Cereal Bioactive Compounds: Chemical Analysis, Health Benefits and Novel Foods Development

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Grain".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 June 2023) | Viewed by 13311

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition (ICTAN), Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Jose Antonio Novais 6, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Interests: grains; germination; fermentation; nutritional value; bioactive compounds; food quality and safety; gluten-free grain-derived products; celiac disease
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Guest Editor
Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition (ICTAN), Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Jose Antonio Novais 10, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Interests: grains; peptides; phenolic compounds; nutritional characterization; protein quality and digestibility; bioavailability of food compounds; bioactivity; germination; fermentation; enzymatic treatments
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Plant-based eating patterns which are less reliant on animal foods are the most beneficial for human health and environmental sustainability. Cereals are one of the healthiest food choices due to their high nutritional and to their considerable contents of a wide range of biologically active compounds with health-promoting potential, including dietary fiber (arabinoxylans, b-glucans, cellulose, lignin and lignans), resistant starch, sterols, tocopherols, tocotrienols, alkylresorcinols and phenolic acids. Bioactive compounds are mainly located in the bran and germ, making whole grains and cereal milling byproducts (mainly bran) promising sources of bioactive compounds which can be used as attractive ingredients for the development of innovative and healthier cereal-derived foods and nutraceuticals. Therefore, authors are strongly encouraged to contribute original research articles and reviews regarding recent advances in the bioactive cereal compounds field to this Special Issue dealing with the analysis of bioactive cereals compounds and their health-promoting properties as well as the optimization of pre- and post-harvest technologies to boost the cereal bioactive potential. Changes in the structure and bioactivity of these compounds after processing, preservation and digestion, the evaluation of mechanisms underlying their health-promoting properties and the development of novel foods including cereal bioactive compounds are topics also covered by this Special Issue.

Dr. Elena Peñas Pozo
Dr. Cristina Martínez-Villaluenga
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • cereals
  • whole grains
  • cereal byproducts
  • bioactive compounds
  • chemical structure
  • biological activity
  • processing
  • digestion
  • health benefits
  • functional foods

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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21 pages, 5035 KiB  
Article
Study of the Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) in Native Cereal−Pulse Flours and the Influence of the Baking Process on TAC Using a Combined Bayesian and Support Vector Machine Modeling Approach
by Daniel Rico, Ana Belén Cano, Sergio Álvarez Álvarez, Gustavo Río Briones and Ana Belén Martín Diana
Foods 2023, 12(17), 3208; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12173208 - 25 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1143
Abstract
During the last few years, the increasing evidence of dietary antioxidant compounds and reducing chronic diseases and the relationship between diet and health has promoted an important innovation within the baked product sector, aiming at healthier formulations. This study aims to develop a [...] Read more.
During the last few years, the increasing evidence of dietary antioxidant compounds and reducing chronic diseases and the relationship between diet and health has promoted an important innovation within the baked product sector, aiming at healthier formulations. This study aims to develop a tool based on mathematical models to predict baked goods’ total antioxidant capacity (TAC). The high variability of antioxidant properties of flours based on the aspects related to the type of grain, varieties, proximal composition, and processing, among others, makes it very difficult to innovate on food product development without specific analysis. Total phenol content (TP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP) were used as markers to determine antioxidant capacity. Three Bayesian-type models are proposed based on a double exponential parameterized curve that reflects the initial decrease and subsequent increase as a consequence of the observed processes of degradation and generation, respectively, of the antioxidant compounds. Once the values of the main parameters of each curve were determined, support vector machines (SVM) with an exponential kernel allowed us to predict the values of TAC, based on baking conditions (temperature and time), proteins, and fibers of each native grain. Full article
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11 pages, 1275 KiB  
Article
Quality Evaluation of Bread Prepared from Wheat–Chufa Tuber Composite Flour
by Mehmet Musa Özcan
Foods 2023, 12(3), 444; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12030444 - 17 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2131
Abstract
The oil amounts of breads were measured between 0.13% (control) and 4.90% (with 40% 6 chufa). The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the breads enriched with chufa tuber flours (powders) were reported as between 37.42 (control) and 99.64 mg GAE/100 g (with [...] Read more.
The oil amounts of breads were measured between 0.13% (control) and 4.90% (with 40% 6 chufa). The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the breads enriched with chufa tuber flours (powders) were reported as between 37.42 (control) and 99.64 mg GAE/100 g (with 20% chufa) to 61.19 (control) and 120.71 mg/100 g (with 20% chufa), respectively. The antioxidant activities of the bread samples were recorded as between 0.20 (control) and 3.24 mmol/kg (with 20% chufa). The addition of chufa flour caused a decrease in L* values of breads with the addion of tigernut flour. Oleic and linoleic acid contents of the oils extracted from the bread samples enriched with chufa tuber powders were identified as between 61.88 (control) and 66.64% (with 40% chufa) to 14.84% (with 40% chufa) and 17.55% (control), respectively. As a result of the evaluation of sensory properties of breads made from pure wheat flour and composite flours containing 10%, 20%, and 40% chufa tuber flour, the best result was obtained in bread fortified with chufa powder at a concentration of 40%, followed by concentrations of 20 and 10% in decreasing order. Full article
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12 pages, 1745 KiB  
Article
Metabolic Variations in Brown Rice Fertilised with Different Levels of Nitrogen
by Yichao Ma, Shuang Zhang, Zhaoxia Wu and Wentao Sun
Foods 2022, 11(21), 3539; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11213539 - 7 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1297
Abstract
Nitrogen is a necessary element for plant growth; therefore, it is important to study the influence of N fertilisers on crop metabolites. In this study, we investigate the variability of endogenous metabolites in brown rice fertilised with different amounts of nitrogen. We identified [...] Read more.
Nitrogen is a necessary element for plant growth; therefore, it is important to study the influence of N fertilisers on crop metabolites. In this study, we investigate the variability of endogenous metabolites in brown rice fertilised with different amounts of nitrogen. We identified 489 metabolites in brown rice. Compared to non-nitrogen fertilised groups, there were 59 differentially activated metabolic pathways in the nitrogen-fertilised groups. Additionally, there were significantly differential secondary metabolites, especially flavonoids, between groups treated with moderate (210 kg N/hm2) and excessive amounts of nitrogen (420 kg N/hm2). Nitrogen fertilisation upregulated linoleic acid metabolism and most steroids, steroid derivatives, and flavonoid compounds, which have antioxidant activity. The DPPH, ABTS, and hydroxyl radical scavenging rates were higher in fertilised groups than in the non-fertilised group. These findings provide a theoretical basis to enhance the health benefits of brown rice by improving fertilisation. Full article
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11 pages, 1456 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Spice Powders on Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant Activity, Phenolic Components, Fatty Acids, Mineral Contents and Sensory Properties of “Keşkek”, Which Is a Traditional Food
by Mehmet Musa Özcan
Foods 2022, 11(21), 3492; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11213492 - 3 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1388
Abstract
“Keşkek”, which is a dish of Western Anatolia, Thrace, the Eastern Anatolia Region, the Black Sea and Central Anatolia, is a traditional dish made mainly of split wheat and meat—although it varies according to the regions in Anatolia—which is usually made at weddings [...] Read more.
“Keşkek”, which is a dish of Western Anatolia, Thrace, the Eastern Anatolia Region, the Black Sea and Central Anatolia, is a traditional dish made mainly of split wheat and meat—although it varies according to the regions in Anatolia—which is usually made at weddings and holidays. In this study, the effects of thyme, coriander and cumin spices on the fat content, bioactive properties, phenolic component, fatty acid composition, mineral contents and sensory properties of “Keşkek” were investigated. The oil yields of “Keşkek” types were determined to be between 14.90 (control) and 21.20% (with cumin). Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of “Keşkek” types’ added spices were established as between 7.02 (control) and 77.10 mg/100 g Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE) (with thyme) to 20.24 (control) and 132.14 mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/100 g (with thyme), respectively. Moreover, the antioxidant activity values of “Keşkek” samples varied between 0.04 (control) and 2.78 mmol Trolox Equivalent (TE)/kg (with thyme). Among these phenolic constituents, gallic acid was the most abundant, followed by catechin, rutin and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, in descending order. Oleic and linoleic acid contents of the “Keşkek” oils were detected between 25.51 (with thyme) and 30.58% (with cumin) to 38.28 (with cumin) and 48.49% (control), respectively. P, K, Mg and S were the major minerals of “Keşkek” samples. Considering the sensory characteristics of the “Keşkek” samples, “Keşkek” with thyme was appreciated, followed by “Keşkek” with cumin and “control and Keşkek” with coriander in decreasing order. Full article
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Review

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22 pages, 1631 KiB  
Review
Cereals as a Source of Bioactive Compounds with Anti-Hypertensive Activity and Their Intake in Times of COVID-19
by Abigail García-Castro, Alma Delia Román-Gutiérrez, Araceli Castañeda-Ovando, Raquel Cariño-Cortés, Otilio Arturo Acevedo-Sandoval, Patricia López-Perea and Fabiola Araceli Guzmán-Ortiz
Foods 2022, 11(20), 3231; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11203231 - 16 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2713
Abstract
Cereals have phytochemical compounds that can diminish the incidence of chronic diseases such as hypertension. The angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) participates in the modulation of blood pressure and is the principal receptor of the virus SARS-CoV-2. The inhibitors of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) [...] Read more.
Cereals have phytochemical compounds that can diminish the incidence of chronic diseases such as hypertension. The angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) participates in the modulation of blood pressure and is the principal receptor of the virus SARS-CoV-2. The inhibitors of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and the block receptors of angiotensin II regulate the expression of ACE2; thus, they could be useful in the treatment of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. The inferior peptides from 1 to 3 kDa and the hydrophobic amino acids are the best candidates to inhibit ACE, and these compounds are present in rice, corn, wheat, oats, sorghum, and barley. In addition, the vitamins C and E, phenolic acids, and flavonoids present in cereals show a reduction in the oxidative stress involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. The influence of ACE on hypertension and COVID-19 has turned into a primary point of control and treatment from the nutritional perspective. The objective of this work was to describe the inhibitory effect of the angiotensin-converting enzyme that the bioactive compounds present in cereals possess in order to lower blood pressure and how their consumption could be associated with reducing the virulence of COVID-19. Full article
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15 pages, 2057 KiB  
Review
Performance of Thermoplastic Extrusion, Germination, Fermentation, and Hydrolysis Techniques on Phenolic Compounds in Cereals and Pseudocereals
by Luz María Paucar-Menacho, Williams Esteward Castillo-Martínez, Wilson Daniel Simpalo-Lopez, Anggie Verona-Ruiz, Alicia Lavado-Cruz, Cristina Martínez-Villaluenga, Elena Peñas, Juana Frias and Marcio Schmiele
Foods 2022, 11(13), 1957; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11131957 - 1 Jul 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3422
Abstract
Bioactive compounds, such as phenolic compounds, are phytochemicals found in significant amounts in cereals and pseudocereals and are usually evaluated by spectrophotometric (UV-VIS), HPLC, and LC-MS techniques. However, their bioavailability in grains is quite limited. This restriction on bioavailability and bioaccessibility occurs because [...] Read more.
Bioactive compounds, such as phenolic compounds, are phytochemicals found in significant amounts in cereals and pseudocereals and are usually evaluated by spectrophotometric (UV-VIS), HPLC, and LC-MS techniques. However, their bioavailability in grains is quite limited. This restriction on bioavailability and bioaccessibility occurs because they are in conjugated polymeric forms. Additionally, they can be linked through chemical esterification and etherification to macro components. Techniques such as thermoplastic extrusion, germination, fermentation, and hydrolysis have been widely studied to release phenolic compounds in favor of their bioavailability and bioaccessibility, minimizing the loss of these thermosensitive components during processing. The increased availability of phenolic compounds increases the antioxidant capacity and favor their documented health promoting. Full article
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