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Foods, Volume 11, Issue 21 (November-1 2022) – 234 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Geographical origin authentication methods can be used to ascertain the origin of food. Authentication methods can benefit protected land- and tradition-related cheese (e.g., Protected Designation of Origin) since they can provide valuable information against frauds as well as improve quality-related certifications. The evaluation and comparison of chemical, physical or DNA-based methods offers the opportunity to determine which methods or combination of methods can be the most interesting for involved scientists, agency personnel, food producers and quality managers. Herein, we describe the principles, performance, advantages and limitations of stable isotope ratio MS, inductive coupled plasma, infrared spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, volatilome and amplicon sequencing methods. View this paper
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13 pages, 2878 KiB  
Article
Polyphenolics from Syzygium brachythyrsum Inhibits Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein-Induced Macrophage-Derived Foam Cell Formation and Inflammation
by Xue-Lian Chen, Pu-Lin Liang, Ming-Jiong Gong, Ya Xu, Liang Zhang, Xiao-Hui Qiu, Jing Zhang, Zhi-Hai Huang and Wen Xu
Foods 2022, 11(21), 3543; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11213543 - 7 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1618
Abstract
Evidence suggests that the immunomodulatory property of polyphenols may also contribute to the reduction of cardiovascular risk. In the present study, we investigated the polyphenol extraction (PE) from Syzygium brachythyrsum, a functional food resource in south China, regarding the protective effect on [...] Read more.
Evidence suggests that the immunomodulatory property of polyphenols may also contribute to the reduction of cardiovascular risk. In the present study, we investigated the polyphenol extraction (PE) from Syzygium brachythyrsum, a functional food resource in south China, regarding the protective effect on inhibiting foam cell formation and the underlying molecular mechanism based on an ox-LDL-induced RAW264.7 macrophage model. The results of Oil Red O staining, Dil-ox-LDL fluorescent staining, and cholesterol efflux experiments showed that PE, and its two phenolics brachythol B (BB) and ethyl gallate (EG), significantly inhibited the foam cell formation, which may be associated with reducing the expression of SR-A1 and CD36 while increasing expression of SR-B1, ABCG1, and PPARγ. In addition, BB and EG also reduce the inflammatory response by down-regulating the expression of NF-κB and MAPK signal pathway proteins, thereby inhibiting the expression of inflammatory factors. Altogether, PE and its two components BB and EG attenuated foam cell formation and macrophage inflammation response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intervention Effect of Natural Food Products on Chronic Diseases)
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20 pages, 804 KiB  
Article
Changes in the Physical–Chemical Properties and Volatile Flavor Components of Dry-Cured Donkey Leg during Processing
by Jingjing Zhang, Zixiang Wei, Huachen Zhang, Lan Xie, Silvia Vincenzetti, Paolo Polidori, Lanjie Li and Guiqin Liu
Foods 2022, 11(21), 3542; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11213542 - 7 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1905
Abstract
In order to explore the quality variation and flavor formation of dry-cured donkey leg, the changes in physical–chemical composition, lipolytic, free amino acids content and volatile flavor compounds were investigated in this study. Six fresh, trimmed hind legs with average weight of 8.12 [...] Read more.
In order to explore the quality variation and flavor formation of dry-cured donkey leg, the changes in physical–chemical composition, lipolytic, free amino acids content and volatile flavor compounds were investigated in this study. Six fresh, trimmed hind legs with average weight of 8.12 ± 0.8 kg were taken from male Dezhou donkeys slaughtered at the age of 24 months with the average live weight of 240 kg. The entire processing time was eight months long including six stages, specifically: cooling, salting, air-drying, fermenting and aging. Samples were collected at 0 d, 10 d, 20 d, 30 d, 65 d, 105 d and 165 d of processing. The results showed that the pH value remained stable in the range of 6.2~6.6. The moisture and water activity significantly decreased (p < 0.05) during processing. The chloride content, ash, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) and peroxide value (POV) significantly increased (p < 0.05), from 0.45% to 12.39%, from 3% to 17%, from 1.43 mg/kg to 8.98 mg/kg and from 1.39 g/100 g to 5.26 g/100 g, respectively. The thiobarbituric acid (TBARS) value reached its highest value of 0.39 mg MDA/kg at the end of the salting stage and then decreased to 0.34 mg MDA/kg. Eighteen free amino acids and fifteen free fatty acids were detected, and their contents were significantly increased during processing (p < 0.05). Volatile compounds were analyzed using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Among 114 volatile compounds detected in dry-cured donkey leg, aldehydes, esters, alkane and alcohols were more abundant in the final products, with relative concentrations of 41.88%, 5.72%, 5.35% and 5.25%, respectively. Processing significantly affected the physical–chemical properties, which could contribute to the formation of flavor substances of dry-cured donkey leg. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Processing Technology of Meat and Meat Products)
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17 pages, 4189 KiB  
Article
Storage Drives Alterations of Proteomic and Protein Structural Properties in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
by Qian Wang, Dong Zhang, Jianlei Liu, Bo Shang, Xiaoliang Duan and Hui Sun
Foods 2022, 11(21), 3541; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11213541 - 7 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1453
Abstract
Rice quality changes during storage. However, few studies have reported the difference in protein structure between the indica and japonica varieties of rice during storage. The current research characterized the structural properties of the rice protein, and further investigated the proteomic profiles of [...] Read more.
Rice quality changes during storage. However, few studies have reported the difference in protein structure between the indica and japonica varieties of rice during storage. The current research characterized the structural properties of the rice protein, and further investigated the proteomic profiles of Jianzhen 2 (indica rice) and Nanjing 9108 (japonica rice) during storage using the TMT labeling method. A significant reduction in free sulfhydryl content and an increase in disulfide bonds content and surface hydrophobicity were observed in both varieties after storage. The results of FTIR indicated that the changes in the protein’s secondary structure of Nanjing 9108 (japonica rice) were more significant than in Jianzhen 2 (indica rice). A total of 4039 proteins in Nanjing 9108 and 4301 proteins in Jianzhen 2 were identified by TMT-labeled proteomics analysis in this study. Significantly, changes were detected in 831 proteins in Nanjing 9108, while only in 60 proteins in Jianzhen 2. Protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, starch, and sucrose metabolism were both accelerated in both varieties, while oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria, glycolysis, fatty acid metabolism, and glutathione metabolism were enhanced in Nanjing 9108 (japonica rice). This study provides insight into the proteomic changes and protein structure in rice induced by storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Foodomics)
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26 pages, 1341 KiB  
Article
A Study on the Influence of the Use of Sulphur Dioxide, the Distillation System and the Aging Conditions on the Final Sensory Characteristics of Brandy
by María Guerrero-Chanivet, Manuel J. Valcárcel-Muñoz, Dominico Antonio Guillén-Sánchez, Remedios Castro-Mejías, Enrique Durán-Guerrero, Carmen Rodríguez-Dodero and María de Valme García-Moreno
Foods 2022, 11(21), 3540; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11213540 - 7 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2245
Abstract
Brandy is a unique alcoholic beverage obtained from wine distillates. Numerous studies have been published on its physicochemical traits and the effect of certain elaboration variables on them, but not many studies have been carried out from a sensory point of view or [...] Read more.
Brandy is a unique alcoholic beverage obtained from wine distillates. Numerous studies have been published on its physicochemical traits and the effect of certain elaboration variables on them, but not many studies have been carried out from a sensory point of view or that have followed standardized methods applicable to this discipline. This study intends to determine the effect that certain production variables have on the sensory characteristics of brandy. These variables are the following: The use of sulphur dioxide during the fermentation of the base wine, the subsequent distillation system, the alcohol content during aging, the botanical origin of the aging casks, and their toasting degree. For this purpose, the guidelines provided by the ISO standards for sensory analysis have been followed, and chromatic parameters have also been determined. Heavy extractions from Quercus petraea casks resulted in brandies with widely varying colors, although these were hard to distinguish using the olfactory and gustatory properties associated with the factors under study. Conversely, those brandies aged in Quercus alba casks presented very consistent greenish shades that are not traditionally associated with aged brandy. This lower extraction could explain why the aromatic traits that are found in the fresh spirit are better preserved when this type of oak is used. The spirit obtained through the distillation of SO2-free wines aged in Quercus robur presented average sensory characteristics: Good color, smooth in the mouth, and medium-intensity oak notes. The distillates that were aged at 55% ABV were later perceived as more aromatically intense with a greater oak note on the palate. On the other hand, the brandies obtained from wines without SO2 added were perceived as less alcoholic, sweeter, and more balanced, with a softer oak note. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Grape Derived Product Aroma and Flavour Chemistry)
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12 pages, 1745 KiB  
Article
Metabolic Variations in Brown Rice Fertilised with Different Levels of Nitrogen
by Yichao Ma, Shuang Zhang, Zhaoxia Wu and Wentao Sun
Foods 2022, 11(21), 3539; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11213539 - 7 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1225
Abstract
Nitrogen is a necessary element for plant growth; therefore, it is important to study the influence of N fertilisers on crop metabolites. In this study, we investigate the variability of endogenous metabolites in brown rice fertilised with different amounts of nitrogen. We identified [...] Read more.
Nitrogen is a necessary element for plant growth; therefore, it is important to study the influence of N fertilisers on crop metabolites. In this study, we investigate the variability of endogenous metabolites in brown rice fertilised with different amounts of nitrogen. We identified 489 metabolites in brown rice. Compared to non-nitrogen fertilised groups, there were 59 differentially activated metabolic pathways in the nitrogen-fertilised groups. Additionally, there were significantly differential secondary metabolites, especially flavonoids, between groups treated with moderate (210 kg N/hm2) and excessive amounts of nitrogen (420 kg N/hm2). Nitrogen fertilisation upregulated linoleic acid metabolism and most steroids, steroid derivatives, and flavonoid compounds, which have antioxidant activity. The DPPH, ABTS, and hydroxyl radical scavenging rates were higher in fertilised groups than in the non-fertilised group. These findings provide a theoretical basis to enhance the health benefits of brown rice by improving fertilisation. Full article
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15 pages, 4234 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Novel Exopolysaccharides from Enterococcus hirae WEHI01 and Its Immunomodulatory Activity
by Kaiying Jia, Min Wei, Yao He, Yujie Wang, Hua Wei and Xueying Tao
Foods 2022, 11(21), 3538; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11213538 - 7 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1480
Abstract
Exopolysaccharide (EPS) from probiotic Enterococcus hirae WEHI01 was isolated and purified by anion exchange chromatography and gel chromatography, the results of which show that the EPS consists of four fractions, namely I01-1, I01-2, I01-3, and I01-4. As the main purification components, I01-2 and [...] Read more.
Exopolysaccharide (EPS) from probiotic Enterococcus hirae WEHI01 was isolated and purified by anion exchange chromatography and gel chromatography, the results of which show that the EPS consists of four fractions, namely I01-1, I01-2, I01-3, and I01-4. As the main purification components, I01-2 and I01-4 were preliminarily characterized for their structure and their immunomodulatory activity was explored. The molecular weight of I01-2 was 2.28 × 104 Da, which consists mainly of galactose, and a few other sugars including glucose, arabinose, mannose, xylose, fucose, and rhamnose, while the I01-4 was composed of galactose only and has a molecular weight of 2.59 × 104 Da. Furthermore, the results of an evaluation of immunomodulatory activity revealed that I01-2 and I01-4 could improve the viability of macrophage cells, improve phagocytosis, boost NO generation, and encourage the release of cytokines including TNF-α and IL-6 in RAW 264.7 macrophages. These results imply that I01-2 and I01-4 could improve macrophage-mediated immune responses and might be useful in the production of functional food and medications. Full article
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12 pages, 4678 KiB  
Article
In Vivo Evaluation of the Cardiometabolic Potential of Grape Pomace: Effect of Applying Instant Controlled Pressure Drop
by Yuridia Martínez-Meza, Jara Pérez-Jiménez, Luis Miguel Salgado-Rodríguez, Ana Karen Castellanos-Jiménez and Rosalía Reynoso-Camacho
Foods 2022, 11(21), 3537; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11213537 - 7 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1355
Abstract
Grape pomace (GP) is a source of polyphenols which may be present as free structures or associated with dietary fiber. Instant controlled pressure drop (DIC) is a technology which can modify the association of polyphenols with food matrixes, but how these modifications affect [...] Read more.
Grape pomace (GP) is a source of polyphenols which may be present as free structures or associated with dietary fiber. Instant controlled pressure drop (DIC) is a technology which can modify the association of polyphenols with food matrixes, but how these modifications affect the health benefits associated with GP remains to be elucidated. In this study, in rats fed a high-fat–fructose diet (HFF), we evaluated the in vivo cardiometabolic effects of the modification of polyphenols in GP caused by DIC at 0.2 MPa for 60 s (DIC1) and 0.4 MPa for 120 s (DIC2). These treatments increased anthocyanin and total flavonoid contents, respectively, while all the supplementations caused significant improvements in insulin resistance and plasma triacylglycerols. Thus, the bioactive compounds present in GP (including a major fraction of non-extractable proanthocyanidins) caused these modifications independently of the specific polyphenol profiles which may have resulted from these DIC treatments. Additionally, only intact GP led to an increase in HDL cholesterol, while only DIC2-treated GP improved hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, GP always improves insulin sensitivity in this animal model of obesity, while the different compositions of GP modified by DIC may be associated with other cardiometabolic parameters. Full article
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24 pages, 4103 KiB  
Article
Fabrication and Characterization of Eco-Friendly Polyelectrolyte Bilayer Films Based on Chitosan and Different Types of Edible Citrus Pectin
by Xincheng Fu, Xia Chang, Zemin Ding, Haishan Xu, Hui Kong, Fei Chen, Rongrong Wang, Yang Shan and Shenghua Ding
Foods 2022, 11(21), 3536; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11213536 - 7 Nov 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2191
Abstract
The eco-friendly polyelectrolyte bilayer films were prepared by layer-by-layer (LBL) casting method using chitosan (CS) and four types of edible citrus pectin as film substrates. The results showed that the polyelectrolyte bilayer films exhibited excellent comprehensive properties. Furthermore, the interaction between CS and [...] Read more.
The eco-friendly polyelectrolyte bilayer films were prepared by layer-by-layer (LBL) casting method using chitosan (CS) and four types of edible citrus pectin as film substrates. The results showed that the polyelectrolyte bilayer films exhibited excellent comprehensive properties. Furthermore, the interaction between CS and pectin was closely related to the degree of methyl-esterification (DM), molecular weight (Mw), and zeta potential of pectin. The low DM, Mw, and high zeta potential of the low methyl-esterified pectin (LM) resulted in a denser internal structure of the bilayer film, stronger UV shielding performance, and stronger gas barrier ability. The high DM and Mw of the high methyl-esterified pectin (HM) endow the bilayer film with stronger mechanical properties, thermal stability, and antifogging property. The microstructural and spectroscopic analysis showed that there are hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions between the layers. Overall, the developed CS-pectin polyelectrolyte bilayer films provided potential applications for food bioactive packaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Packaging: Biodegradable, Active and Intelligent)
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14 pages, 6341 KiB  
Article
Different Structures of Arabinoxylan Hydrolysates Alleviated Caco-2 Cell Barrier Damage by Regulating the TLRs/MyD88/NF-κB Pathway
by Jingwen Li, Qi Jia, Ying Liu, Daiwen Chen, Zhengfeng Fang, Yuntao Liu, Shanshan Li, Bin Hu, Caixia Wang and Hong Chen
Foods 2022, 11(21), 3535; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11213535 - 7 Nov 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1929
Abstract
Arabinoxylan (AX) has been associated with alleviating intestinal barrier damage, and different structures of AX give rise to different effects on the intestinal barrier. This study investigated the main structural characteristics of AX, whose functional properties are attributed to alleviating intestinal barrier damage, [...] Read more.
Arabinoxylan (AX) has been associated with alleviating intestinal barrier damage, and different structures of AX give rise to different effects on the intestinal barrier. This study investigated the main structural characteristics of AX, whose functional properties are attributed to alleviating intestinal barrier damage, and clarified their underlying mechanisms. An in vitro Caco-2 cell model was established to investigate the intestinal barrier effects of AX with various degrees of substitution (Ds) and molecular weight (Mw), with an added MyD88 inhibitor to verify the signaling pathways. Arabinoxylan treated with endo-1,4-β-xylanase (AXX) with higher Ds and Mw showed stronger physiological activity, which might be correlated with the uronic acid and bound ferulic acid contents in AXX. Moreover, AXX alleviated the intestinal barrier damage by upregulating the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and alleviating the decrease of claudin-1 (p < 0.05). AXX regulated the expression of inflammatory factors IL-2, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 (p < 0.05). In addition, AXX reduced the intestinal barrier damage induced via inhibiting the TLRs/MyD88/NF-κB pathway and activating the TLRs/PKC pathway. Thus, AX with higher Ds and Mw might be better in alleviating intestinal barrier damage, and MyD88 might be the key point of AXX to identify these signaling pathways. Full article
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17 pages, 2060 KiB  
Review
What Are the Main Factors That Affect the Flavor of Sauce-Aroma Baijiu
by Jiao Niu, Shiqi Yang, Yi Shen, Wei Cheng, Hehe Li, Jinyuan Sun, Mingquan Huang and Baoguo Sun
Foods 2022, 11(21), 3534; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11213534 - 7 Nov 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3269
Abstract
Sauce-aroma Baijiu is a distilled Baijiu well-known in China, and features a unique sauce-aroma style formed by a complex producing process in a specific geographical environment. However, there are few comprehensive reviews of the factors influencing the formation of its flavor. To this [...] Read more.
Sauce-aroma Baijiu is a distilled Baijiu well-known in China, and features a unique sauce-aroma style formed by a complex producing process in a specific geographical environment. However, there are few comprehensive reviews of the factors influencing the formation of its flavor. To this end, reviews are hereby carried out over factors including different components in brewing raw materials, geographical environment of Baijiu production, brewing technology including the production of high-temperature Daqu and the brewing process, storage technology including the type of storage containers, storage time and storage temperature involved in the production of Sauce-aroma Baijiu. In addition, the effects of these factors on the flavor formation of Sauce-aroma Baijiu are also revealed, providing references and forging a foundation for stabilizing and improving the quality of Sauce-aroma Baijiu. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Methods in Food Quality and Microbiological Safety)
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20 pages, 3191 KiB  
Article
Development and Application of Dual-Sensors Label in Combination with Active Chitosan-Based Coating Incorporating Yarrow Essential Oil for Freshness Monitoring and Shelf-Life Extension of Chicken Fillet
by Seyed Hadi Peighambardoust, Milad Yaghoubi, Azam Hosseinpour, Kazem Alirezalu, Maral Soltanzadeh and Mohammadreza Dadpour
Foods 2022, 11(21), 3533; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11213533 - 6 Nov 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2255
Abstract
This study aimed for the application of active chitosan coating incorporating yarrow essential oil (YEO) together with the development of an on-package sensor label based on bromocresol purple (BCP) and methyl red (MR) for shelf-life extension and freshness monitoring of chicken breast fillet. [...] Read more.
This study aimed for the application of active chitosan coating incorporating yarrow essential oil (YEO) together with the development of an on-package sensor label based on bromocresol purple (BCP) and methyl red (MR) for shelf-life extension and freshness monitoring of chicken breast fillet. Physiochemical and microbiological attributes of chicken meat coated with sole chitosan, YEO, and chitosan + YEO were compared with those of uncoated (control) samples. Chitosan + YEO coated chicken meat stayed fresh with no significant changes (p > 0.05) in pH (5.42–5.56), TVB-N (12.55–15.36 mg N/100 g), TBARs (0.35–0.40 mg MDA/kg) and total aerobic psycrotrophic bacteria (3.97–4.65 log CFU/g) in days 1–15. There was no response of the dual-sensors label toward the variation in chemical and microbiological indicators of chicken meat coated with chitosan + YEO. However, either uncoated, sole chitosan, or sole YEO treatments indicated a three-stage freshness status with the fresh stage belonged to a period earlier than day 7 (with no distinct color change in both sensor labels); the semi-fresh stage corresponded to storage days between 7–9, wherein a gradual color change appeared (MR from pink to orange, BCP from yellow to light purple); and the spoiled stage occurred in day 9 onward with a drastic color change (MR from orange to light yellow, BCP from light purple to deep purple). In general, the dual-sensors successfully responded to the variation of chemical and microbiological indicators and visual color of uncoated samples during storage time. Based on the obtained results, the application of chitosan + YEO coating efficiently prolonged the freshness of chicken breast meat, where on-package dual-sensors systems were able to detect the freshness stages of meat samples during storage time. Full article
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15 pages, 2091 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Aroma Characteristics of Dried Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) Prepared by Five Different Procedures
by Weizhen Sun, Hongwu Ji, Di Zhang, Zewei Zhang, Shucheng Liu and Wenkui Song
Foods 2022, 11(21), 3532; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11213532 - 6 Nov 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2482
Abstract
Litopenaeus vannamei is one of the most popular shrimp species in the world and has been reported in studies on its dryness and flavor. However, the aroma characteristics of shrimps dried with different drying methods are compared in a unified way, and there [...] Read more.
Litopenaeus vannamei is one of the most popular shrimp species in the world and has been reported in studies on its dryness and flavor. However, the aroma characteristics of shrimps dried with different drying methods are compared in a unified way, and there are few reports on the difference in aroma of different shrimps dried. In order to clarify the difference in aroma characteristics of shrimp dried produced by different drying methods. In this study, blanched shrimp (BS) was used as a control to analyze the aroma characteristics of shrimp dried by five different procedures (SD-BFDP) samples, namely vacuum freeze-dried shrimp (VFDS), vacuum dried-shrimp (VDS), heat pump-dried shrimp (HPDS), hot air dried-shrimp (HADS) and microwave vacuum-dried shrimp (MVDS). An electronic nose (E-nose) was used to obtain the aroma fingerprint of SD-BFDP samples. Headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile compounds in SD-BFDP samples. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used to analyze potential correlations between sensory attributes and aroma-active compounds (AACs). Partial least squares-discrimination analysis (PLS-DA) was used to screen for signature aroma compounds. The results of the E-nose showed that there were differences in the aroma fingerprints of the SD-BFDP samples, and the E-nose could distinguish the five kinds of SD-BFDP. The qualitative and quantitative results of GC-MS showed that the types and contents of the main volatile components of SD-BFDP samples were different. 15 AACs were screened from SD-BFDP based on odor activity value (OAV). The PLSR results showed good correlations between certain sensory attributes and the majority of AACs. PLS-DA results displayed that aroma attributes of SD-BFDP samples could be distinguished by six signature aroma compounds, including trimethylamine, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-5-methylpyrazine, nonanal, 3-ethyl-2,5-dimethylpyrazine, and octanal. These research results reveal that shrimps dried in different procedures have unique aroma characteristics, which could provide a theoretical basis for the rapid identification of aroma attributes of dried shrimps in the future. From a flavor perspective, MVD is the best drying method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Foods of Marine Origin)
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18 pages, 10162 KiB  
Article
Multi-Barley Seed Detection Using iPhone Images and YOLOv5 Model
by Yaying Shi, Jiayi Li, Zeyun Yu, Yin Li, Yangpingqing Hu and Lushen Wu
Foods 2022, 11(21), 3531; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11213531 - 6 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2221
Abstract
As a raw material for beer, barley seeds play a critical role in producing beers with various flavors. Unexcepted mixed varieties of barley seeds make malt quality uncontrollable and can even destroy beer flavors. To ensure the quality and flavor of malts and [...] Read more.
As a raw material for beer, barley seeds play a critical role in producing beers with various flavors. Unexcepted mixed varieties of barley seeds make malt quality uncontrollable and can even destroy beer flavors. To ensure the quality and flavor of malts and beers, beer brewers will strictly check the appropriate varieties of barley seeds during the malting process. There are wide varieties of barley seeds with small sizes and similar features. Professionals can visually distinguish these varieties, which can be tedious and time-consuming and have high misjudgment rates. However, biological testing requires professional equipment, reagents, and laboratories, which are expensive. This study aims to build an automatic artificial intelligence detection method to achieve high performance in multi-barley seed datasets. There are nine varieties of barley seeds (CDC Copeland, AC Metcalfe, Hockett, Scarlett, Expedition, AAC Synergy, Celebration, Legacy, and Tradition). We captured images of these original barley seeds using an iPhone 11 Pro. This study used two mixed datasets, including a single-barley seed dataset and a multi-barley seed dataset, to improve the detection accuracy of multi-barley seeds. The multi-barley seed dataset had random amounts and varieties of barley seeds in each image. The single-barley seed dataset had one barley seed in each image. Data augmentation can reduce overfitting and maximize model performance and accuracy. Multi-variety barley seed recognition deploys an efficient data augmentation method to effectively expand the barley dataset. After adjusting the hyperparameters of the networks and analyzing and augmenting the datasets, the YOLOv5 series network was the most effective in training the two barley seed datasets and achieved the highest performance. The YOLOv5x6 network achieved the second highest performance. The mAP (mean Average Precision) of the trained YOLOv5x6 was 97.5%; precision was 98.4%; recall was 98.1%; the average speed of image detection reached 0.024 s. YOLOv5x6 only trained the multi-barley seed dataset; the trained performance was greater than that of the YOLOv5 series. The two datasets had 39.5% higher precision, 27.1% higher recall, and 40.1% higher mAP than when just using the original multi-barley seed dataset. The multi-barley seed detection results showed high performance, robustness, and speed. Therefore, malting and brewing industries can assess the original barley seed quality with the assistance of fast, intelligent, and detected multi-barley seed images. Full article
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18 pages, 3663 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Extraction Process of Polysaccharides MAP-2 from Opuntia Milpa Alta by Response Surface Methodology and Evaluation of Its Potential as α-Glucosidase Inhibitor
by Yan Yang, Maohui Yang, Xin Zhou and Huaguo Chen
Foods 2022, 11(21), 3530; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11213530 - 6 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1690
Abstract
The α-glucosidase inhibitors play an important role in blood glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes. At present, the development of new α-glucosidase inhibitors is an urgent clinical need. Our previous studies have found that the polysaccharide MAP-2 in the cactus Opuntia [...] Read more.
The α-glucosidase inhibitors play an important role in blood glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes. At present, the development of new α-glucosidase inhibitors is an urgent clinical need. Our previous studies have found that the polysaccharide MAP-2 in the cactus Opuntia Milpa Alta has significantly better activity than acarbose (one of the most widely used first-line α-glucosidase inhibitors in clinical practice), but its optimal extraction process parameters and inhibition kinetic characteristics are not clear, and whether it has the potential to become a new α-glucosidase inhibitors is also unclear. In this study, based on previous research, we used the combination of single factor experiments and the response surface method (RSM) to identify the optimal extraction conditions for MAP-2 as follows: solid-liquid ratio 1:4, extraction temperature 90 °C, extraction time 1 h. Under these conditions, the extraction yield of MAP-2 was 3.47 ± 0.062%. When the concentration of MAP-2 was 16 mg/mL, the inhibition rate of α-glucosidase was 91.13 ± 0.62%. In addition, the results of inhibition kinetics showed that the inhibition rate of MAP-2 on α-glucosidase was the highest at pH 7.4 for 30 min, and showed a good dose-effect relationship, which was a reversible competitive inhibition. Meanwhile, we also compared the activities of MAP-2 and acarbose on the side effects of acarbose related enzymes. Compared with acarbose, MAP-2 not only had a better activation effect on lactase, but also inhibited the activity of hyaluronidase, and the activation and inhibition rate were positively correlated with the concentration. However, under the same conditions, the effect of acarbose on hyaluronidase was opposite to that of MAP-2. At low concentration, acarbose had a certain activation effect on lactase, but gradually attained an inhibitory effect with the increase in concentration. In contrast, MAP-2 not only activates lactase activity, improves diarrhea, abdominal distension, and abdominal pain, but also inhibits hyaluronidase activity, to solve the side effects of allergic reactions, suggesting that MAP-2 has the potential to become a novel and effective inhibitor of α-glucosidase with fewer side effects. Full article
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12 pages, 900 KiB  
Article
Investigation of the Effect of Rice Bran Content on the Antioxidant Capacity and Related Molecular Conformations of Plant-Based Simulated Meat Based on Raman Spectroscopy
by Yanran Li, Ruisheng Jiang, Yuzhe Gao, Yumin Duan, Yifan Zhang, Minpeng Zhu and Zhigang Xiao
Foods 2022, 11(21), 3529; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11213529 - 6 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1792
Abstract
At present, plant-based simulated meat is attracting more and more attention as a meat substitute. This study discusses the possibility of partial substitution of rice bran (RB) for soybean protein isolate (SPI) in preparing plant-based simulated meat. RB was added to SPI at [...] Read more.
At present, plant-based simulated meat is attracting more and more attention as a meat substitute. This study discusses the possibility of partial substitution of rice bran (RB) for soybean protein isolate (SPI) in preparing plant-based simulated meat. RB was added to SPI at 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% to prepare RB-SPI plant-based simulated meat by the high moisture extrusion technique. RB-SPI plant-based simulated meat revealed greater polyphenol content and preferable antioxidant capacity (DPPH radical scavenging capacity, ABTS scavenging ability, and FRAP antioxidant capacity) compared to SPI plant-based simulated meat. The aromatic amino acids (tryptophan and tyrosine) of RB-SPI plant-based simulated meats tend to be masked first, and then the hydrophobic groups are exposed as RB content increases and the polarity of the surrounding environment increases due to the change in the disulfide conformation of RB-SPI plant-based simulated meats from a stable gauche–gauche–gauche conformation to a trans–gauche–trans conformation. Full article
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16 pages, 3893 KiB  
Article
Characterization of a Novel Polysaccharide Lyase Family 5 Alginate Lyase with PolyM Substrate Specificity
by Licheng Zhou, Qing Meng, Ran Zhang, Bo Jiang, Xiaoyong Liu, Jingjing Chen and Tao Zhang
Foods 2022, 11(21), 3527; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11213527 - 6 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1913
Abstract
Alginate lyases (ALyases) have been widely applied in enzymatically degrading alginate for the preparation of alginate oligosaccharides (AOS), which possess a range of excellent physiological benefits including immunoregulatory, antivirus, and antidiabetic properties. Among the characterized ALyases, the number of ALyases with strict substrate [...] Read more.
Alginate lyases (ALyases) have been widely applied in enzymatically degrading alginate for the preparation of alginate oligosaccharides (AOS), which possess a range of excellent physiological benefits including immunoregulatory, antivirus, and antidiabetic properties. Among the characterized ALyases, the number of ALyases with strict substrate specificity which possess potential in directed preparation of AOS is quite small. ALyases of polysaccharides lyase (PL) 5 family have been reported to perform poly-β-D-mannuronic acid (Poly-M) substrate specificity. However, there have been fewer studies with a comprehensive characterization and comparison of PL 5 family ALyases. In this study, a putative PL 5 family ALyase PMD was cloned from Pseudomonas mendocina and expressed in Escherichia coli. The novel ALyase presented maximum activity at 30 °C and pH 7.0. PMD displayed pH stability properties under the range of pH 5 to pH 9, which retained more than 80% relative activity, even when incubated for 48 h. Product analysis indicated that PMD might be an endolytic ALyase with strict Poly M substrate specificity and yield disaccharide and trisaccharide as main products. In addition, residues K58, R66, Y248, and R344 were proposed to be the potential key residues for catalysis via site-directed mutation. Detailed characterization of PMD and comprehensive comparisons could supply some different information about properties of PL 5 ALyases which might be helpful for its application in the directed production of AOS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Biotechnology)
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15 pages, 1676 KiB  
Review
Research Progress on the Preparation and Action Mechanism of Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents and Their Application in Food
by Kairong Wu, Jing Ren, Qian Wang, Maheshati Nuerjiang, Xiufang Xia and Chun Bian
Foods 2022, 11(21), 3528; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11213528 - 5 Nov 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 5079
Abstract
Natural deep eutectic solvent (NADES) is the eutectic mixture which is formed by hydrogen bond donors (HBDs) and hydrogen bond acceptors (HBAs) with a certain molar ratio through hydrogen bonding. NADES is a liquid with low cost, easy preparation, biodegradability, sustainability and environmental [...] Read more.
Natural deep eutectic solvent (NADES) is the eutectic mixture which is formed by hydrogen bond donors (HBDs) and hydrogen bond acceptors (HBAs) with a certain molar ratio through hydrogen bonding. NADES is a liquid with low cost, easy preparation, biodegradability, sustainability and environmental friendliness at room temperature. At present, it is widely used in food, medicine and other areas. First, the composition, preparation and properties of NADES are outlined. Second, the potential mechanism of NADES in freezing preservation, the removal of heavy metals from food and the extraction of phenolic compounds, and its application in cryopreservation, food analysis and food component extraction, and as a food taste enhancer and food film, are summarized. Lastly, the potential and challenges of its application in the food field are reviewed. This review could provide a theoretical basis for the wide application of NADES in food processing and production. Full article
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18 pages, 2029 KiB  
Article
Nanoparticles Containing Tamarind Isolate Protein Potentiate the Satiety without Promoting the Anti-Inflammatory Effect in a Preclinical Model of Diet-Induced Obesity
by Rafael O. A. Costa, Isaiane Medeiros, Jaluza L. C. De Queiroz, Lídia L. R. Matias, Mayara S. R. Lima, Gerciane S. De Oliveira, Ana Júlia F. C. Aguiar, Izael S. Costa, Eloyse Mikaelly de S. Silva, Nicolle Caroline S. Dos Santos, Thaís S. Passos and Ana Heloneida De A. Morais
Foods 2022, 11(21), 3526; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11213526 - 5 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1789
Abstract
The study aimed to evaluate the nanoparticles (ECW) containing tamarind trypsin inhibitor (TTI) concerning the storage effect under different conditions on antitrypsin activity and the bioactive potential in a preclinical model. ECW was exposed to different pH and temperatures to evaluate the interaction [...] Read more.
The study aimed to evaluate the nanoparticles (ECW) containing tamarind trypsin inhibitor (TTI) concerning the storage effect under different conditions on antitrypsin activity and the bioactive potential in a preclinical model. ECW was exposed to different pH and temperatures to evaluate the interaction between TTI and its encapsulating agents, monitored by antitrypsin activity. Wistar rats (n = 25) with obesity induced by diet were divided into groups: untreated; treatment with nutritionally adequate diet; treatment with nutritionally adequate diet and ECW/12.5 mg/kg; treatment with ECW/12.5 mg/kg; and treatment with TTI/25 mg/kg. The groups were evaluated over ten days with regards to satiety, zoometric, biochemical, and inflammatory parameters, using ten times less TTI (2.5 mg/kg) contained in ECW. TTI was protected and encapsulated in ECW without showing residual inhibitory activity. Only at gastric pH did ECW show antitrypsin activity. At different temperatures, it showed high antitrypsin activity, similar to TTI. The animals treated with ECW had significantly reduced body weight variation (p < 0.05), and only TTI treatment reduced the inflammatory parameters significantly (p < 0.05). The study showed that by using lower concentrations of TTI in ECW it was possible to perceive promising effects with perspectives of use in functional products for managing obesity and its complications. Full article
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16 pages, 3574 KiB  
Article
Influence of Low-Intensity Ultrasound on ε-Polylysine Production: Intracellular ATP and Key Biosynthesis Enzymes during Streptomyces albulus Fermentation
by Jiahui Xiang, Mokhtar Dabbour, Xianli Gao, Benjamin Kumah Mintah, Yao Yang, Wenbin Ren, Ronghai He, Chunhua Dai and Haile Ma
Foods 2022, 11(21), 3525; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11213525 - 5 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1888
Abstract
The effect of low-intensity sonication treatment on cell growth, ε-polylysine (ε-PL) yield and its biological mechanism were investigated, using a 3-L-jar fermenter coupled with an in situ ultrasonic slot with a Streptomyces albulus strain SAR 14-116. Under ultrasonic conditions (28 [...] Read more.
The effect of low-intensity sonication treatment on cell growth, ε-polylysine (ε-PL) yield and its biological mechanism were investigated, using a 3-L-jar fermenter coupled with an in situ ultrasonic slot with a Streptomyces albulus strain SAR 14-116. Under ultrasonic conditions (28 kHz, 0.37 W cm−2, 60 min), a high biomass of SAR 14-116 and concentration of ε-PL were realized (i.e., they increased by 14.92% and 28.45%, respectively) when compared with a control. Besides this, ultrasonication increased the mycelia viability and intracellular ATP as well as activities of key enzymes involved in the ε-PL biosynthesis pathway, resulting in an improvement in the production of ε-PL. Data on qRT-PCR revealed that ultrasonication also affected the gene expression of key enzymes in the ε-PL biosynthesis pathway, including ε-PL synthetase (PLS). These outcomes provided the basis for understanding the effects of ultrasound-assisted fermentation on the stimulation of metabolite production and fermentation procedure in a fermenter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Ultrasonic Technology in Food Processing)
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16 pages, 1798 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Analytical Complexities in Insect Powder Analysis Using Miniaturized NIR Spectroscopy
by Jordi Riu, Alba Vega, Ricard Boqué and Barbara Giussani
Foods 2022, 11(21), 3524; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11213524 - 5 Nov 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1845
Abstract
Insects have been a food source for humans for millennia, and they are actively consumed in various parts of the world. This paper aims to ascertain the feasibility of portable near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a reliable and fast candidate for the classification of [...] Read more.
Insects have been a food source for humans for millennia, and they are actively consumed in various parts of the world. This paper aims to ascertain the feasibility of portable near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a reliable and fast candidate for the classification of insect powder samples and the prediction of their major components. Commercially-available insect powder samples were analyzed using two miniaturized NIR instruments. The samples were analyzed as they are and after grinding, to study the effect of the granulometry on the spectroscopic analyses. A homemade sample holder was designed and optimized for making reliable spectroscopic measurements. Classification was then performed using three classification strategies, and partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to predict the macronutrients. The results obtained confirmed that both spectroscopic sensors were able to classify insect powder samples and predict macronutrients with an adequate detection limit. Full article
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14 pages, 3761 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Isoflavones in Pueraria by UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS and Study on α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity
by Yan Yang, Hui Zhao, Furong Zhu, Xiaoyan Liu, Yu Liu, Feng Zeng and Bin Liu
Foods 2022, 11(21), 3523; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11213523 - 5 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1714
Abstract
Pueraria is a rich source of bioactive compounds, but there is a lack of comprehensive information concerning its composition. Therefore, a UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS method was developed to identify and quantify bioactive compounds in pueraria. Twelve isoflavones were quantified, with puerarin being the most [...] Read more.
Pueraria is a rich source of bioactive compounds, but there is a lack of comprehensive information concerning its composition. Therefore, a UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS method was developed to identify and quantify bioactive compounds in pueraria. Twelve isoflavones were quantified, with puerarin being the most abundant, followed by puerarin 6″-O-xyloside, 3′-methoxy puerarin, and 3′-hydroxy puerarin. A further 88 bioactive components in eight categories were also tentatively identified. The 12 isoflavones, except for genistein, exhibited α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. The binding of these compounds to the active site of α-glucosidase was confirmed via molecular docking analysis. These findings provide a basis for identifying pueraria as a promising functional food ingredient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
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12 pages, 2583 KiB  
Article
Validation of a Multi-Residue Analysis Method for 287 Pesticides in Citrus Fruits Mandarin Orange and Grapefruit Using Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry
by Xiu Yuan, Chang Jo Kim, Raekeun Lee, Min Kim, Hee Jeong Shin, Leesun Kim, Won Tae Jeong, Yongho Shin, Kee Sung Kyung and Hyun Ho Noh
Foods 2022, 11(21), 3522; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11213522 - 4 Nov 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2439
Abstract
Since the introduction of the positive list system (PLS) for agricultural products in the Republic of Korea, the demand for a quick, easy multi-residue analysis method increased continuously. Herein, the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) technique combined with liquid chromatography–tandem [...] Read more.
Since the introduction of the positive list system (PLS) for agricultural products in the Republic of Korea, the demand for a quick, easy multi-residue analysis method increased continuously. Herein, the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) technique combined with liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry was employed to optimize a method for the multi-residue analysis of 287 pesticide residues in mandarin orange and grapefruit. Method validation was conducted in terms of selectivity, limit of quantitation (LOQ), linearity, accuracy, precision, and matrix effect. All the compounds at low spiking levels (1, 2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg) could be quantified at LOQs lower than 0.01 mg/kg (PLS level). The linearity of the matrix-matched calibration curve for each compound is in the range 0.5–50 μg/L, and its coefficient of determination (R2) is >0.990. Satisfactory recovery values of 70–120% with a relative standard deviation of ≤20% are obtained for all compounds in the mandarin orange and grapefruit samples. A negligible matrix effect (−20–20%) is observed for more than 94.8% and 85.4% of the pesticides in mandarin orange and grapefruit, respectively. Therefore, this analytical method can contribute to pesticide residue analyses of citrus fruits for routine laboratory testing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
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15 pages, 909 KiB  
Article
Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Bacterial Foodborne Pathogens Isolated from Raw Bivalve Molluscs Subjected to Consumption in Poland during a Ten-Year Period
by Magdalena Lopatek, Kinga Wieczorek and Jacek Osek
Foods 2022, 11(21), 3521; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11213521 - 4 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1910
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological contamination of raw bivalve molluscan shellfish (BMS) available on the Polish market and determinate the antimicrobial resistance of the obtained isolates. A total of 1000 mollusc samples were tested for the presence of [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological contamination of raw bivalve molluscan shellfish (BMS) available on the Polish market and determinate the antimicrobial resistance of the obtained isolates. A total of 1000 mollusc samples were tested for the presence of Salmonella spp., L. monocytogenes, V. parahaemolyticus, and S. aureus using the ISO standard methods. Additionally, the bacterial isolates’ susceptibility to antimicrobials was determined using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method. The obtained results showed that Salmonella spp. was detected in 31 (3.1%) samples, and 51.6% of the bacterial isolates were classified as Salmonella Typhimurium. A total of 74.2% of the Salmonella isolates were sensitive to all antimicrobial agents, whereas three isolates were multiresistant. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 18 (1.8%) BMS, and the isolates belonged to serogroups IIa, IIb, and IVb. Most of them were resistant to ceftriaxone (77.8%) and oxacillin (55.6%). V. parahaemolyticus was present in 24.2% BMS. These isolates were mainly resistant to ampicillin (77.3%) and streptomycin (64.0%). Moreover, 15.2% of the bivalve molluscs were contaminated with S. aureus. Most isolates belonging to this species were resistant to penicillin (84.9%). A total of 60 (6.0%) bivalve molluscs were contaminated with more than one pathogen simultaneously. In addition, the tested bacteria were more likely to be identified during the warmer period (53.9%) compared to the samples analyzed in colder months (35.7%). The obtained results indicate that raw bivalve molluscs from the Polish market are frequently contaminated with bacterial foodborne pathogens, which may be resistant to antimicrobials. Full article
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14 pages, 575 KiB  
Review
Conflicting Issues of Sustainable Consumption and Food Safety: Risky Consumer Behaviors in Reducing Food Waste and Plastic Packaging
by Gyula Kasza, Nina Veflen, Joachim Scholderer, Lars Münter, László Fekete, Eszter Zita Csenki, Annamária Dorkó, Dávid Szakos and Tekla Izsó
Foods 2022, 11(21), 3520; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11213520 - 4 Nov 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 5195
Abstract
Food-related consumer decisions have an impact on the environment. However, trending patterns of sustainable consumption often pose a challenge for food-safety authorities: these initiatives may unintentionally compromise food safety. The objective of this review is to support public agencies in the integration of [...] Read more.
Food-related consumer decisions have an impact on the environment. However, trending patterns of sustainable consumption often pose a challenge for food-safety authorities: these initiatives may unintentionally compromise food safety. The objective of this review is to support public agencies in the integration of sustainability issues into food-safety risk communication schemes. Environmentally conscious but risky behaviors aimed at the reduction of food waste and plastic packaging were chosen for discussion and scrutinized based on expert opinions. Those expert opinions clearly indicated that a significant part of environmentally conscious behaviors, such as removing mold, eating expired perishable food, overstoring leftovers, avoiding single-use plastic packaging even when cross-contamination is a threat, and using reusable bags without cleaning for a long time, often contribute to food-safety risks. Short, easy-to-remember messages were collected for each recognized risky behavior; they concentrated on prevention or providing an alternative that was still environmentally sensible but kept food-safety risks low (such as planning ahead to avoid leftovers, freezing leftovers in time, and sanitizing reusable bags). The identified challenges and solutions might encourage authorities to rethink their risk-communication practices and integrate a sustainability aspect in them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Safety and Behavior Change)
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15 pages, 1171 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenolic Content and Total Flavonoid Content in Sweet Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) Cultivars Grown in Northwest Spain under Different Environmental Conditions
by Sidonia Martínez, Carlota Fuentes and Javier Carballo
Foods 2022, 11(21), 3519; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11213519 - 4 Nov 2022
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 3471
Abstract
The sweet chestnut fruit has always had great importance in the southern European countries. Chestnut production is an important source of income and a crop of high environmental value thanks to its role in soil protection. It is also a good food with [...] Read more.
The sweet chestnut fruit has always had great importance in the southern European countries. Chestnut production is an important source of income and a crop of high environmental value thanks to its role in soil protection. It is also a good food with enormous potential for various aspects of health because of its nutritional qualities. The quality of sweet chestnuts is affected by various factors, such as climatic conditions and cultivation inputs. It is very important to recognize the impacts of climate on chestnut fruits, to improve our current understanding of climate–chestnut interconnections. The current study investigated and compared the antioxidant activity and the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of different cultivars of chestnuts grown in different geographic areas of northwest Spain. The results obtained with three antioxidant capability assays (DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays) were highly correlated. All the samples had high antioxidant capacity and high total phenolic and total flavonoid contents, which depended both on cultivar and growth region. Ventura variety, harvested in the coldest environments, presented the highest values of antioxidant activity (IC50DPPH = 34.5 g/L), total phenolic content (131.84 mg equivalent of gallic acid/100 g FW) and total flavonoids (7.77 mg eq. catechin/100 g). The variations in the antioxidant capacity, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of different cultivars, and their associations with climatic environmental factors, revealed the significant impacts of these factors on the synthesis of specialized metabolites and on the nutraceutical potential of chestnuts. The results can provide valuable information for selection of the cultivar and the cultivation conditions of the chestnut, in order to obtain chestnuts with high-quality bioactive characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Foods)
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15 pages, 3584 KiB  
Article
Variation in Cell Wall Metabolism and Flesh Firmness of Four Apple Cultivars during Fruit Development
by Qiufang Su, Xianglu Li, Lexing Wang, Bochen Wang, Yifeng Feng, Huijuan Yang and Zhengyang Zhao
Foods 2022, 11(21), 3518; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11213518 - 4 Nov 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3150
Abstract
Fruit ripening and softening are highly complex processes, and there is an interplay and coordination between the metabolic pathways that are involved in the biological processes. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the variation in the characters and possible causes of cell [...] Read more.
Fruit ripening and softening are highly complex processes, and there is an interplay and coordination between the metabolic pathways that are involved in the biological processes. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the variation in the characters and possible causes of cell wall materials and morphological structure during apple fruits development. We studied the cell wall material (CWM), structure, cellular morphology, hydrolase activity, and the transcriptional levels of the related genes in four apple varieties ‘Ruixue’ and ‘Ruixianghong’ and their parents (‘Pink Lady’ and ‘Fuji’) during fruit development. The decrease in the contents of CWMs, sodium carbonate soluble pectin, hemicellulose, and cellulose were positively correlated with the decline in the hardness during the fruit development. In general, the activities of polygalacturonase, β-galactosidase, and cellulase enzymes increased during the late developmental period. As the fruit grew, the fruit cells of all of the cultivars gradually became larger, and the cell arrangement became more relaxed, the fruit cell walls became thinner, and the intercellular space became larger. In conclusion, the correlation analysis indicated that the up-regulation of the relative expression levels of ethylene synthesis and cell wall hydrolase genes enhanced the activity of the cell wall hydrolase, resulting in the degradation of the CWMs and the depolymerization of the cell wall structure, which affected the final firmness of the apple cultivars in the mature period. Full article
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19 pages, 821 KiB  
Article
The Vapor Phase of Selected Essential Oils and Their Antifungal Activity In Vitro and In Situ against Penicillium commune, a Common Contaminant of Cheese
by Miroslava Hlebová, Denisa Foltinová, Dominika Vešelényiová, Juraj Medo, Zuzana Šramková, Dana Tančinová, Michaela Mrkvová and Lukáš Hleba
Foods 2022, 11(21), 3517; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11213517 - 4 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1592
Abstract
This study aimed to determine the in vitro and in situ antifungal activity of (14) selected essential oils (EOS), namely clove, thyme, red thyme, litsea, eucalyptus, niaouli, fennel, anise, cumin, basil, rosemary, sage, bergamot mint, and marjoram, by vapor contact against the growth [...] Read more.
This study aimed to determine the in vitro and in situ antifungal activity of (14) selected essential oils (EOS), namely clove, thyme, red thyme, litsea, eucalyptus, niaouli, fennel, anise, cumin, basil, rosemary, sage, bergamot mint, and marjoram, by vapor contact against the growth of two strains of Penicillium commune (KMi–183 and KMi–402). Furthermore, to exclude the negative effect of EOs on the lactic acid bacteria (LABs) (Streptococcus spp.) on cheeses, their influence was monitored. Next, the sensory evaluation of cheese treated by EOs was evaluated. The results show that litsea and clove EOs were the most effective in the vapor phase against both tested strains. These EOs were characterized by the highest amount of α- (40.00%) and β-Citral (34.35%) in litsea and eugenol (85.23%) in clove. The antitoxicogenic activity of less effective (in growth inhibition) EOs on cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) production by the tested strains was also observed. The growth of Streptococcus spp. (ranging from 8.11 to 9.69 log CFU/g) was not affected by the EOs in treated cheese. Even though the evaluators recognized some EOs in sensory evaluation by the triangle test, they did not have a negative effect on the taste and smell of the treated cheeses and were evaluated as edible. The antifungal activity of EOs against several types of microscopic fungi and their effect on the sensory properties of treated foods needs to be further tested to achieve the most effective protection of foods from their direct contaminants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
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18 pages, 1083 KiB  
Article
Nutritional Composition and Bioactive Properties of Wild Edible Mushrooms from Native Nothofagus Patagonian Forests
by Maximiliano Rugolo, Rafael Mascoloti Spréa, Maria Inês Dias, Tânia C. S. P. Pires, Mikel Añibarro-Ortega, Carolina Barroetaveña, Cristina Caleja and Lillian Barros
Foods 2022, 11(21), 3516; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11213516 - 4 Nov 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2613
Abstract
Nothofagus forests of the Andean Patagonian region are home to numerous wild edible mushroom (WEM) species with interesting organoleptic characteristics, although many of them have unknown nutritional and nutraceutical profiles. The proximal composition, fatty and organic acids, soluble sugars, phenolic compounds, ergosterol, as [...] Read more.
Nothofagus forests of the Andean Patagonian region are home to numerous wild edible mushroom (WEM) species with interesting organoleptic characteristics, although many of them have unknown nutritional and nutraceutical profiles. The proximal composition, fatty and organic acids, soluble sugars, phenolic compounds, ergosterol, as well as antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of 17 WEMs were analyzed. Carbohydrates, the most abundant macronutrients, varied between 49.00 g/100 g dw (C. magellanicus) and 89.70 g/100 g dw (F. antarctica). Significantly higher values were found for total fat in G. gargal (5.90 g/100 g dw) followed by A. vitellinus (4.70 g/100 g dw); for crude protein in L. perlatum (36.60 g/100 g dw) followed by L. nuda (30.30 g/100 g dw); and for energy in G. gargal (398 Kcal/100g) and C. hariotii (392 Kcal/100g). The most effective extracts regarding the TBARS antioxidant capacity were those of Ramaria. This is the first time that a study was carried out on the chemical composition of G. sordulenta, C. xiphidipus, F. pumiliae, and L. perlatum. The promotion of sustainable use of WEMs, including their incorporation in functional diets that choose WEMs as nutritious, safe, and healthy foods, and their use in an identity mycogastronomy linked to tourism development, requires the detailed and precise nutritional and nutraceutical information of each species. Full article
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13 pages, 302 KiB  
Article
The Mixing Ratio and Filling-Amount Affect the Tissue Browning and Antioxidant Properties of Fresh-Cut Baby Leaf Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and Rocket (Eruca sativa Mill.) Grown in Floating Growing Systems
by Lijuan Zhan, Roberta Bulgari, Giuseppe Pignata, Manuela Casale and Silvana Nicola
Foods 2022, 11(21), 3515; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11213515 - 4 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1648
Abstract
Different types of baby leaf vegetables (BLV) are often mixed and packaged as salad mixes. This work has evaluated the effects of BLV mixing ratios (100% lettuce ‘Lollo Bionda’, 100 LB; 75% lettuce + 25% rocket, 75 LB; 50% lettuce + 50% rocket, [...] Read more.
Different types of baby leaf vegetables (BLV) are often mixed and packaged as salad mixes. This work has evaluated the effects of BLV mixing ratios (100% lettuce ‘Lollo Bionda’, 100 LB; 75% lettuce + 25% rocket, 75 LB; 50% lettuce + 50% rocket, 50 LB) and the weight filling amount (125 g filling amount, 125F; 250 g, 250F) on the antioxidant properties and browning potential (BP) of lettuce and rocket baby leaves during storage for 9 days at 4 °C in the dark. The samples were packaged in thermos-sealed bags previously prepared using polypropylene film. The results showed that the 50 LB mix had preserved high amounts of chlorophylls and internal nutrients on d9, regardless of the filling amount. No visible browning symptoms were detected in the 50 LB samples. The 50 LB × 125F mix was found to be the most efficient strategy to maintain the antioxidant property of BLV. Thus, the optimisation of the mixing ratio and its combination with an appropriate filling amount could represent an effective postharvest practice. Full article
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14 pages, 1739 KiB  
Article
Edible Pleurotus eryngii Papery Food Prepared by Papermaking Process
by Shuang Lv, Xiaolin Zhu, Zhenbin Liu, Liangbin Hu, Dan Xu, Bimal Chitrakar, Haizhen Mo and Hongbo Li
Foods 2022, 11(21), 3514; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11213514 - 4 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2477
Abstract
The objective of the current study was to evaluate the feasibility of papery food with Pleurotus eryngii (P. eryngii) as a raw material using the papermaking process. The physical, chemical, structural, and thermal degradation properties were studied as well as the [...] Read more.
The objective of the current study was to evaluate the feasibility of papery food with Pleurotus eryngii (P. eryngii) as a raw material using the papermaking process. The physical, chemical, structural, and thermal degradation properties were studied as well as the sensory evaluation of the papery food from P. eryngii mycelia (PMP), stems (PSP), caps (PCP), and whole fruiting bodies (PEP). The results indicated that the colors from PSP, PCP, and PEP were clearly different from PMP. Thicker PSP and PMP had a smoother surface and better crispness compared to PCP. Moreover, PSP had better moisture resistance and thermal decomposition performance compared to the other groups. Nutritional composition and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy suggested abundant polysaccharide and protein content in all of the papery food. Finally, sensory evaluation showed that the formability, mouth feel, and overall palatability of PSP and PMP were more popular among consumers. Overall, this study provides a novel method for the preparation of papery food and provides a potential new mechanism for the further development and utilization of the fruiting bodies and mycelium of P. eryngii. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Various Food Processing Techniques to Improve Food Quality and Safety)
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