhibit seasonal patterns that are correlated with regional aquifer conditions, with a lag of 2 months after seasonal rainfall. Interannual variability in rainfall and water levels was observed. From 2010 to 2012, rainfall consistently remained below its mean climatic value, due to a prolonged La Niña event, while the exceptionally wet conditions in 2020 were also associated with La Niña. Extreme and anomalous hydrometeorological events, such as those following tropical storm Cristobal in 2020, revealed the fragility of Bacalar Lagoon, causing a notable transformation in lake color and transparency, shifting it from its typical oligotrophic state to eutrophic conditions that lasted longer than a year. These color changes raise questions about the factors impacting ecological health in tropical karstic regions. Additional factors affecting water quality in the BL in 2020, such as deforestation, coastline changes, and urban growth, warrant further investigation. Our study can serve as a starting landmark. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Karst Environment and Global Change)
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25 pages, 9446 KiB  
Article
Reconstruction of a Long-Term, Reach-Scale Sediment Budget Using Lateral Channel Movement Data as a Proxy: A Case Study on the Lowland Section of the Tisza River, Hungary
by Tímea Kiss, Marcell Tóth, Gergely T. Török and György Sipos
Hydrology 2024, 11(5), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology11050067 - 9 May 2024
Viewed by 937
Abstract
Humans have influenced the sediment transport of rivers on a centurial scale. Our goal was to use the rate of lateral channel processes as a proxy to reconstruct sediment budget (SB) changes of a lowland river (Middle Tisza, Hungary) on a historical scale [...] Read more.
Humans have influenced the sediment transport of rivers on a centurial scale. Our goal was to use the rate of lateral channel processes as a proxy to reconstruct sediment budget (SB) changes of a lowland river (Middle Tisza, Hungary) on a historical scale (1838–2017). The gross sediment budget (GSB) refers to the total area of eroded and accumulated surfaces, and the net sediment budget (NSB) indicates the sediment sink or source characteristics. At the beginning (1838–1890), the artificial cut-offs increased the slope and channel erosion, but the eroded sediment deposited in the oxbows, so the reach acted as a sediment sink (NSB: +0.1–0.8 m2/m/y). Then (1890–1929), a quasi-equilibrium state developed (NSB: −0.2 m2/m/y to +0.4 m2/m/y). Later (1929–1976), the bank protections impeded lateral erosion, so the system became a sediment sink again (NSB: +0.1–0.7 m2/m/y). Finally (1976–2017), the erosional processes accelerated due to dam construction and revetment collapses, and now the river is a sediment source (NSB: −0.03 to −0.08 m2/m/y). This study proved that (1) the actual SB could not be projected in the long term, as it was heavily modified, and (2) lateral channel changes could be used as a proxy to estimate long-term SB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sediment Transport and Morphological Processes at the Watershed Scale)
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30 pages, 1637 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Monthly Streamflow Prediction Using Meteorological Factors and Machine Learning Models in the Upper Colorado River Basin
by Saichand Thota, Ayman Nassar, Soukaina Filali Boubrahimi, Shah Muhammad Hamdi and Pouya Hosseinzadeh
Hydrology 2024, 11(5), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology11050066 - 1 May 2024
Viewed by 1463
Abstract
Streamflow prediction is crucial for planning future developments and safety measures along river basins, especially in the face of changing climate patterns. In this study, we utilized monthly streamflow data from the United States Bureau of Reclamation and meteorological data (snow water equivalent, [...] Read more.
Streamflow prediction is crucial for planning future developments and safety measures along river basins, especially in the face of changing climate patterns. In this study, we utilized monthly streamflow data from the United States Bureau of Reclamation and meteorological data (snow water equivalent, temperature, and precipitation) from the various weather monitoring stations of the Snow Telemetry Network within the Upper Colorado River Basin to forecast monthly streamflow at Lees Ferry, a specific location along the Colorado River in the basin. Four machine learning models—Random Forest Regression, Long short-term memory, Gated Recurrent Unit, and Seasonal AutoRegresive Integrated Moving Average—were trained using 30 years of monthly data (1991–2020), split into 80% for training (1991–2014) and 20% for testing (2015–2020). Initially, only historical streamflow data were used for predictions, followed by including meteorological factors to assess their impact on streamflow. Subsequently, sequence analysis was conducted to explore various input-output sequence window combinations. We then evaluated the influence of each factor on streamflow by testing all possible combinations to identify the optimal feature combination for prediction. Our results indicate that the Random Forest Regression model consistently outperformed others, especially after integrating all meteorological factors with historical streamflow data. The best performance was achieved with a 24-month look-back period to predict 12 months of streamflow, yielding a Root Mean Square Error of 2.25 and R-squared (R2) of 0.80. Finally, to assess model generalizability, we tested the best model at other locations—Greenwood Springs (Colorado River), Maybell (Yampa River), and Archuleta (San Juan) in the basin. Full article
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17 pages, 5657 KiB  
Article
Use of Soil Moisture as an Indicator of Climate Change in the SUPer System
by Josicleda Domiciano Galvincio, Rodrigo de Queiroga Miranda and Gabrielly Gregorio da Luz
Hydrology 2024, 11(5), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology11050065 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1119
Abstract
Soil moisture can be an important indicator of climate change in humid and semi-arid areas. This indicator can more efficiently propose different public policies related to climate change than just using precipitation and temperature data. Given the above, the objective of this study [...] Read more.
Soil moisture can be an important indicator of climate change in humid and semi-arid areas. This indicator can more efficiently propose different public policies related to climate change than just using precipitation and temperature data. Given the above, the objective of this study is to evaluate changes in soil moisture in the state of Pernambuco during the period 1961–2021, using the System of Hydrological Response Units for Pernambuco. In this study, two river basins in the state of Pernambuco that represent the different climatic conditions of the state were chosen. The results show that in the coastal region there is a tendency towards more saturated soils, and in the semi-arid region there is a tendency towards drier soils. With these results, it is possible to conclude that public policy decisions for the economy, environment, and society must consider this vital water balance variable. Leveraging soil moisture and precipitation data makes it possible to differentiate between flood risks and landslide vulnerabilities, particularly in regions characterized by higher levels of rainfall. Monitoring soil water content in humid and semi-arid areas can significantly enhance early warning systems, thereby preventing loss of life and minimizing the socio-economic impacts of such natural events. As such, this study provides a holistic understanding of the relationship between climatic patterns, soil moisture dynamics, and the occurrence of droughts and floods, ultimately contributing to more effective disaster preparedness and response measures in Pernambuco and similar regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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22 pages, 6265 KiB  
Article
Hydrologic Sensitivity of a Critical Turkish Watershed to Inform Water Resource Management in an Altered Climate
by Furkan Yunus Emre Cevahir, Jennifer C. Adam, Mingliang Liu and Justin Sheffield
Hydrology 2024, 11(5), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology11050064 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1134
Abstract
This study introduces a novel sensitivity analysis approach to assess the resilience and susceptibility of hydrologic systems to the stresses of climate change, moving away from conventional top-down methodologies. By exploring the hydrological sensitivity of the upper Kızılırmak River basin using the Variable [...] Read more.
This study introduces a novel sensitivity analysis approach to assess the resilience and susceptibility of hydrologic systems to the stresses of climate change, moving away from conventional top-down methodologies. By exploring the hydrological sensitivity of the upper Kızılırmak River basin using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model, we employed a sensitivity-based approach as an alternative to the traditional Global Climate Model (GCM)-based methods, providing more insightful information for water managers. Considering the consistent projections of increasing temperature over this region in GCMs, the hydrologic system was perturbed to examine gradients of a more challenging climate characterized by warming and drying conditions. The sensitivity of streamflow, snow water equivalent, and evapotranspiration to temperature (T) and precipitation (P) variations under each perturbation or “reference” climate was quantified. Results indicate that streamflow responds to T negatively under all warming scenarios. As the reference climates become drier, streamflow sensitivity to P increases, indicating that meteorological drought impacts on water availability could be exacerbated. These results suggest that there will be heightened difficulty in managing water resources in the region if it undergoes both warming and drying due to the following setbacks: (1) water availability will shift away from the summer season of peak water demand due to the warming effects on the snowpack, (2) annual water availability will likely decrease due to a combination of warming and lower precipitation, and (3) streamflow sensitivity to hydroclimatic variability will increase, meaning that there will be more extreme impacts to water availability. Water managers will need to plan for a larger set of extreme conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Runoff Modelling under Climate Change)
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25 pages, 4642 KiB  
Article
A Comparative Analysis of Sediment Concentration Using Artificial Intelligence and Empirical Equations
by Muhammad Ashraf Khalid, Abdul Razzaq Ghumman and Ghufran Ahmed Pasha
Hydrology 2024, 11(5), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology11050063 - 27 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1064
Abstract
Morphological changes in canals are greatly influenced by sediment load dynamics, whose estimation is a challenging task because of the non-linear behavior of the sediment concentration variables. This study aims to compare different techniques including Artificial Intelligence Models (AIM) and empirical equations for [...] Read more.
Morphological changes in canals are greatly influenced by sediment load dynamics, whose estimation is a challenging task because of the non-linear behavior of the sediment concentration variables. This study aims to compare different techniques including Artificial Intelligence Models (AIM) and empirical equations for estimating sediment load in Upper Chenab Canal based on 10 years of sediment data from 2012 to 2022. The methodology involves utilization of a newly developed empirical equation, the Ackers and White formula and AIM including 20 neural networks with 10 training functions for both Double and Triple Layers, two Artificial Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS), Particle Swarm Optimization, and Ensemble Learning Random Forest models. Sensitivity analysis of sediment concentration variables has also been performed using various scenarios of input combinations in AIM. A state-of-the-art optimization technique has been used to identify the parameters of the empirical equation, and its performance is tested against AIM and the Ackers and White equation. To compare the performance of various models, four types of errors—correlation coefficient (R), T-Test, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and Taylor’s Diagram—have been used. The results of the study show successful application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and empirical equations to capture the non-linear behavior of sediment concentration variables and indicate that, among all models, the ANFIS outperformed in simulating the total sediment load with a high R-value of 0.958. The performance of various models in simulating sediment concentration was assessed, with notable accuracy achieved by models AIM11 and AIM21. Moreover, the newly developed equation performed better (R = 0.92) compared to the Ackers and White formula (R = 0.88). In conclusion, the study provides valuable insights into sediment concentration dynamics in canals, highlighting the effectiveness of AI models and optimization techniques. It is suggested to incorporate other AI techniques and use multiple canals data in modeling for the future. Full article
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18 pages, 14091 KiB  
Article
Hydropedological Characterization of a Coal Mining Waste Deposition Area Affected by Self-Burning
by Jorge Espinha Marques, Aracelis Narayan, Patrícia Santos, Joana Ribeiro, Sara C. Antunes, Armindo Melo, Fernando Rocha, Deolinda Flores and Catarina Mansilha
Hydrology 2024, 11(5), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology11050062 - 25 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1096
Abstract
Coal mining often produces severe environmental effects, including impacts on the soil system and, specifically, on hydropedological conditions that control the leaching of significant ions and Potentially Toxic Elements (PTEs). The research objective is to assess changes in the hydropedological conditions in an [...] Read more.
Coal mining often produces severe environmental effects, including impacts on the soil system and, specifically, on hydropedological conditions that control the leaching of significant ions and Potentially Toxic Elements (PTEs). The research objective is to assess changes in the hydropedological conditions in an area with a coal mining waste pile that underwent self-burning. An integrative approach was implemented, starting with the definition of hydropedological zoning based on field observations of soil formation factors (namely, parent material, relief, biological activity, anthropic influence, and time). The soil profile in each hydropedological zone was characterized regarding morphological features. The upper mineral horizons were sampled and characterized in terms of mineralogy and PTE geochemistry. Field measurements of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, soil water content, and hydrophobicity were performed. Afterwards, the hydrogeochemistry of leachates was determined, and the soil leaching potential was evaluated. The research outcomes express substantial differences regarding the hydropedological zones: development of different soil profiles, diverse mineralogy and PTE geochemistry, higher unsaturated hydraulic conductivity and leaching of major ions, and PTEs in soils affected by coal mining activities. Finally, a Principal Component Analysis confirmed the existence of significant contrasts according to hydropedological zoning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Approaches in Contaminant Hydrology and Groundwater Remediation)
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28 pages, 4677 KiB  
Review
Perspective of Hydrodynamics in Microbial-Induced Carbonate Precipitation: A Bibliometric Analysis and Review of Research Evolution
by Armstrong Ighodalo Omoregie, Tariq Ouahbi, Dominic Ek Leong Ong, Hazlami Fikri Basri, Lin Sze Wong and Jibril Adewale Bamgbade
Hydrology 2024, 11(5), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology11050061 - 25 Apr 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1550
Abstract
Microbial-induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) is a promising process with applications in various industries, including soil improvement, bioremediation, and concrete repair. However, comprehensive bibliometric analyses focusing on MICP research in hydrodynamics are lacking. This study analyses 1098 articles from the Scopus database (1999–2024) using [...] Read more.
Microbial-induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) is a promising process with applications in various industries, including soil improvement, bioremediation, and concrete repair. However, comprehensive bibliometric analyses focusing on MICP research in hydrodynamics are lacking. This study analyses 1098 articles from the Scopus database (1999–2024) using VOSviewer and R Studio, identifying information on publications, citations, authors, countries, journals, keyword hotspots, and research terms. Global participation from 66 countries is noted, with China and the United States leading in terms of contributions. The top-cited papers discuss the utilisation of ureolytic microorganisms to enhance soil properties, MICP mechanisms, concrete deterioration mitigation, soil and groundwater flow enhancement, biomineral distribution, and MICP treatment effects on soil hydraulic properties under varying conditions. Keywords like calcium carbonate, permeability, and Sporosarcina pasteurii are pivotal in MICP research. The co-occurrence analysis reveals thematic clusters like microbial cementation and geological properties, advancing our understanding of MICP’s interdisciplinary nature and its role in addressing environmental challenges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Soil and Hydrology)
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22 pages, 22365 KiB  
Article
A Simulation–Optimization Model for Optimal Aquifer Remediation, Using Genetic Algorithms and MODFLOW
by Yiannis Ν. Kontos
Hydrology 2024, 11(5), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology11050060 - 24 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1623
Abstract
This paper investigates the optimal remediation process in an aquifer using Modflow 6 software and genetic algorithms. A theoretical confined aquifer has been polluted over a long period of time by unnoticed leakage in a pipeline conveying leachate from an adjacent landfill to [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the optimal remediation process in an aquifer using Modflow 6 software and genetic algorithms. A theoretical confined aquifer has been polluted over a long period of time by unnoticed leakage in a pipeline conveying leachate from an adjacent landfill to a wastewater treatment plant. When the extended leakage and groundwater pollution are discovered, the optimal planning of the remediation strategy is investigated using the pump-and-treat method or/and hydrodynamic control of the pollution. The practical goal is to find the optimal locations and flow rates of two additional pumping wells, which will pump the polluted water or/and control pollution, protecting an existing drinking water pumping well, securing its fully operational mode even during the remediation process with the minimum possible cost, simply represented by the pumped water volume of the additional wells. The remediation process is considered complete when the maximum concentration in the aquifer drops below a certain limit. The Modflow software (handled by the Flopy Python package) simulates the flow field and advective–dispersive mass transport, and a genetic algorithm is used as the optimization tool. The coupled simulation–optimization model, Modflow-GA, complemented by a sophisticated post-processing results analysis, provides optimal and alternate sub-optimal remediation strategies for the decision makers to select from. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Pollution: Sources, Mechanisms, and Prevention)
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