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Open AccessArticle

Consumption of Minerals, Toxic Metals and Hydroxymethylfurfural: Analysis of Infant Foods and Formulae

1
Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Malta, Msida MSD 2080, Malta
2
Division of Rural Sciences and Food Systems, Institute of Earth Systems, University of Malta, Msida MSD 2080, Malta
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxics 2019, 7(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics7020033
Received: 26 May 2019 / Revised: 2 June 2019 / Accepted: 6 June 2019 / Published: 8 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Chemical Contaminants in Food)
Infant foods and formulae may contain toxic substances and elements which can be neo-formed contaminants or derived from raw materials or processing. The content of minerals, toxic elements, and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in infant foods and formulae were evaluated. The effect of storage temperature on HMF formation in infant formulae and its potential as a quality parameter was also evaluated. Prune-based foods contained the highest HMF content. HMF significantly increased when the storage temperature was elevated to 30 °C for 21 days. All trace elements were present in adequate amounts, while the concentration of nickel was higher when compared to those of other studies. The study indicates that HMF can be used as a quality indicator for product shelf-life and that the concentrations of minerals and toxic elements vary greatly due to the diverse compositions of foods and formulae. Such contaminants need to be monitored as infants represent a vulnerable group compared to adults. View Full-Text
Keywords: infant formulae; infant foods; minerals; toxic metals; hydroxymethylfurfural; storage conditions; safety infant formulae; infant foods; minerals; toxic metals; hydroxymethylfurfural; storage conditions; safety
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vella, C.; Attard, E. Consumption of Minerals, Toxic Metals and Hydroxymethylfurfural: Analysis of Infant Foods and Formulae. Toxics 2019, 7, 33.

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