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Toxics, Volume 7, Issue 2 (June 2019) – 18 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Proteins are subject to modification by electrophiles, giving insight into environmental agents and [...] Read more.
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Biological Evaluation of DNA Biomarkers in a Chemically Defined and Site-Specific Manner
Toxics 2019, 7(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics7020036 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 981
Abstract
As described elsewhere in this Special Issue on biomarkers, much progress has been made in the detection of modified DNA within organisms at endogenous and exogenous levels of exposure to chemical species, including putative carcinogens and chemotherapeutic agents. Advances in the detection of [...] Read more.
As described elsewhere in this Special Issue on biomarkers, much progress has been made in the detection of modified DNA within organisms at endogenous and exogenous levels of exposure to chemical species, including putative carcinogens and chemotherapeutic agents. Advances in the detection of damaged or unnatural bases have been able to provide correlations to support or refute hypotheses between the level of exposure to oxidative, alkylative, and other stresses, and the resulting DNA damage (lesion formation). However, such stresses can form a plethora of modified nucleobases, and it is therefore difficult to determine the individual contribution of a particular modification to alter a cell’s genetic fate, as measured in the form of toxicity by stalled replication past the damage, by subsequent mutation, and by lesion repair. Chemical incorporation of a modification at a specific site within a vector (site-specific mutagenesis) has been a useful tool to deconvolute what types of damage quantified in biologically relevant systems may lead to toxicity and/or mutagenicity, thereby allowing researchers to focus on the most relevant biomarkers that may impact human health. Here, we will review a sampling of the DNA modifications that have been studied by shuttle vector techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers of Environmental Toxicants)
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Open AccessArticle
Bisphenol S Modulates Type 1 Diabetes Development in Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) Mice with Diet- and Sex-Related Effects
Toxics 2019, 7(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics7020035 - 23 Jun 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1053
Abstract
Bisphenol S (BPS) is a common replacement for bisphenol A (BPA) in plastics, which has resulted in widespread human exposure. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease resulting from pancreatic β-cell destruction and has been increasing in incidence globally. Because of the [...] Read more.
Bisphenol S (BPS) is a common replacement for bisphenol A (BPA) in plastics, which has resulted in widespread human exposure. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease resulting from pancreatic β-cell destruction and has been increasing in incidence globally. Because of the similarities (e.g., endocrine disrupting) between BPS and BPA, and the fact that BPA was previously shown to accelerate T1D development in female non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, it was hypothesized that BPS could contribute to the increasing T1D incidence by altering immunity with sex-biased responses. Adult female non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice were orally administered BPS at environmentally relevant doses (3, 30, 150 and 300 μg/kg), and males were given 0 or 300 μg/kg BPS. Females following 30 μg/kg BPS treatment on a soy-based diet had significantly delayed T1D development at the end of the study and decreased non-fasting blood glucose levels (BGLs) during the study. In contrast, BPS-exposed males on a soy-based diet showed an increased insulin resistance and varied BGLs. This might be a mixture effect with phytoestrogens, since males on a phytoestrogen-free diet showed improved glucose tolerance and decreased insulin resistance and CD25+ T cells. Additionally, while BPS altered BGLs in soy-based diet mice, minimal effects were observed concerning their immunotoxicity. Thus, BPS had sex- and diet-dependent effects on T1D and glucose homeostasis, which were likely caused by other mechanisms in addition to immunomodulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Toxicology and Public Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Heavy Metals in Biota in Delaware Bay, NJ: Developing a Food Web Approach to Contaminants
Toxics 2019, 7(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics7020034 - 13 Jun 2019
Viewed by 1107
Abstract
Understanding the relationship between heavy metal and selenium levels in biota and their foods is important, but often difficult to determine because animals eat a variety of organisms. Yet such information is critical to managing species populations, ecological integrity, and risk to receptors [...] Read more.
Understanding the relationship between heavy metal and selenium levels in biota and their foods is important, but often difficult to determine because animals eat a variety of organisms. Yet such information is critical to managing species populations, ecological integrity, and risk to receptors (including humans) from consumption of certain prey. We examine levels of cadmium, lead, mercury, and selenium in biota from Delaware Bay (New Jersey, USA) to begin construction of a “springtime” food web that focuses on shorebirds. Horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) eggs are one of the key components at the base of the food web, and crab spawning in spring provides a food resource supporting a massive stopover of shorebirds. Fish and other biota also forage on the crab eggs, and a complex food web leads directly to top-level predators such as bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) and striped bass (Morone saxatilis), both of which are consumed by egrets, eagles, ospreys (Pandion haliaetus), and humans. Metal levels in tissues were generally similar in algae, invertebrates, and small fish, and these were similar to those in blood of shorebirds (but not feathers). There was a significant direct relationship between the levels of metals in eggs of horseshoe crabs and mean metal levels in the blood of four species of shorebirds. Metal levels in shorebird feathers were higher than those in blood (except for selenium), reflecting sequestration of metals in feathers during their formation. Levels in feathers of laughing gulls (Leucophaeus atricilla) were similar to those in feathers of shorebirds (except for selenium). Selenium bears special mention as levels were significantly higher in the blood of all shorebird species than in other species in the food web, and were similar to levels in their feathers. Levels of metals in bluefish and striped bass were similar or higher than those found in the blood of shorebirds (except for selenium). The mean levels of cadmium, lead, and mercury in the blood and feathers of shorebirds were below any effect levels, but selenium levels in the blood and feathers of shorebirds were higher than the sublethal effect levels for birds. This is a cause for concern, and warrants further examination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Risk Assessment and Risk Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Consumption of Minerals, Toxic Metals and Hydroxymethylfurfural: Analysis of Infant Foods and Formulae
Toxics 2019, 7(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics7020033 - 08 Jun 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1300
Abstract
Infant foods and formulae may contain toxic substances and elements which can be neo-formed contaminants or derived from raw materials or processing. The content of minerals, toxic elements, and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in infant foods and formulae were evaluated. The effect of storage temperature [...] Read more.
Infant foods and formulae may contain toxic substances and elements which can be neo-formed contaminants or derived from raw materials or processing. The content of minerals, toxic elements, and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in infant foods and formulae were evaluated. The effect of storage temperature on HMF formation in infant formulae and its potential as a quality parameter was also evaluated. Prune-based foods contained the highest HMF content. HMF significantly increased when the storage temperature was elevated to 30 °C for 21 days. All trace elements were present in adequate amounts, while the concentration of nickel was higher when compared to those of other studies. The study indicates that HMF can be used as a quality indicator for product shelf-life and that the concentrations of minerals and toxic elements vary greatly due to the diverse compositions of foods and formulae. Such contaminants need to be monitored as infants represent a vulnerable group compared to adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Chemical Contaminants in Food)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Bioanalytical and Mass Spectrometric Methods for Aldehyde Profiling in Biological Fluids
Toxics 2019, 7(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics7020032 - 04 Jun 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1408
Abstract
Human exposure to aldehydes is implicated in multiple diseases including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative disorders (i.e., Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Diseases), and cancer. Because these compounds are strong electrophiles, they can react with nucleophilic sites in DNA and proteins to form reversible and irreversible [...] Read more.
Human exposure to aldehydes is implicated in multiple diseases including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative disorders (i.e., Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Diseases), and cancer. Because these compounds are strong electrophiles, they can react with nucleophilic sites in DNA and proteins to form reversible and irreversible modifications. These modifications, if not eliminated or repaired, can lead to alteration in cellular homeostasis, cell death and ultimately contribute to disease pathogenesis. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the methods and applications of aldehyde exposure measurements, with a particular focus on bioanalytical and mass spectrometric techniques, including recent advances in mass spectrometry (MS)-based profiling methods for identifying potential biomarkers of aldehyde exposure. We discuss the various derivatization reagents used to capture small polar aldehydes and methods to quantify these compounds in biological matrices. In addition, we present emerging mass spectrometry-based methods, which use high-resolution accurate mass (HR/AM) analysis for characterizing carbonyl compounds and their potential applications in molecular epidemiology studies. With the availability of diverse bioanalytical methods presented here including simple and rapid techniques allowing remote monitoring of aldehydes, real-time imaging of aldehydic load in cells, advances in MS instrumentation, high performance chromatographic separation, and improved bioinformatics tools, the data acquired enable increased sensitivity for identifying specific aldehydes and new biomarkers of aldehyde exposure. Finally, the combination of these techniques with exciting new methods for single cell analysis provides the potential for detection and profiling of aldehydes at a cellular level, opening up the opportunity to minutely dissect their roles and biological consequences in cellular metabolism and diseases pathogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers of Environmental Toxicants)
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Open AccessArticle
Levels of Cadmium in Human Mandibular Bone
Toxics 2019, 7(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics7020031 - 04 Jun 2019
Viewed by 1145
Abstract
Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental toxicant that accumulates in bone and alters bone turnover and metabolism. Periodontal disease is characterized by tooth loss and tissue destruction, specifically, loss of supporting bone around the teeth. We have previously shown that Cd causes loss of [...] Read more.
Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental toxicant that accumulates in bone and alters bone turnover and metabolism. Periodontal disease is characterized by tooth loss and tissue destruction, specifically, loss of supporting bone around the teeth. We have previously shown that Cd causes loss of dental alveolar (tooth supporting) bone in a rodent model of long-term Cd poisoning. The overall goal of this study was to determine the possible association between levels of Cd in alveolar bone and evidence of periodontal disease in human cadavers. The extent of Cd accumulation in human mandible samples was analyzed. Levels of Cd in mandibular alveolar bone were compared to those in basal bone as well as the renal cortex in samples obtained from the cadavers. Alveolar bone contained significantly higher levels of Cd when compared to basal bone (p < 0.01). Cd levels in mandibular bone were significantly higher in female compared to male cadavers (p < 0.05). The kidney cortex had greater than 15-fold higher Cd levels compared to mandible bone. Additional analyses showed a possible association between levels of Cd in basal bone and the presence of periodontal disease in cadavers from which the samples were obtained. This study shows that Cd accumulates to relatively high levels within alveolar bone as compared to basal bone in the mandible and thus may have a significant and direct effect in the progression of changes in bone associated with periodontal disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Toxicology and Public Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Quality Indicators and Possible Ecological Risks of Heavy Metals in the Sediments of three Semi-closed East Mediterranean Gulfs
Toxics 2019, 7(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics7020030 - 29 May 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1276
Abstract
Pollution with copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr), and nickel (Ni) heavy metals of the surface sediments collected from three semi-closed East Mediterranean Gulfs, namely Kavala, Strymonikos, and Ierissos Gulfs, North Aegean Sea, Greece, was investigated to evaluate potential benthic ecological [...] Read more.
Pollution with copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr), and nickel (Ni) heavy metals of the surface sediments collected from three semi-closed East Mediterranean Gulfs, namely Kavala, Strymonikos, and Ierissos Gulfs, North Aegean Sea, Greece, was investigated to evaluate potential benthic ecological risks. The mean concentrations of the studied metals decrease according to the order: Zn > Pb > Cr > Ni > Cu (176.50, 166.23, 127.41, 43.12, and 33.64 mg kg−1 dry weight). Quality indicators and possible ecological risks for metals in surface sediments were evaluated at 60 sampling sites of these three gulfs using the contamination factor (CF), the contamination degree (CD), the pollution load index (PLI), the geoaccumulation index (Igeo), the potential risk factor (PRFi), and the potential ecological risk index (PERI). Based on Igeo, the Ierissos Gulf sampling sites IER 2, 3, 7, and 9 exhibit moderate Pb pollution, whereas the sampling sites IER 6 and 8 show moderate to strong and strong Pb pollution, respectively. Based on the PRFi and PERI, the studied heavy metals did not pose any significant environmental risks for most of the investigated sites except IER 6 and 8 sampling sites, which may pose considerable environmental risk for Pb. To evaluate potential sources for each metal, multivariate techniques including hierarchical cluster analysis and ANOVA were used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Risk Assessment and Risk Management)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Protein Adductomics: Analytical Developments and Applications in Human Biomonitoring
Toxics 2019, 7(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics7020029 - 25 May 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1611
Abstract
Proteins contain many sites that are subject to modification by electrophiles. Detection and characterisation of these modifications can give insights into environmental agents and endogenous processes that may be contributing factors to chronic human diseases. An untargeted approach, utilising mass spectrometry to detect [...] Read more.
Proteins contain many sites that are subject to modification by electrophiles. Detection and characterisation of these modifications can give insights into environmental agents and endogenous processes that may be contributing factors to chronic human diseases. An untargeted approach, utilising mass spectrometry to detect modified amino acids or peptides, has been applied to blood proteins haemoglobin and albumin, focusing in particular on the N-terminal valine residue of haemoglobin and the cysteine-34 residue in albumin. Technical developments to firstly detect simultaneously multiple adducts at these sites and then subsequently to identify them are reviewed here. Recent studies in which the methods have been applied to biomonitoring human exposure to environmental toxicants are described. With advances in sensitivity, high-throughput handling of samples and robust quality control, these methods have considerable potential for identifying causes of human chronic disease and of identifying individuals at risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers of Environmental Toxicants)
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Open AccessArticle
Antioxidant and Cytoprotective Effect of Piper aduncum L. against Sodium Fluoride (NaF)-Induced Toxicity in Albino Mice
Toxics 2019, 7(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics7020028 - 16 May 2019
Viewed by 1351
Abstract
Piper aduncum, commonly known as matico, is a plant that grows in the mountainous and coastal regions of Peru, and is studied for its antimicrobial properties and various ethnopharmacological uses. The main objective of this study was to determine the cytoprotective and [...] Read more.
Piper aduncum, commonly known as matico, is a plant that grows in the mountainous and coastal regions of Peru, and is studied for its antimicrobial properties and various ethnopharmacological uses. The main objective of this study was to determine the cytoprotective and antioxidant effects of the methanolic extract of Piper aduncum leaves in Mus musculus previously administered with sodium fluoride (NaF) using the Micronucleus test and the Comet assay. The extract was administrated orally in four different concentrations: 150, 300, 600, and 1200 mg/Kg for ten days. At the 11th day, a single dose of NaF was administrated via intraperitoneal at 20 mg/Kg. The genotoxicity study was performed with mice from the strain BALB/c, using the Micronucleus test on bone marrow and the Comet assay on peripheral blood according to OECD guidelines 474 and 489, respectively. The statistical analysis was performed by median analysis with ANOVA. Significant differences were found in Micronucleus frequency between the highest concentrations of Piper aduncum and NaF. The Comet assay showed significant reduction of NaF-induced damage on erythrocytes depending on the different concentrations of the extract which were evaluated in this study. It is concluded that the methanolic extract of P. aduncum leaves has cytoprotective and antioxidant activity against sodium fluoride. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Toxicology and Public Health)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Radiocarbon Tracers in Toxicology and Medicine: Recent Advances in Technology and Science
Toxics 2019, 7(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics7020027 - 09 May 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1244
Abstract
This review summarizes recent developments in radiocarbon tracer technology and applications. Technologies covered include accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), including conversion of samples to graphite, and rapid combustion to carbon dioxide to enable direct liquid sample analysis, coupling to HPLC for real-time AMS analysis, [...] Read more.
This review summarizes recent developments in radiocarbon tracer technology and applications. Technologies covered include accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), including conversion of samples to graphite, and rapid combustion to carbon dioxide to enable direct liquid sample analysis, coupling to HPLC for real-time AMS analysis, and combined molecular mass spectrometry and AMS for analyte identification and quantitation. Laser-based alternatives, such as cavity ring down spectrometry, are emerging to enable lower cost, higher throughput measurements of biological samples. Applications covered include radiocarbon dating, use of environmental atomic bomb pulse radiocarbon content for cell and protein age determination and turnover studies, and carbon source identification. Low dose toxicology applications reviewed include studies of naphthalene-DNA adduct formation, benzo[a]pyrene pharmacokinetics in humans, and triclocarban exposure and risk assessment. Cancer-related studies covered include the use of radiocarbon-labeled cells for better defining mechanisms of metastasis and the use of drug-DNA adducts as predictive biomarkers of response to chemotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers of Environmental Toxicants)
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Open AccessArticle
The Associations between Immunological Reactivity to the Haptenation of Unconjugated Bisphenol A to Albumin and Protein Disulfide Isomerase with Alpha-Synuclein Antibodies
Toxics 2019, 7(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics7020026 - 06 May 2019
Viewed by 2142
Abstract
Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) have increased susceptibility to bisphenol A (BPA) exposure since they have an impaired biotransformation capacity to metabolize BPA. PD subjects have reduced levels of conjugated BPA compared to controls. Reduced ability to conjugate BPA provides increased opportunity for [...] Read more.
Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) have increased susceptibility to bisphenol A (BPA) exposure since they have an impaired biotransformation capacity to metabolize BPA. PD subjects have reduced levels of conjugated BPA compared to controls. Reduced ability to conjugate BPA provides increased opportunity for unconjugated BPA to bind to albumin in human serum and protein disulfide isomerase on neurons. Once unconjugated BPA binds to proteins, it changes the allosteric structure of the newly configured protein leading to protein misfolding and the ability of the newly configured protein to act as a neoantigen. Once this neoantigen is formed, the immune system produces antibodies against it. The goal of our research was to investigate associations between unconjugated BPA bound to human serum albumin (BPA–HSA) antibodies and alpha-synuclein antibodies and between Protein Disulfide Isomerase (PDI) antibodies and alpha-synuclein antibodies. Enzyme–linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine the occurrences of alpha-synuclein antibodies, antibodies to BPA–HSA adducts, and PDI antibodies in the sera of blood donors. Subjects that exhibited high levels of unconjugated BPA–HSA antibodies or PDI antibodies had correlations and substantial risk for also exhibiting high levels of alpha-synuclein antibodies (p < 0.0001). We conclude that there are significant associations and risks between antibodies to BPA–HSA adducts and PDI antibodies for developing alpha-synuclein antibodies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Toxicants and Neurological Disease)
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Open AccessEditorial
Cadmium Sources and Toxicity
Toxics 2019, 7(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics7020025 - 06 May 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2095
Abstract
This special issue of Toxics, Cadmium (Cd) sources and toxicity, consists of one comprehensive review [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cadmium Sources and Toxicity) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle
A Neurodevelopmental Model of Combined Pyrethroid and Chronic Stress Exposure
Toxics 2019, 7(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics7020024 - 02 May 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1230
Abstract
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood and previous studies indicate the dopamine system plays a major role in ADHD pathogenesis. Two environmental exposures independently associated with dopaminergic dysfunction and ADHD risk include exposure to deltamethrin, [...] Read more.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood and previous studies indicate the dopamine system plays a major role in ADHD pathogenesis. Two environmental exposures independently associated with dopaminergic dysfunction and ADHD risk include exposure to deltamethrin, a pyrethroid insecticide, and chronic stress. We hypothesized that combined neurodevelopmental exposure to both deltamethrin and corticosterone (CORT), the major stress hormone in rodents, would result in additive changes within the dopamine system. To study this, we developed a novel dual exposure paradigm and exposed pregnant C57BL/6 dams to 3 mg/kg deltamethrin through gestation and weaning, and their offspring to 25 μg/mL CORT dissolved in the drinking water through adulthood. Midbrain RNA expression as well as striatal and cortical protein expression of key dopaminergic components were investigated, in addition to ADHD-like behavioral tasks and electrochemical dopamine dynamics via fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. Given the well-described sexual dimorphism of ADHD, males and females were assessed separately. Males exposed to deltamethrin had significantly decreased midbrain Pitx3 expression, decreased cortical tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression, increased activity in the Y maze, and increased dopamine uptake rate in the dorsal striatum. These effects did not occur in males exposed to CORT only, or in males exposed to both deltamethrin and CORT, suggesting that CORT may attenuate these effects. Additionally, deltamethrin- and CORT-exposed females did not display these dopaminergic features, which indicates these changes are sex-specific. Our results show dopaminergic changes from the RNA through the functional level. Moreover, these data illustrate the importance of testing multiple environmental exposures together to better understand how combined exposures that occur in certain vulnerable populations could affect similar neurodevelopmental systems, as well as the importance of studying sex differences of these alterations. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Xenobiotics in Developmental Neurotoxicity)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of the Respiratory Toxicity and Total Cholinesterase Activities in Dimethyl Versus Diethyl Paraoxon-Poisoned Rats
Toxics 2019, 7(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics7020023 - 16 Apr 2019
Viewed by 993
Abstract
The chemical structure of organophosphate compounds (OPs) is a well-known factor which modifies the acute toxicity of these compounds. We compared ventilation at rest and cholinesterase activities in male Sprague-Dawley rats poisoned with dimethyl paraoxon (DMPO) and diethyl paraoxon (DEPO) at a subcutaneous [...] Read more.
The chemical structure of organophosphate compounds (OPs) is a well-known factor which modifies the acute toxicity of these compounds. We compared ventilation at rest and cholinesterase activities in male Sprague-Dawley rats poisoned with dimethyl paraoxon (DMPO) and diethyl paraoxon (DEPO) at a subcutaneous dose corresponding to 50% of the median lethal dose (MLD). Ventilation at rest was recorded by whole body plethysmography. Total cholinesterase activities were determined by radiometric assay. Both organophosphates decreased significantly the respiratory rate, resulting from an increase in expiratory time. Dimethyl-induced respiratory toxicity spontaneously reversed within 120 min post-injection. Diethyl-induced respiratory toxicity was long-lasting, more than 180 min post-injection. Both organophosphates decreased cholinesterase activities from 10 to 180 min post-injection with the same degree of inhibition of total cholinesterase within an onset at the same times after injection. There were no significant differences in residual cholinesterase activities between dimethyl and diethyl paraoxon groups at any time. The structure of the alkoxy-group is a determinant factor of the late phase of poisoning, conditioning duration of toxicity without significant effects on the magnitude of alteration of respiratory parameters. For same duration and magnitude of cholinesterase inhibition, there was a strong discrepancy in the time-course of effects between the two compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicity of Chemical Mixtures)
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Open AccessCorrection
Correction: Takaoka, S., et al. Survey of the Extent of the Persisting Effects of Methylmercury Pollution on the Inhabitants around the Shiranui Sea, Japan. Toxics 2018, 6, 39
Toxics 2019, 7(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics7020022 - 11 Apr 2019
Viewed by 1674
Abstract
The authors wish to make the following corrections to this paper [...] Full article
Open AccessReview
A Review of Biomonitoring of Phthalate Exposures
Toxics 2019, 7(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics7020021 - 05 Apr 2019
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2568
Abstract
Phthalates (diesters of phthalic acid) are widely used as plasticizers and additives in many consumer products. Laboratory animal studies have reported the endocrine-disrupting and reproductive effects of phthalates, and human exposure to this class of chemicals is a concern. Several phthalates have been [...] Read more.
Phthalates (diesters of phthalic acid) are widely used as plasticizers and additives in many consumer products. Laboratory animal studies have reported the endocrine-disrupting and reproductive effects of phthalates, and human exposure to this class of chemicals is a concern. Several phthalates have been recognized as substances of high concern. Human exposure to phthalates occurs mainly via dietary sources, dermal absorption, and air inhalation. Phthalates are excreted as conjugated monoesters in urine, and some phthalates, such as di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), undergo secondary metabolism, including oxidative transformation, prior to urinary excretion. The occurrence of phthalates and their metabolites in urine, serum, breast milk, and semen has been widely reported. Urine has been the preferred matrix in human biomonitoring studies, and concentrations on the order of several tens to hundreds of nanograms per milliliter have been reported for several phthalate metabolites. Metabolites of diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl- (DBP) and diisobutyl- (DiBP) phthalates, and DEHP were the most abundant compounds measured in urine. Temporal trends in phthalate exposures varied among countries. In the United States (US), DEHP exposure has declined since 2005, whereas DiNP exposure has increased. In China, DEHP exposure has increased since 2000. For many phthalates, exposures in children are higher than those in adults. Human epidemiological studies have shown a significant association between phthalate exposures and adverse reproductive outcomes in women and men, type II diabetes and insulin resistance, overweight/obesity, allergy, and asthma. This review compiles biomonitoring studies of phthalates and exposure doses to assess health risks from phthalate exposures in populations across the globe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers of Environmental Toxicants)
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Open AccessEditorial
Advances in Methylmercury Toxicology and Risk Assessment
Toxics 2019, 7(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics7020020 - 01 Apr 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1371
Abstract
Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant that affects the health of both humans and ecosystems [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Protective Effects of Centella asiatica on Cognitive Deficits Induced by D-gal/AlCl3 via Inhibition of Oxidative Stress and Attenuation of Acetylcholinesterase Level
Toxics 2019, 7(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics7020019 - 30 Mar 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1216
Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with cholinergic dysfunctions and impaired redox homeostasis. The plant Centella asiatica (CA) is renowned for its nutritional benefits and herbal formulas for promoting health, enhancing cognition, and its neuroprotective effects. The present study aims to [...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with cholinergic dysfunctions and impaired redox homeostasis. The plant Centella asiatica (CA) is renowned for its nutritional benefits and herbal formulas for promoting health, enhancing cognition, and its neuroprotective effects. The present study aims to investigate the protective role of CA on D-gal/AlCl3-induced cognitive deficits in rats. The rats were divided into six groups and administered with donepezil 1 mg/kg/day, CA (200, 400, and 800 mg/kg/day) and D-gal 60 mg/kg/day + AlCl3 200 mg/kg/day for 10 weeks. The ethology of the rats was evaluated by the Morris water maze test. The levels of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), phosphorylated tau (P-tau), malondialdehyde (MDA) and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Additionally, the ultrastructure of the prefrontal cortex of the rats’ was observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Rats administered with D-gal/AlCl3 exhibited cognitive deficits, decreased activities of SOD, and marked increase in AChE and MDA levels. Further, prominent alterations in the ultrastructure of the prefrontal cortex were observed. Conversely, co-administration of CA with D-gal/AlCl3 improved cognitive impairment, decreased AChE levels, attenuated the oxidative stress in hippocampus and cerebral cortex, and prevented ultrastructural alteration of neurons in the prefrontal cortex. Irrespective of the dose of CA administered, the protective effects were comparable to donepezil. In conclusion, this study suggests that CA attenuated the cognitive deficits in rats by restoring cholinergic function, attenuating oxidative stress, and preventing the morphological aberrations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicity of Chemical Mixtures)
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