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Open AccessArticle

Levels of Cadmium in Human Mandibular Bone

1
College of Dental Medicine – Illinois, Midwestern University, 555 31st Street, Science Hall, Room 211-J, Downers Grove, IL 60515, USA
2
Department of Pharmacology, College of Graduate Studies, Midwestern University, Downers Grove, IL 60515, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxics 2019, 7(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics7020031
Received: 9 May 2019 / Revised: 29 May 2019 / Accepted: 31 May 2019 / Published: 4 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Toxicology and Public Health)
Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental toxicant that accumulates in bone and alters bone turnover and metabolism. Periodontal disease is characterized by tooth loss and tissue destruction, specifically, loss of supporting bone around the teeth. We have previously shown that Cd causes loss of dental alveolar (tooth supporting) bone in a rodent model of long-term Cd poisoning. The overall goal of this study was to determine the possible association between levels of Cd in alveolar bone and evidence of periodontal disease in human cadavers. The extent of Cd accumulation in human mandible samples was analyzed. Levels of Cd in mandibular alveolar bone were compared to those in basal bone as well as the renal cortex in samples obtained from the cadavers. Alveolar bone contained significantly higher levels of Cd when compared to basal bone (p < 0.01). Cd levels in mandibular bone were significantly higher in female compared to male cadavers (p < 0.05). The kidney cortex had greater than 15-fold higher Cd levels compared to mandible bone. Additional analyses showed a possible association between levels of Cd in basal bone and the presence of periodontal disease in cadavers from which the samples were obtained. This study shows that Cd accumulates to relatively high levels within alveolar bone as compared to basal bone in the mandible and thus may have a significant and direct effect in the progression of changes in bone associated with periodontal disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: cadmium; bone; mandible; periodontal disease; bioaccumulation; body burden; gender differences; One Health cadmium; bone; mandible; periodontal disease; bioaccumulation; body burden; gender differences; One Health
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Browar, A.W.; Leavitt, L.L.; Prozialeck, W.C.; Edwards, J.R. Levels of Cadmium in Human Mandibular Bone. Toxics 2019, 7, 31.

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