Next Issue
Volume 13, July-1
Previous Issue
Volume 13, June-1
 
 

Foods, Volume 13, Issue 12 (June-2 2024) – 168 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The impact of microalgae and their bioactive compounds on human health and well-being has been extensively reported in the literature. However, there is still a gap regarding the processing and stability of microalgal bioactive compounds to improve their application in the food industry. The main goal of the present work is to point out how to overcome technological challenges in enhancing the stability of bioactive compounds from microalgae for optimal food applications. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
21 pages, 3024 KiB  
Article
Preliminary Investigation of Fruit Mash Inoculation with Pure Yeast Cultures: A Case of Volatile Profile of Industrial-Scale Plum Distillates
by Josef Balák, Lucie Drábová, Vojtěch Ilko, Dominik Maršík and Irena Jarošová Kolouchová
Foods 2024, 13(12), 1955; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13121955 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 580
Abstract
This study investigates the effect of pure yeast culture fermentation versus spontaneous fermentation on the volatile compound profile of industrially produced plum brandy. Using traditional distillation methods, the evolution of key volatile compounds is monitored at seven different moments during the distillation process. [...] Read more.
This study investigates the effect of pure yeast culture fermentation versus spontaneous fermentation on the volatile compound profile of industrially produced plum brandy. Using traditional distillation methods, the evolution of key volatile compounds is monitored at seven different moments during the distillation process. By integrating advanced analytical techniques such as GC-MS and sensory evaluation, significant differences in the composition of the distillates are highlighted, particularly in terms of ethyl esters and higher alcohols which are key to the sensory properties of the final product. Distillates produced with the addition of pure cultures gave higher concentrations of esters than those obtained by wild fermentation. The results of our industrial research show that the most critical step is to limit the storage of the input raw material, thereby reducing the subsequent risk of producing higher concentrations of 1-propanol. Furthermore, our results indicate that the heart of the distillate can only be removed up to an ethanol content of approximately 450 g/L and that the removal of additional ethanol results in only a 10% increase in the total volume of the distillate, which in turn results in an increase in boiler heating costs of approximately 30%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Biotechnology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 4271 KiB  
Review
Strategies and Challenges of Microbiota Regulation in Baijiu Brewing
by Pengpeng Zhang, Yanbo Liu, Haideng Li, Ming Hui and Chunmei Pan
Foods 2024, 13(12), 1954; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13121954 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 484
Abstract
The traditional Chinese Baijiu brewing process utilizes natural inoculation and open fermentation. The microbial composition and abundance in the microecology of Baijiu brewing often exhibit unstable characteristics, which directly results in fluctuations in Baijiu quality. The microbiota plays a crucial role in determining [...] Read more.
The traditional Chinese Baijiu brewing process utilizes natural inoculation and open fermentation. The microbial composition and abundance in the microecology of Baijiu brewing often exhibit unstable characteristics, which directly results in fluctuations in Baijiu quality. The microbiota plays a crucial role in determining the quality of Baijiu. Analyzing the driving effect of technology and raw materials on microorganisms. Elucidating the source of core microorganisms and interactions between microorganisms, and finally utilizing single or multiple microorganisms to regulate and intensify the Baijiu fermentation process is an important way to achieve high efficiency and stability in the production of Baijiu. This paper provides a systematic review of the composition and sources of microbiota at different brewing stages. It also analyzes the relationship between raw materials, brewing processes, and brewing microbiota, as well as the steps involved in the implementation of brewing microbiota regulation strategies. In addition, this paper considers the feasibility of using Baijiu flavor as a guide for Baijiu brewing regulation by synthesizing the microbiota, and the challenges involved. This paper is a guide for flavor regulation and quality assurance of Baijiu and also suggests new research directions for regulatory strategies for other fermented foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Biotechnology)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

18 pages, 1442 KiB  
Article
Effect of Air Classification and Enzymatic and Microbial Bioprocessing on Defatted Durum Wheat Germ: Characterization and Use as Bread Ingredient
by Angela Longo, Gianfranco Amendolagine, Marcello Greco Miani, Carlo Giuseppe Rizzello and Michela Verni
Foods 2024, 13(12), 1953; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13121953 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 566
Abstract
Its high dietary fiber and protein contents and nutritional quality make defatted wheat germ (DWG) a valuable cereal by-product, yet its negative impact on food structure limits its use as a food ingredient. In this research, DWG underwent air classification, which identified two [...] Read more.
Its high dietary fiber and protein contents and nutritional quality make defatted wheat germ (DWG) a valuable cereal by-product, yet its negative impact on food structure limits its use as a food ingredient. In this research, DWG underwent air classification, which identified two fractions with high fiber (HF) and low fiber/high protein (LF) contents, and a bioprocessing protocol, involving treatment with xylanase and fermentation with selected lactic acid bacterial strains. The degree of proteolysis was evaluated through electrophoretic and chromatographic techniques, revealing differences among fractions and bioprocessing options. Fermentation led to a significant increase in free amino acids (up to 6 g/kg), further enhanced by the combination with xylanase. When HF was used as an ingredient in bread making, the fiber content of the resulting bread exceeded 3.6 g/100 g, thus reaching the threshold required to make a “source of fiber” claim according to Regulation EC No.1924/2006. Meanwhile, all breads could be labeled a “source of protein” since up to 13% of the energy was provided by proteins. Overall, bioprocessed ingredients lowered the glycemic index (84 vs. 89) and increased protein digestibility (80 vs. 63%) compared to control breads. Technological and sensory analysis showed that the enzymatic treatment combined with fermentation also conferred a darker and more pleasant color to the bread crust, as well as better crumb porosity and elasticity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microorganisms and Enzymes in Fermented Products)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 1398 KiB  
Review
Dietary Fibers: Shaping Textural and Functional Properties of Processed Meats and Plant-Based Meat Alternatives
by Aleksandra Marczak and Ana C. Mendes
Foods 2024, 13(12), 1952; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13121952 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 650
Abstract
The search for alternative sources of plant-based ingredients to improve the textural and sensory properties of plant-based meat alternatives (PMAs) is a growing trend, with the potential to enhance the sustainability of global food systems. While much focus has been placed on plant-based [...] Read more.
The search for alternative sources of plant-based ingredients to improve the textural and sensory properties of plant-based meat alternatives (PMAs) is a growing trend, with the potential to enhance the sustainability of global food systems. While much focus has been placed on plant-based proteins, it is known today that dietary fibers (DFs) can also play a key role in the textural and other physicochemical properties of traditional processed meat products and PMAs. This review examined the latest scientific literature regarding the advantages of using DF in food. It showcases the latest applications of DF in processed meats, PMAs, and the effects of DF on the functional properties of food products, thereby aiming to increase DF applications to create improved, healthier, and more sustainable meat and PMA foods. The predominant effects of DF on PMAs and processed meats notably include enhanced gel strength, emulsion stability, improved water-holding capacity, and the formation of a uniform, porous microstructure. DF also commonly enhances textural properties like hardness, chewiness, springiness, and cohesiveness. While the impact of DF on processed meats mirrors that of PMAs, selecting the right DF source for specific applications requires considering factors such as chemical structure, solubility, size, concentration, processing conditions, and interactions with other components to achieve the desired outcomes. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

16 pages, 2232 KiB  
Article
Determination of Imidazole Dipeptides and Related Amino Acids in Natural Seafoods by Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry Using a Pre-Column Derivatization Reagent
by Mayu Onozato, Minori Horinouchi, Yuki Yoshiba, Tatsuya Sakamoto, Hiroshi Sugasawa and Takeshi Fukushima
Foods 2024, 13(12), 1951; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13121951 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 688
Abstract
Imidazole dipeptides (IDPs) and taurine (Tau) have several health benefits and are known to be contained in natural seafoods. However, their levels vary widely in different natural seafoods, making their simultaneous determination desirable. Herein, we employ a liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry approach using [...] Read more.
Imidazole dipeptides (IDPs) and taurine (Tau) have several health benefits and are known to be contained in natural seafoods. However, their levels vary widely in different natural seafoods, making their simultaneous determination desirable. Herein, we employ a liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry approach using a novel amino group derivatization reagent, succinimidyl 2-(3-((benzyloxy)carbonyl)-1-methyl-5-oxoimidazolidin-4-yl) acetate ((R)-CIMa-OSu), for the simultaneous quantification of IDPs (carnosine (Car) and anserine (Ans)), their related amino acids, and Tau in natural seafoods. Each seafood sample contained different concentrations of IDPs (Car: ND to 1.48 mmol/100 g-wet, Ans: ND to 4.67 mmol/100 g-wet). The Car levels were considerably higher in eel, while Tau was more abundant in squid, boiled octopus, and scallop. Thus, the derivatization reagent (R)-CIMa-OSu provides a new approach to accurately assess the nutritional composition of seafoods, thereby providing valuable insight into its dietary benefits. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 2304 KiB  
Review
Diversified Techniques for Restructuring Meat Protein-Derived Products and Analogues
by Yuliang Cheng, Yiyun Meng and Shengnan Liu
Foods 2024, 13(12), 1950; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13121950 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 636
Abstract
Accompanied by the rapid growth of the global population and increasing public awareness of protein-rich foods, the market demand for protein-derived products is booming. Utilizing available technologies to make full use of meat by-products, such as scraps, trimmings, etc., to produce restructured meat [...] Read more.
Accompanied by the rapid growth of the global population and increasing public awareness of protein-rich foods, the market demand for protein-derived products is booming. Utilizing available technologies to make full use of meat by-products, such as scraps, trimmings, etc., to produce restructured meat products and explore emerging proteins to produce meat analogues can be conducive to alleviating the pressure on supply ends of the market. The present review summarizes diversified techniques (such as high-pressure processing, ultrasonic treatment, edible polysaccharides modification, enzymatic restructuring, etc.) that have been involved in restructuring meat protein-derived products as well as preparing meat analogues identified so far and classifying them into three main categories (physical, chemical and enzymatic). The target systems, processing conditions, effects, advantages, etc., of the included techniques, are comprehensively and systemically summarized and discussed, and their existing problems or developing trends are also briefly prospected. It can be concluded that a better quality of restructured products can be obtained by the combination of different restructuring technologies. This review provides a valuable reference both for the research and industrial production of restructured meat protein-derived products and analogues. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 2818 KiB  
Article
Volatile Organic Compounds of Wickerhamomyces anomalus Prevent Postharvest Black Spot Disease in Tomato
by Xi Zhang, Qiya Yang, Dhanasekaran Solairaj, Nashwa M. A. Sallam, Marui Zhu, Shengyu You and Hongyin Zhang
Foods 2024, 13(12), 1949; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13121949 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 454
Abstract
Postharvest diseases, such as black spots caused by Alternaria alternata, have caused huge economic losses to the tomato industry and seriously restricted its development. In recent years, biological control has become a new method to control postharvest diseases of fruits and vegetables. [...] Read more.
Postharvest diseases, such as black spots caused by Alternaria alternata, have caused huge economic losses to the tomato industry and seriously restricted its development. In recent years, biological control has become a new method to control postharvest diseases of fruits and vegetables. Our research group screened W. anomalus, a yeast demonstrating a promising control effect on a postharvest black spot disease of tomatoes, and explored its physiological mechanism of prevention and control. Therefore, this study investigated the prevention and control effect of metabolites of W. anomalus on tomato black spot disease and the inhibition effect of main components on A. alternata. A GC-MS analysis found that isoamyl acetate was the main component of W. anomalus that played an inhibitory role. The results showed that isoamyl acetate could inhibit the growth of A. alternata and had a certain control effect on postharvest black spots in tomatoes. Our findings suggest that isoamyl acetate could be a promising alternative to fungicides for controlling postharvest black spots in tomatoes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 2243 KiB  
Article
Kinetic Evaluation of the Production of Mead from a Non-Saccharomyces Strain
by Jorge Alberto Jose-Salazar, Christian Bryan Ballinas-Cesatti, Diana Maylet Hernández-Martínez, Eliseo Cristiani-Urbina, Guiomar Melgar-Lalanne and Liliana Morales-Barrera
Foods 2024, 13(12), 1948; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13121948 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 648
Abstract
There is a growing market for craft beverages with unique flavors. This study aimed to obtain a palate-pleasing mead derived from Pichia kudriavzevii 4A as a monoculture. Different culture media were evaluated to compare the fermentation kinetics and final products. The crucial factors [...] Read more.
There is a growing market for craft beverages with unique flavors. This study aimed to obtain a palate-pleasing mead derived from Pichia kudriavzevii 4A as a monoculture. Different culture media were evaluated to compare the fermentation kinetics and final products. The crucial factors in the medium were ~200 mg L−1 of yeast assimilable nitrogen and a pH of 3.5–5.0. A panel of judges favored the mead derived from Pichia kudriavzevii 4A (fermented in a medium with honey initially at 23 °Bx) over a commercial sample produced from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, considering its appearance, fruity and floral flavors (provided by esters, aldehydes, and higher alcohols), and balance between sweetness (given by the 82.91 g L−1 of residual sugars) and alcohol. The present mead had an 8.57% v/v ethanol concentration, was elaborated in 28 days, and reached a maximum biomass growth (2.40 g L−1) on the same fermentation day (6) that the minimum level of pH was reached. The biomass growth yield peaked at 24 and 48 h (~0.049 g g−1), while the ethanol yield peaked at 24 h (1.525 ± 0.332 g g−1), in both cases declining thereafter. The Gompertz model adequately describes the kinetics of sugar consumption and the generation of yeast biomass and ethanol. Pathogenic microorganisms, methanol, lead, and arsenic were absent in the mead. Thus, Pichia kudriavzevii 4A produced a safe and quality mead with probable consumer acceptance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Latest Advances in Fermentation Microorganisms in the Food Field)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 1168 KiB  
Article
Microbiological, Functional, and Chemico-Physical Characterization of Artisanal Kombucha: An Interesting Reservoir of Microbial Diversity
by Joel Armando Njieukam, Marianna Ciccone, Davide Gottardi, Arianna Ricci, Giuseppina Paola Parpinello, Lorenzo Siroli, Rosalba Lanciotti and Francesca Patrignani
Foods 2024, 13(12), 1947; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13121947 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 546
Abstract
Kombucha is a trending tea fermented via a complex microflora of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria. It can be a valid low-calorie substitute for soft drinks due to its sour, naturally carbonated, and sweet taste. Despite increased interest, the microflora and functional properties [...] Read more.
Kombucha is a trending tea fermented via a complex microflora of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria. It can be a valid low-calorie substitute for soft drinks due to its sour, naturally carbonated, and sweet taste. Despite increased interest, the microflora and functional properties of kombucha have not yet been fully understood. The aim of this work was to characterize, from a microbiological, chemico-physical, and functional point of view, three types of artisanal kombucha obtained by fermenting green tea containing sugar by means of different starter cultures. Metagenomic analysis revealed a predominance of yeasts compared to bacteria, regardless of the sample. In particular, Brettanomyces spp. was found to be the dominant yeast. Moreover, the different types of kombucha had different microbial patterns in terms of acetic acid bacteria and yeasts. Ethanol and acetic acid were the dominant volatile molecules of the kombucha volatilome; the samples differed from each other in terms of their content of alcohols, esters, and acids. All the samples showed a high antioxidant potential linked to the high content of phenols. This study confirmed the positive chemico-physical and functional properties of kombucha and indicated that the microflora responsible for the fermentation process can significantly affect the characteristics of the final product. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 2028 KiB  
Article
Cryoprotective Activity of Different Characterized Fractions Isolated from Enzymatic Hydrolysates of Croceine Croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea)
by Zhe Xu, ShengAo Cao, Na Cui, Rui Zhang, Shuang Zhao, Lijuan Zhang, Shuang Guan, Yikun Xu, Xu Yan, Zhixuan Zhu, Zhijian Tan and Tingting Li
Foods 2024, 13(12), 1946; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13121946 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 514
Abstract
In this study, ultrafiltration fractions (<3 k Da, LMH; >3 k Da, HMH) and solid-phase extraction fractions (hydrophilic hydrolysate, HIH; hydrophobic hydrolysate, HOH) from trypsin hydrolysate purified from croceine croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) isolate were obtained to investigate the cryoprotective effects of [...] Read more.
In this study, ultrafiltration fractions (<3 k Da, LMH; >3 k Da, HMH) and solid-phase extraction fractions (hydrophilic hydrolysate, HIH; hydrophobic hydrolysate, HOH) from trypsin hydrolysate purified from croceine croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) isolate were obtained to investigate the cryoprotective effects of the different fractions, achieved by means of maceration of turbot fish meat after three freeze-thaw cycles. Alterations in the texture, color, moisture loss, myofibrillar protein oxidation stability and conformation, and microstructure of the fish were analyzed after freezing and thawing. The results demonstrate that HIH maximized the retention of fish texture, reduced moisture loss, minimized the oxidation and aggregation of myofibrillar proteins, and stabilized the secondary and tertiary structures of myofibrillar proteins compared to the control group. In conclusion, the HIH component in the trypsin hydrolysates of croceine croaker significantly contributes to minimizing freeze damage in fish meat and acts as an anti-freezing agent with high industrial application potential. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 1657 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Chlorella vulgaris Fortification on the Nutritional Composition and Quality Characteristics of Beef Burgers
by Basma R. Abdel-Moatamed, Alla-Eldeen M. A. El-Fakhrany, Nady A. A. Elneairy, Mohamed Mahmoud Shaban and Mohamed H. H. Roby
Foods 2024, 13(12), 1945; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13121945 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 656
Abstract
Chlorella vulgaris (C.V) is known for its high protein and nutrient contents and has been touted as a potential functional ingredient in food products. For this study, beef burgers were formulated with varying levels of Chlorella vulgaris fortification (0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 1.5% [...] Read more.
Chlorella vulgaris (C.V) is known for its high protein and nutrient contents and has been touted as a potential functional ingredient in food products. For this study, beef burgers were formulated with varying levels of Chlorella vulgaris fortification (0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 1.5% by weight). The nutritional composition, including proximate analysis and mineral content, was determined for each treatment group. The quality characteristics evaluated included thiobarbituric acid (TBA), total volatile base nitrogen (TVBN), pH, and total acidity. The study included extracting the active substances from Chlorella vulgaris using three solvents, 50% ethanol, 95% ethanol, and water, to evaluate the effect on the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. The results showed that the water extract had the highest total phenolic content (183.5 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram) and the highest flavonoid content (54 mg quercetin per gram). The aqueous extract had the highest content of total antioxidants, followed by the 95% ethanol and 50% ethanol extracts. Meanwhile, the 50% ethanol extract showed the best antimicrobial activity, while the aqueous extract had less of an effect on Gram-positive bacteria and no effect on E. coli. For the burger treatments, at the end of the storage period, it was observed that the microbial load of the treatments decreased compared to the control, and there was a high stability in the total volatile base nitrogen (TVBN) values for the treatments compared to the control, reaching a value of 22.4 at month 5, which is well above the acceptable limit, indicating spoilage. The pH values were higher for all of the treatments, with a lower total acidity for all of the treatments compared to the control. In conclusion, utilizing Chlorella vulgaris algae as a natural preservative to extend the freshness of burgers is a sustainable and innovative approach to food preservation. By harnessing the power of this green superfood, we not only enhance the shelf life of our food products but also contribute to a healthier and more environmentally friendly food industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Food Bioactive Compounds as Health Promoters)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 6562 KiB  
Article
Fabrication and Stability Improvement of Monoglyceride Oleogel/Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate-Stabilized W/O High Internal Phase Pickering Emulsions
by Yingzhu Zhang, Jinqi Xu, Jinhua Gong and Yan Li
Foods 2024, 13(12), 1944; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13121944 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 452
Abstract
To decrease the lipid content in water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions, high internal phase Pickering W/O emulsions (HIPPE) were fabricated using magnetic stirring using a combination of monoglyceride (MAG) oleogel and polyglycerol polyacrylate oleate (PGPR) as stabilizers. Effects of MAGs (glyceryl monostearate-GMS, glycerol monolaurate-GML and [...] Read more.
To decrease the lipid content in water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions, high internal phase Pickering W/O emulsions (HIPPE) were fabricated using magnetic stirring using a combination of monoglyceride (MAG) oleogel and polyglycerol polyacrylate oleate (PGPR) as stabilizers. Effects of MAGs (glyceryl monostearate-GMS, glycerol monolaurate-GML and glycerol monocaprylate-GMC) and internal phase components on the formation and properties of HIPPEs were investigated. The results showed that milky-white stabilized W/O HIPPE with up to 85 wt% aqueous phase content was successfully prepared, and the droplet interfaces presented a network of MAG crystals, independent of the MAG type. All HIPPEs exhibited great stability under freeze–thaw cycles but were less plastic. Meanwhile, GML-oleogel-based HIPPEs had larger particle size and were less thermal stable than GMS and GMC-based HIPPEs. Compared to guar gum, the internal phase components of sodium chloride and sucrose were more effective in reducing the particle size of HIPPEs, improving their stability and plasticity, and stabilizing them during 100-day storage. HIPPEs presented great spreadability, ductility and plasticity after whipping treatment. This knowledge provides a new perspective on the use of oleogels as co-stabilizers for the formation of W/O HIPPEs, which can be used as a potential substitute for creams. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

15 pages, 1853 KiB  
Article
Enhancement of Calcium Chelating Activity in Peptides from Sea Cucumber Ovum through Phosphorylation Modification
by Lingyu Han, Yaoyao Li, Bing Hu, Wei Wang, Jianming Guo, Jixin Yang, Nuo Dong, Yingmei Li and Tingting Li
Foods 2024, 13(12), 1943; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13121943 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 646
Abstract
Recently, phosphorylation has been applied to peptides to enhance their physiological activity, taking advantage of its modification benefits and the extensive study of functional peptides. In this study, water-soluble peptides (WSPs) of sea cucumber ovum were phosphorylated in order to improve the latter’s [...] Read more.
Recently, phosphorylation has been applied to peptides to enhance their physiological activity, taking advantage of its modification benefits and the extensive study of functional peptides. In this study, water-soluble peptides (WSPs) of sea cucumber ovum were phosphorylated in order to improve the latter’s calcium binding capacity and calcium absorption. Enzymatic hydrolysis methods were screened via ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV–Vis), the fluorescence spectrum, and calcium chelating ability. Phosphorylated water-soluble peptides (P-WSPs) were characterized via high-performance liquid chromatography, the circular dichroism spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV–Vis spectroscopy, surface hydrophobicity, and fluorescence spectroscopy. The phosphorus content, calcium chelation rate and absorption rate were investigated. The results demonstrated that phosphorylation enhanced the calcium chelating capacity of WSPs, with the highest capacity reaching 0.96 mmol/L. Phosphate ions caused esterification events, and the carboxyl, amino, and phosphate groups of WSPs and P-WSPs interacted with calcium ions to form these bonds. Calcium-chelated phosphorylated water-soluble peptides (P-WSPs-Ca) demonstrated outstanding stability (calcium retention rates > 80%) in gastrointestinal processes. Our study indicates that these chelates have significant potential to develop into calcium supplements with superior efficacy, bioactivity, and stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Ingredients from Food Wastes and By-Products)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 624 KiB  
Article
Nutrient Composition and Quality Assessment of Royal Jelly Samples Relative to Feed Supplements
by Sampat Ghosh, Hyeonjeong Jang, Sukjun Sun and Chuleui Jung
Foods 2024, 13(12), 1942; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13121942 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 432
Abstract
Royal jelly is a substance secreted by the hypopharyngeal and mandibular glands of nurse honey bees, serving as crucial nutritional source for young larvae, queen honey bees, and also valuable product for humans. In this study, the effect of the feed supplements on [...] Read more.
Royal jelly is a substance secreted by the hypopharyngeal and mandibular glands of nurse honey bees, serving as crucial nutritional source for young larvae, queen honey bees, and also valuable product for humans. In this study, the effect of the feed supplements on the nutritional composition and qualities of royal jelly was investigated. Two types of royal jelly samples were acquired: one from honey bees fed with sugar syrup as a feed supplement and the other from honey bees fed with honey. The production, harvesting, and storage of all royal jelly samples followed standard procedures. Parameters for quality assessment and nutritional value, including stable carbon isotopic ratio, moisture content, 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) level, carbohydrate composition, amino acid composition, and mineral contents, were analyzed. The results revealed that despite variability in moisture content and carbohydrate composition, fructose was lower (2.6 and 4.1 g/100 g as is for sugar-fed and honey-fed royal jelly, respectively) and sucrose was higher (7.5 and 2.7 g/100 g as is for sugar-fed and honey-fed royal jelly, respectively) in the sugar-fed group. The stable isotope ratio (−16.4608‰ for sugar-fed and −21.9304‰ for honey-fed royal jelly) clearly distinguished the two groups. 10-HDA, amino acid composition, and total protein levels were not significantly different. Certain minerals, such as potassium, iron, magnesium, manganese, and phosphorus were higher in the honey-fed group. Hierarchical analysis based on moisture, sugar composition, 10-HDA, and stable carbon isotopes categorized the samples into two distinct groups. This study demonstrated that the feed source could affect the nutritional quality of royal jelly. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 26780 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Cookies Enriched with Osmodehydrated Wild Garlic from Nutritional and Sensory Aspects
by Vladimir Filipović, Milica Nićetin, Jelena Filipović, Alena Stupar, Jovana Kojić, Ivana Lončarević, Kosana Šobot and Jovanka Laličić-Petronijević
Foods 2024, 13(12), 1941; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13121941 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 678
Abstract
In the present study, the nutritional and sensory properties of spelt cookies without wild garlic, cookies with fresh wild garlic, cookies with osmodehydrated wild garlic in sugar beet molasses, and cookies with osmodehydrated wild garlic in an aqueous solution of sucrose and salt [...] Read more.
In the present study, the nutritional and sensory properties of spelt cookies without wild garlic, cookies with fresh wild garlic, cookies with osmodehydrated wild garlic in sugar beet molasses, and cookies with osmodehydrated wild garlic in an aqueous solution of sucrose and salt were evaluated and compared. The tested cookie samples were characterized in terms of total antioxidative activity, the total content of phenols, flavonoids, and thiosulfates, the presence of dominant phenols, the content of betaine and dietary fiber, antioxidant activity after in vitro digestion, and sensory attributes for appearance, taste, smell, and texture. The results proved that the addition of wild garlic leaves osmodehydrated in molasses provided the cookies with the best nutritional and bioactive properties: 1.75 times higher total phenols content, 2.4 times higher total flavonoids content, 1.52 times higher total thiosulfates content, and 1.56 times higher betaine content, and a total quality increase of 54% compared to the control cookies. The cookies enriched with osmodehydrated wild garlic in molasses were rated as pleasant and acceptable, but also more complex compared to other cookies. The production of this nutritionally and sensory-improved cookie would contribute to expanding the assortment of flour confectionery products, especially for consumers who care about health and nutrition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Technologies to Improve the Nutritional Properties of Food)
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 3027 KiB  
Article
The Potential of Using Bisr Date Powder as a Novel Ingredient in Biscuits Made of Wheat Flour Only or Mixed with Barley
by Haiam O. Elkatry, Sukainah E. H. Almubarak, Heba I. Mohamed, Khaled M. A. Ramadan and Abdelrahman R. Ahmed
Foods 2024, 13(12), 1940; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13121940 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 842
Abstract
An overproducing date fruit with limited industrial utilization leads to significant waste and losses, especially in the early stage of date maturity known as bisr. This study aimed to investigate the potential use of bisr date powder (BDP) at different concentrations (25%, 50%, [...] Read more.
An overproducing date fruit with limited industrial utilization leads to significant waste and losses, especially in the early stage of date maturity known as bisr. This study aimed to investigate the potential use of bisr date powder (BDP) at different concentrations (25%, 50%, and 100%) as a natural sweetener instead of sugar and barley flour as a source of dietary fiber, vitamins, and minerals instead of wheat flour (50%) in biscuit production over storage periods of 7, 14, and 21 days. The analysis revealed that the bisr Al-Khalas powder sample had a moisture content of 11.84%, ash content of 2.30%, and crude fiber content of 10.20%. Additionally, it had a low protein (2.50%) and fat (0.77%) content, with total carbohydrates at 82.59%. The gradual substitution of bisr Al-Khalas in biscuit production resulted in an increased moisture, ash, fat, protein, crude fiber, and iron content, as well as a decrease in total carbohydrate percentage. A chemical analysis of bisr Al-Khalas powder demonstrated high levels of antioxidants, with 248.49 mg gallic acid/g of phenolic compounds, 31.03 mg quercetin/g of flavonoids, and an antioxidant activity ranging from 42.30%, as shown by the DPPH test. The peroxide content was 0.009 mg equivalent/kg. Biscuit samples with different proportions of bisr Al-Khalas showed an improved resistance to oxidation compared to samples without bisr Al-Khalas, with increased resistance as the percentage of replacement increased during storage. Physical properties such as the diameter, height, and spread percentage, as well as organoleptic properties like color, flavor, aroma, and taste, were significantly enhanced with higher levels of bisr Al-Khalas in the mixture. Biscuit samples fortified with 100% pure bisr Al-Khalas powder were found to be less acceptable, while samples with a 25% substitution did not negatively impact sensory properties. In addition, acrylamide and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) were not detected in bisr powder and biscuit samples prepared at different concentrations (25%, 50%, and 100%). In conclusion, the study suggests that bisr Al-Khalas powder, an underutilized waste product, has the potential to add value to commercial biscuit production due to its high nutritional value and extended storage period resulting from its potent antioxidant activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Technologies to Improve the Nutritional Properties of Food)
Show Figures

Figure 1

4 pages, 190 KiB  
Editorial
Eco-Friendly Postharvest Technologies to Preserve or Enhance the Quality and Safety of Fruit and Vegetable Products
by Francisco Artés-Hernández, Lorena Martínez-Zamora and Marina Cano-Lamadrid
Foods 2024, 13(12), 1939; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13121939 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 508
Abstract
Fruits and vegetables make up a significant section of the food supply chain and are essential for optimum health and nutrition worldwide [...] Full article
14 pages, 3384 KiB  
Article
Major and Trace Elements of Baobab Leaves in Different Habitats and Regions in Sudan: Implication for Human Dietary Needs and Overall Health
by Abdelhakam Esmaeil Mohamed Ahmed, Massimo Mozzon, Ali Omer, Ayaz Mukarram Shaikh and Béla Kovács
Foods 2024, 13(12), 1938; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13121938 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 827
Abstract
The metabolic needs of the human body and preventing infections require a diet with sufficient amounts of essential nutrients. This study aimed to investigate the importance of Baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) dried leaves as a healthy food source by determining the content [...] Read more.
The metabolic needs of the human body and preventing infections require a diet with sufficient amounts of essential nutrients. This study aimed to investigate the importance of Baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) dried leaves as a healthy food source by determining the content of macro and trace elements in different habitats and regions. This study was conducted in Sudan and covered three different habitats, wetland (W), plainland (P), and mountain (M), in two regions (Blue Nile and Kordofan). The dry matter (DM) of Baobab leaves was considered for analyzed menials, and the results showed that the mean values were significantly affected by habitats where Baobab trees grew. The highest contents of potassium K (1653 ± 34 mg/100 g) and sodium (Na) 7.67 ± 1.18 mg/100 g were found in the W zone, whereas the highest contents of calcium (Ca) 2903 ± 187 mg/100 g and magnesium (Mg) 529 ± 101 mg/100 g were detected in the M and P zones, respectively. In addition, the two regions showed significant differences in trace and macro elements, i.e., higher levels of iron (Fe) 17.17 ± 2.76 mg/100 g and magnesium (556 ± 55 mg/100 g) were found in the Kordofan region while higher levels of zinc (Zn) 2.548 ± 0.55 mg/100 g and calcium (2689 ± 305 mg/100) were in the Blue Nile region. These varying amounts of elements can be used in our daily diets because of their potentially healthy effects, especially in areas where access to nutrient-rich foods is limited. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Elements in Food: Detection, Bioaccessibility and Food Fortification)
Show Figures

Figure 1

6 pages, 206 KiB  
Editorial
Winemaking: Advanced Technology and Flavor Research
by Fernanda Cosme, Fernando M. Nunes and Luís Filipe-Ribeiro
Foods 2024, 13(12), 1937; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13121937 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 407
Abstract
Beginning in ancient times, human societies around the world continue to produce fermented beverages from locally available sugar sources [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Winemaking: Advanced Technology and Flavor Research)
13 pages, 30203 KiB  
Perspective
The Application of Multi-Parameter Multi-Modal Technology Integrating Biological Sensors and Artificial Intelligence in the Rapid Detection of Food Contaminants
by Longlong Zhang, Qiuping Yang and Zhiyuan Zhu
Foods 2024, 13(12), 1936; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13121936 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 820
Abstract
Against the backdrop of continuous socio-economic development, there is a growing concern among people about food quality and safety. Individuals are increasingly realizing the critical importance of healthy eating for bodily health; hence the continuous rise in demand for detecting food pollution. Simultaneously, [...] Read more.
Against the backdrop of continuous socio-economic development, there is a growing concern among people about food quality and safety. Individuals are increasingly realizing the critical importance of healthy eating for bodily health; hence the continuous rise in demand for detecting food pollution. Simultaneously, the rapid expansion of global food trade has made people’s pursuit of high-quality food more urgent. However, traditional methods of food analysis have certain limitations, mainly manifested in the high degree of reliance on personal subjective judgment for assessing food quality. In this context, the emergence of artificial intelligence and biosensors has provided new possibilities for the evaluation of food quality. This paper proposes a comprehensive approach that involves aggregating data relevant to food quality indices and developing corresponding evaluation models to highlight the effectiveness and comprehensiveness of artificial intelligence and biosensors in food quality evaluation. The potential prospects and challenges of this method in the field of food safety are comprehensively discussed, aiming to provide valuable references for future research and practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Artificial Intelligence in Food Industry)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 1343 KiB  
Article
Effect of Milk Protein–Polyphenol Conjugate on the Regulation of GLP-1 Hormone
by Huda Abdulrahim Wazzan, Amanda N. Abraham, Noshin Saiara, Sushil Anand, Harsharn Gill and Ravi Shukla
Foods 2024, 13(12), 1935; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13121935 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 700
Abstract
Modern functional foods are designed to provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition. They are enriched with bioactive ingredients like probiotics, vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. These foods support overall health, enhance immune function, and help prevent chronic diseases. Milk proteins and tea are known [...] Read more.
Modern functional foods are designed to provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition. They are enriched with bioactive ingredients like probiotics, vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. These foods support overall health, enhance immune function, and help prevent chronic diseases. Milk proteins and tea are known to influence satiety and regulate body weight. Studies have shown that green tea polyphenols, namely, (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and whey proteins, predominantly lactoferrin (LF) from milk, play a role in regulating satiety. This study aims to investigate the effect of conjugating EGCG with apo-lactoferrin (Apo-LF) and assessing these effects on satiety through monitoring glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) regulation in a human colon (NCI-H716) cell line. Apo-LF-EGCG conjugates were synthesized and characterized in terms of structural and functional properties. The effect on GLP-1 regulation was assessed by real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to monitor gene and protein expressions, respectively. The results revealed that the protein–polyphenol interaction occurs through the complex formation of hydrogen bonds at the O-H and carbonyl groups of EGCG. The conjugates also showed a significant up-regulation of gene and protein expression levels of GLP-1 while also preventing EGCG from degradation, thereby preserving its antioxidant properties. The Apo-LF-EGCG conjugates increase satiety via increasing GLP-1 secretion in human colon cells while simultaneously retaining the antioxidant properties of EGCG. Therefore, these conjugates show potential for use as dietary supplements to enhance satiety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Biotechnology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 3575 KiB  
Article
Study on the Effect of Sorghum Flour Particle Size on the Storage Quality of Leavened Pancakes
by Xueqin Li, Jingru Tian, Fei Xu and Yingguo Lv
Foods 2024, 13(12), 1934; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13121934 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 471
Abstract
Pancakes prepared with sorghum flour possess a high nutritional value, yet their quality is unstable and prone to degradation during storage. This instability can be attributed to the particle size of coarse cereal powder, which significantly influences the quality of flour products during [...] Read more.
Pancakes prepared with sorghum flour possess a high nutritional value, yet their quality is unstable and prone to degradation during storage. This instability can be attributed to the particle size of coarse cereal powder, which significantly influences the quality of flour products during storage. In this study, changes in the quality of these pancakes, prepared with varying particle sizes of sorghum flour, were meticulously analyzed during cold storage using advanced instruments such as a texture analyzer, nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer, differential scanning calorimeter, X-ray diffractometer, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Findings revealed that the hardness of leavened pancakes significantly increased over time. After a refrigeration period of 7 days, the hardness of wheat flour leavened pancakes increased by 56.60%. However, with a decrease in the particle size of sorghum flour, the increase in hardness diminished, thereby delaying the aging process of the pancakes. As the storage duration was extended, moisture migration within the pancakes occurred, and the sorghum flour pancakes with a smaller particle size exhibited a reduced moisture change rate, indicating an enhanced water holding capacity. In comparison to their wheat flour counterparts, sorghum flour leavened pancakes exhibited a substantial reduction in retrogradation enthalpy and crystallinity. The inclusion of sorghum flour effectively inhibited amylopectin recrystallization, thus slowing down the aging process of the pancakes. This inhibitory effect was more evident with decreasing sorghum flour particle sizes. Fourier transform infrared data indicated no significant alterations in absorption peaks across various wavelengths during cold storage. Although starch short-range orderliness increased with storage time, the use of sorghum flour with smaller particles reduced the degree of short–range orderliness in starch molecules throughout the cold storage period. Sorghum flour with a smaller particle size can inhibit water migration and amylopectin recrystallization, which subsequently delays pancake aging and enhances its quality stability during storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Grain)
Show Figures

Figure 1

27 pages, 23110 KiB  
Article
A Comparative Study of Encapsulation of β-Carotene via Spray-Drying and Freeze-Drying Techniques Using Pullulan and Whey Protein Isolate as Wall Material
by Christina Drosou and Magdalini Krokida
Foods 2024, 13(12), 1933; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13121933 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 578
Abstract
The encapsulation of β-carotene was investigated using pullulan and whey protein isolate (WPI) as a composite matrix at a weight ratio of 20:80, employing both spray-drying and freeze-drying techniques. The influence of processing parameters such as the concentration of wall material, flow rate, [...] Read more.
The encapsulation of β-carotene was investigated using pullulan and whey protein isolate (WPI) as a composite matrix at a weight ratio of 20:80, employing both spray-drying and freeze-drying techniques. The influence of processing parameters such as the concentration of wall material, flow rate, and inlet temperature for SP encapsulants, as well as wall-material concentration for FZ encapsulants, was examined in terms of encapsulation efficiency (EE). The morphology, structural characterization, moisture sorption isotherms, and thermal properties of the resulting encapsulants at optimum conditions were determined. Their stability was investigated under various levels of water activity, temperature conditions, and exposure to UV–Vis irradiation. β-carotene was efficiently encapsulated within SP and FZ structures, resulting in EE of approximately 85% and 70%, respectively. The degradation kinetics of β-carotene in both structures followed a first-order reaction model, with the highest rate constants (0.0128 day−1 for SP and 0.165 day−1 for FZ) occurring at an intermediate water-activity level (aw = 0.53) across all storage temperatures. The photostability tests showed that SP encapsulants extended β-carotene’s half-life to 336.02 h, compared with 102.44 h for FZ encapsulants, under UV–Vis irradiation. These findings highlight the potential of SP encapsulants for applications in functional foods, pharmaceuticals, and carotenoid supplements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impacts of Innovative Processing Technologies on Food Quality)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

14 pages, 1468 KiB  
Article
Effect of Spirulina and Fish Processing By-Products Extracts on Citrinin-Induced Cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y Cells
by Francisco J. Martí-Quijal, Juan Manuel Castagnini, Francisco J. Barba and María José Ruiz
Foods 2024, 13(12), 1932; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13121932 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 611
Abstract
Citrinin (CIT) is a mycotoxin commonly found in grains, fruits, herbs, and spices. Its toxicity primarily affects the kidney and liver. Meanwhile, food industry by-products, particularly from fishing and aquaculture, contribute significantly to environmental concerns but can also serve as valuable sources of [...] Read more.
Citrinin (CIT) is a mycotoxin commonly found in grains, fruits, herbs, and spices. Its toxicity primarily affects the kidney and liver. Meanwhile, food industry by-products, particularly from fishing and aquaculture, contribute significantly to environmental concerns but can also serve as valuable sources of nutrients and bioactive compounds. Additionally, microalgae like spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) offer interesting high-added-value compounds with potential biological and cytoprotective properties. This study aims to reduce CIT’s toxicity on SH-SY5Y cells using natural extracts from the microalgae spirulina and fish processing by-products (sea bass head). The combination of these extracts with CIT has shown increased cell viability up to 15% for fish by-products extract and about 10% for spirulina extract compared to CIT alone. Furthermore, a notable reduction of up to 63.2% in apoptosis has been observed when fish by-products extracts were combined with CIT, counteracting the effects of CIT alone. However, the extracts’ effectiveness in preventing CIT toxicity in the cell cycle remains unclear. Overall, considering these nutrient and bioactive compound sources is crucial for enhancing food safety and mitigating the harmful effects of contaminants such as mycotoxins. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to investigate their mechanisms of action and better understand their protective effects more comprehensively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Toxicology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

34 pages, 1609 KiB  
Review
Effectiveness of Flavonoid-Rich Diet in Alleviating Symptoms of Neurodegenerative Diseases
by Aneta Szulc, Karolina Wiśniewska, Magdalena Żabińska, Lidia Gaffke, Maria Szota, Zuzanna Olendzka, Grzegorz Węgrzyn and Karolina Pierzynowska
Foods 2024, 13(12), 1931; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13121931 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 905
Abstract
Over the past decades, there has been a significant increase in the burden of neurological diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, on a global scale. This is linked to a widespread demographic trend in which developed societies are aging, leading to an increased proportion of [...] Read more.
Over the past decades, there has been a significant increase in the burden of neurological diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, on a global scale. This is linked to a widespread demographic trend in which developed societies are aging, leading to an increased proportion of elderly individuals and, concurrently, an increase in the number of those afflicted, posing one of the main public health challenges for the coming decades. The complex pathomechanisms of neurodegenerative diseases and resulting varied symptoms, which differ depending on the disease, environment, and lifestyle of the patients, make searching for therapies for this group of disorders a formidable challenge. Currently, most neurodegenerative diseases are considered incurable. An important aspect in the fight against and prevention of neurodegenerative diseases may be broadly understood lifestyle choices, and more specifically, what we will focus on in this review, a diet. One proposal that may help in the fight against the spread of neurodegenerative diseases is a diet rich in flavonoids. Flavonoids are compounds widely found in products considered healthy, such as fruits, vegetables, and herbs. Many studies indicated not only the neuroprotective effects of these compounds but also their ability to reverse changes occurring during the progression of diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Here, we present the main groups of flavonoids, discussing their characteristics and mechanisms of action. The most widely described mechanisms point to neuroprotective functions due to strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, accompanied with their ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier, as well as the ability to inhibit the formation of protein aggregates. The latter feature, together with promoting removal of the aggregates is especially important in neurodegenerative diseases. We discuss a therapeutic potential of selected flavonoids in the fight against neurodegenerative diseases, based on in vitro studies, and their impact when included in the diet of animals (laboratory research) and humans (population studies). Thus, this review summarizes flavonoids’ actions and impacts on neurodegenerative diseases. Therapeutic use of these compounds in the future is potentially possible but depends on overcoming key challenges such as low bioavailability, determining the therapeutic dose, and defining what a flavonoid-rich diet is and determining its potential negative effects. This review also suggests further research directions to address these challenges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Based Food:From Nutritional Value to Health Benefits)
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 4455 KiB  
Article
Assessing Mineral Content and Heavy Metal Exposure in Abruzzo Honey and Bee Pollen from Different Anthropic Areas
by Federica Flamminii, Ada Consalvo, Angelo Cichelli and Alessandro Chiaudani
Foods 2024, 13(12), 1930; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13121930 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 591
Abstract
Honey and bee pollen offer potential health benefits due to their nutrient and bioactive molecules, but they may also harbor contaminants such as heavy metals. This study aimed to assess the content of different metals, including Mg, Al, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, [...] Read more.
Honey and bee pollen offer potential health benefits due to their nutrient and bioactive molecules, but they may also harbor contaminants such as heavy metals. This study aimed to assess the content of different metals, including Mg, Al, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Cu, As, Rb, Sr, Cd, Cs, Tl, Pb and U, in honey and bee pollen collected from different Abruzzo region (Italy) areas (A1, A2, A3, A4), characterized by different anthropic influences described by Corine Land Cover maps. Differences were observed in the mineral and heavy metal content associated with the influence of biotic and abiotic factors. Honeys were found to be safe in regard to non-carcinogenic risk in all the consumer categories (THQm < 1). A particular carcinogenic risk concern was identified for toddlers associated with Cr (LCTR > 1 × 10−4) in A1, A2 and A3 apiaries. Pb and Ni represent potential non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks in children and adults due to bee pollen consumption, showing high values of THQm and LCTR. The results suggest the advantages of utilizing bee products to screen mineral and heavy metal content, providing valuable insights into environmental quality and potential health risks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality Evaluation of Bee Products—Volume II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1008 KiB  
Article
Effectiveness of Chemical Sanitizers against Salmonella Typhimurium in Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) Hydroponic Systems: Implications for Food Safety, Crop Quality, and Nutrient Content in Leafy Greens
by Abigail A. Mensah, Melanie L. Lewis Ivey, Margaret R. Moodispaw and Sanja Ilic
Foods 2024, 13(12), 1929; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13121929 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 703
Abstract
Hydroponic farming systems play an increasingly important role in the sustainable production of nutrient-rich foods. The contamination of surfaces in hydroponic fresh produce production poses risks to the food safety of crops, potentially endangering public health and causing economic losses in the industry. [...] Read more.
Hydroponic farming systems play an increasingly important role in the sustainable production of nutrient-rich foods. The contamination of surfaces in hydroponic fresh produce production poses risks to the food safety of crops, potentially endangering public health and causing economic losses in the industry. While sanitizers are widely used in commercial hydroponic farms, their effectiveness against human pathogens on surfaces and their impact on plant health and quality are not known. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of chemical sanitizers in eliminating Salmonella Typhimurium from inanimate surfaces in commercial hydroponic Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) systems. Further, we assessed the impact of sanitizers on the yield, quality, and nutritional value of lettuce and basil. Sanitizers (Virkon, LanXess, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; SaniDate 12.0, BioSafe Systems, East Hartford, CT, USA; KleenGrow, Pace Chemical Ltd., Delta, BC, Canada; Green Shield, United Labs Inc., St Charles, IL, USA; Zerotol, BioSafe Systems, East Hartford, CT, USA; Bleach, Pure Bright, ON, Canada) were tested against Salmonella Typhimurium inoculated on NFT surfaces (nutrient reservoir, growing channels, top covers, drain lines). The effective treatments were then tested for their impact on lettuce and basil in a split-plot experiment conducted in commercial NFT units. Crop yield, color, and nutrient content (chlorophyll and carotenoids) were measured throughout the crop life cycle. While all quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC), SaniDate 12.0 (200 ppm), Zorotol (5%), and Virkon (1%) eliminated Salmonella Typhimurium from commercial NFT surfaces, chlorine-based sanitizer treatments were statistically similar to water treatments on most surfaces. All chemical sanitizers impacted the yield, color, and nutritional value of lettuce and basil. SaniDate 12.0 (200 ppm) was the least detrimental to crops and was identified as a potential candidate for further validation in commercial hydroponic settings. The findings of this study will be translated into recommendations for the industry and will contribute to the development of future food safety guidelines and policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 5365 KiB  
Article
Changes in Polyphenols and Antioxidant Activity in Fermentation Substrate during Maotai-Flavored Liquor Processing
by Derang Ni, Chao Chen, Yubo Yang, Jinhu Tian, Huabin Tu, Fan Yang and Xingqian Ye
Foods 2024, 13(12), 1928; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13121928 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 488
Abstract
To investigate the changes in phenols and antioxidant capacity in fermented grains during different stages of the fermentation process (Xiasha, Zaosha, and single-round stages) of Maotai-flavored liquor, the total phenolic contents of 61 samples, collected in different stages, were analyzed via the Folin–Ciocalteu [...] Read more.
To investigate the changes in phenols and antioxidant capacity in fermented grains during different stages of the fermentation process (Xiasha, Zaosha, and single-round stages) of Maotai-flavored liquor, the total phenolic contents of 61 samples, collected in different stages, were analyzed via the Folin–Ciocalteu method, and the phenolic compounds were then identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Subsequently, the antioxidant activities were determined using the DPPH free radical scavenging rate and ABTS and FRAP antioxidant capacities. The correlations among the total phenolic contents, individual phenolics, and three antioxidant activities of the samples were analyzed. The results show that the total phenolic contents of the fermented samples did not change significantly in the Xiasha and Zaosha stages but showed an upward trend in the single-round stage. A total of 12 phenol acids were identified in the fermented grains, including 5 phenolic acids (e.g., ferulic acid and caffeic acid), 4 flavonoids (e.g., luteolin and apigenin), and 3 proanthocyanidins (e.g., apigeninidin), for which the DPPH free radical scavenging rates and ABTS and FRAP antioxidant capacities of all of the fermented grain samples ranged from 78.91 ± 4.09 to 98.57 ± 1.52%, 3.23 ± 0.72 to 13.69 ± 1.40 mM Trolox, and 5.06 ± 0.36 to 14.10 ± 0.69 mM FeSO4, respectively. The total phenolic contents of the fermented grain samples were significantly and positively correlated with the ABTS and FRAP (p ≤ 0.05), while no significant correlations were found between total phenolic content and DPPH. In general, the total phenolic content, phenolic substances, and antioxidant capacity of the fermented grains exhibited changes during the fermentation process in liquor production, and the phenolic components contributed more to the antioxidant properties of the fermented grains. The present study provides a theoretical reference for analyzing the dynamic changes and antioxidant properties of functional phenolic components in fermented grains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Biotechnology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 4626 KiB  
Article
Investigating the Impact of Pineapple–Whey Protein Fermentation Products on Cefixime-Induced Intestinal Flora Dysbiosis in Mice Using 16S Sequencing and Untargeted Metabolomics Techniques
by Jiawei Luo, Shan Xiao, Da Ma, Junhan Xiang, Bo Wang, Yanxue Cai and Jihui Wang
Foods 2024, 13(12), 1927; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13121927 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 744
Abstract
In our previous study, a new fermented food (PWF) created by utilizing pineapple by-products and whey proteins as a matrix via co-fermentation with lactic acid bacteria and yeast was developed, and, in the current study, we examined the impact of a pineapple–whey protein [...] Read more.
In our previous study, a new fermented food (PWF) created by utilizing pineapple by-products and whey proteins as a matrix via co-fermentation with lactic acid bacteria and yeast was developed, and, in the current study, we examined the impact of a pineapple–whey protein fermentation product on a cefixime-induced dysbiosis model in mice using 16S sequencing and untargeted metabolomics techniques. The results indicated that the pineapple–whey protein fermentation product played a positive role in restoring the intestinal flora. In this study, cefixime reduced the overall abundance of intestinal flora and decreased the relative abundance of probiotics in the gut, while also inhibiting amino acid metabolism. The addition of PWF normalized the intestinal flora to a steady state, significantly increasing the populations of Weissella, Lactococcus, Faecalibaculum, and Bacteroides acidophilus, while decreasing the numbers of Akkermansia and Escherichia-Shigella. Additionally, PWF modulated microbial metabolites, such as L-glutamate and L-threonine, and upregulated amino-acid-related metabolic pathways, including those involving glycine, serine, and threonine. In conclusion, PWF can alleviate intestinal flora dysbiosis and metabolic disturbances induced by antibiotic interventions. It is suggested that PWF could be a potential dietary strategy for patients with antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Advances of Lactic Acid Fermentation of Food By-Products)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 6246 KiB  
Article
Effect of Multi-Mode Divergent Ultrasound Pretreatment on Hardness, Microstructure and Digestion of Acid-Induced Whey Protein Gels
by Yu Cheng, Xiaolong Shi, Georgina Benewaa Yeboah, Lihong Chen and Juan Wu
Foods 2024, 13(12), 1926; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13121926 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 873
Abstract
Whey protein was pretreated with multi-frequency ultrasound in mono-, dual-, and tri-frequency modes. The effect of multi-frequency ultrasound pretreatment on the hardness, chemical forces, and microstructure of acid-induced whey protein gel was investigated. Whey protein gels pretreated with dual- and tri-frequency ultrasound showed [...] Read more.
Whey protein was pretreated with multi-frequency ultrasound in mono-, dual-, and tri-frequency modes. The effect of multi-frequency ultrasound pretreatment on the hardness, chemical forces, and microstructure of acid-induced whey protein gel was investigated. Whey protein gels pretreated with dual- and tri-frequency ultrasound showed higher hardness (p < 0.05) and a denser network than mono-frequency ultrasound and control. Moreover, they had higher hydrophobic interaction and lower disulfide bonds than the control (p < 0.05). The effect of gel properties on digestion was evaluated using an in vitro static model. Whey protein gels pretreated with dual- and tri-frequency ultrasound had a higher proportion of large fragments in the oral boluses than in the control. Large fragments (>3.35 mm) in those samples were resistant to gastric digestion. Moreover, the tri-frequency ultrasound pretreatment of whey protein gel released the least free amino group during gastric digestion. In contrast, whey protein gel with the mono-frequency ultrasound pretreatment released the highest amount of free amino acid group during intestinal digestion. Findings from this study suggests that gel hardness and network density could modulate the digestion behaviors of protein gels. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop