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Volume 11, June-2
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Foods, Volume 11, Issue 11 (June-1 2022) – 138 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The incidence of obesity has increased significantly on account of the alterations of living habits, especially changes in eating habits. In this study, we investigated the effect of octacosanol on lipid lowering and its molecular mechanism. High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity mouse model was used in the study. Thirty C57BL/6J mice were divided into control, HFD, and HFD+Oct groups randomly, and every group included ten mice. The mice of HFD+Oct group were intragastrically administrated 100 mg/kg/day of octacosanol. After 10 weeks for treatment, our results indicated that octacosanol supplementation decreased the body, liver, and adipose tissues weight of HFD mice; levels of TC, TG, and LDL-c were reduced in the plasma of HFD mice; and level of HDL-c were increased. View this paper
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Article
Prediction of Date Fruit Quality Attributes during Cold Storage Based on Their Electrical Properties Using Artificial Neural Networks Models
Foods 2022, 11(11), 1666; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11111666 - 06 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 482
Abstract
Evaluating and predicting date fruit quality during cold storage is critical for ensuring a steady supply of high-quality fruits to meet market demands. The traditional destructive methods take time in the laboratory, and the results are based on one specific parameter being tested. [...] Read more.
Evaluating and predicting date fruit quality during cold storage is critical for ensuring a steady supply of high-quality fruits to meet market demands. The traditional destructive methods take time in the laboratory, and the results are based on one specific parameter being tested. Modern modeling techniques, such as Machine Learning (ML) algorithms, offer unique benefits in nondestructive methods for food safety detection and predicting quality attributes. In addition, the electrical properties of agricultural products provide crucial information about the interior structures of biological tissues and their physicochemical status. Therefore, this study aimed to use an alternative approach to predict physicochemical properties, i.e., the pH, total soluble solids (TSS), water activity (aw), and moisture content (MC) of date fruits (Tamar), during cold storage based on their electrical properties using Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), which is the most popular ML technique. Ten date fruit cultivars were studied to collect data for the targeted parameters at different cold storage times (0, 2, 4, and 6 months) to train and test the ANNs models. The electrical properties of the date fruits were measured using a high-precision LCR (inductance, capacitance, and resistance) meter from 10 Hz to 100 kHz. The ANNs models were compared with a Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) at all testing frequencies of the electrical properties. The MLR models were less accurate than ANNs models in predicting fruit pH and had low performance and weak predictive ability for the TSS, aw, and MC at all testing frequencies. The optimal ANNs prediction model consisted of the input layer with 14 neurons, one hidden layer with 15 neurons, and the output layer with 4 neurons, which was determined depending on the measurements of the electrical properties at a 10 kHz testing frequency. This optimal ANNs model was able to predict the pH with R2 = 0.938 and RMSE = 0.121, TSS with R2 = 0.954 and RMSE = 2.946, aw with R2 = 0.876 and RMSE = 0.020, and MC with R2 = 0.855 and RMSE = 0.803 b by using the measured electrical properties. The developed ANNs model is a powerful tool for predicting fruit quality attributes after learning from the experimental measurement parameters. It can be suggested to efficiently predict the pH, total soluble solids, water activity, and moisture content of date fruits based on their electrical properties at 10 kHz. Full article
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Article
A Comparative Study of the Influence of Various Fungal-Based Pretreatments of Grape Pomace on Phenolic Compounds Recovery
Foods 2022, 11(11), 1665; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11111665 - 06 Jun 2022
Viewed by 488
Abstract
Wineries produce considerable amounts of grape pomace, which is a readily available natural source of bioactive phenolic compounds. In this study, grape pomace was used as a substrate for the cultivation of eleven filamentous fungi (Trametes versicolor TV6, Trametes versicolor TV8, Trametes [...] Read more.
Wineries produce considerable amounts of grape pomace, which is a readily available natural source of bioactive phenolic compounds. In this study, grape pomace was used as a substrate for the cultivation of eleven filamentous fungi (Trametes versicolor TV6, Trametes versicolor TV8, Trametes versicolor AG613, Trametes gibbosa, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, Pleurotus eryngii, Ganoderma lucidum, Ganoderma resinaceum, Humicola grisea, and Rhizopus oryzae) under solid-state conditions (SSF) for 15 days with the aim of improving the recovery of the individual phenolic compounds. Twenty-one phenolic compounds were quantified and the recovery of seventeen of them (gallic acid, ellagic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, syringic acid, vanillic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, o-coumaric acid, p-coumaric acid, epicatechin gallate, galocatechin gallate, quercetin, kaempferol, procyanidin B1, procyanidin B2, resveratrol, and ε-viniferin) were positively affected by SSF. Ellagic acid is the most recovered compound, whose content increased 8.8-fold after 15 days of biological treatment with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora compared to the untreated initial sample. Among the microorganisms tested, the fungi Pleurotus eryngii and Rhizopus oryzae proved to be the most effective in increasing the recovery of most phenolic compounds (1.1–4.5-fold). In addition, the nutrient composition (proteins, ash, fats) of grape pomace was positively affected by the biological treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Security and Sustainability)
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Article
Combined Effect of Chitosan Coating and Laurel Essential Oil (Laurus nobilis) on the Microbiological, Chemical, and Sensory Attributes of Water Buffalo Meat
Foods 2022, 11(11), 1664; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11111664 - 06 Jun 2022
Viewed by 475
Abstract
The combined effect of chitosan coating (CHI) and laurel essential oil (LEO) on the shelf-life extension of water buffalo meat stored under aerobic packaging conditions at 4 °C was investigated. Microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory attributes were monitored over an 18-day storage period. Microbiological [...] Read more.
The combined effect of chitosan coating (CHI) and laurel essential oil (LEO) on the shelf-life extension of water buffalo meat stored under aerobic packaging conditions at 4 °C was investigated. Microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory attributes were monitored over an 18-day storage period. Microbiological data indicated that the (CHI) coating along with (LEO) was the most efficient among treatments in reducing populations of bacteria by 3.2 log cfu/g on day 6 of storage (p < 0.05). pH values of meat varied between 6.04 and 6.21, while thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values were equal to or less than 2.12 mg malondialdehyde/kg throughout storage. The colour parameter L* and a* values decreased, while b* values increased during storage (p < 0.05). Taste proved to be a more sensitive sensory attribute than odour. Based on sensory and microbiological data, product shelf life was approximately 5–6 days for control samples, 7–8 days for samples treated with (LEO), 12 days for samples treated with (CHI), and 13–14 days for samples treated with (CHI + LEO). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Muscle Foods Preservation and Packaging Technologies)
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Article
Supplementation of Labneh with Passion Fruit Peel Enhanced Survival of E. coli Nissle 1917 during Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion and Adhesion to Caco-2 Cells
Foods 2022, 11(11), 1663; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11111663 - 06 Jun 2022
Viewed by 497
Abstract
Passion fruit peel powder (PFPP) was used to supplement the probiotic labneh to increase the activity of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) during production and storage. Labneh was manufactured with PFPP (0.5% and 1%) and analyzed at 0, 7, and 15 days of [...] Read more.
Passion fruit peel powder (PFPP) was used to supplement the probiotic labneh to increase the activity of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) during production and storage. Labneh was manufactured with PFPP (0.5% and 1%) and analyzed at 0, 7, and 15 days of cold storage for postacidification and sensory properties and viability of EcN, survival of EcN to simulated gastrointestinal tract stress, and adhesion potential of EcN to Caco-2 cells. Acidification kinetics during fermentation showed that supplementation with PFPP reduced the time needed to decrease pH and reach the maximum acidification rate. PFPP addition contributed to postacidification of labneh during storage. PFPP had a beneficial effect (p < 0.05) on counts of EcN in labneh during different storage periods. Consumer preference expectations for labneh enriched with PFPP (0.5% and 1%) were higher than those for the control. PFPP provided a significant protective action for EcN during simulated gastrointestinal transit and had a positive effect on EcN adhesion to Caco-2 cells in vitro, although this decreased during storage with labneh. Labneh supplementation with PFPP can be recommended because of the positive effect on EcN viability and the high nutritional value, which may increase the appeal of the product to consumers. Full article
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Article
Effects of Monascus on Proteolysis, Lipolysis, and Volatile Compounds of Camembert-Type Cheese during Ripening
Foods 2022, 11(11), 1662; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11111662 - 06 Jun 2022
Viewed by 506
Abstract
In order to improve the flavor and taste of Camembert cheese, the use of Monascus as an adjunct starter for the production of Camembert-type cheese was studied to investigate its effect on the proteolysis, lipolysis, and volatile compounds during ripening for 40 days. [...] Read more.
In order to improve the flavor and taste of Camembert cheese, the use of Monascus as an adjunct starter for the production of Camembert-type cheese was studied to investigate its effect on the proteolysis, lipolysis, and volatile compounds during ripening for 40 days. The Camembert cheese without Monascus was used as a control. The results showed that proteolytic and lipolytic activities increased to a certain extent. The addition of Monascus promoted primary and secondary proteolysis, due to the release of some proteases by Monascus. Aspartic, Threonine, Glutamic, Glycine, Methione, Isoleucine, Phenyalanine, and Lysine contents in experimental group (R) cheese were significantly higher than those in control group (W) cheeses. In addition, the free amino acid and fatty acid contents were also affected. The identification of flavor components using gas-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed that 2-undecone, 2-tridecanone, phenylethyl alcohol, butanediol (responsible for the production of flowery and honey-like aroma), ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, and ethyl citrate (fruit-like aroma) were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the experimental cheeses than in the control. The contents of 2-nonanone, 2-octanone and 2-decanone (showing milky flavor), and 1-octene-3 alcohol with typical mushroom-like flavor were lower than the control. Full article
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Article
Effects of Frying Conditions on Volatile Composition and Odor Characteristics of Fried Pepper (Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim.) Oil
Foods 2022, 11(11), 1661; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11111661 - 06 Jun 2022
Viewed by 478
Abstract
Fried pepper (Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim.) oil (FPO) is widely used in Chinese cuisine because of its unique aroma. To investigate the effects of different frying temperatures and different frying times on the volatile composition and odor characteristics of FPOs, descriptive sensory analysis [...] Read more.
Fried pepper (Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim.) oil (FPO) is widely used in Chinese cuisine because of its unique aroma. To investigate the effects of different frying temperatures and different frying times on the volatile composition and odor characteristics of FPOs, descriptive sensory analysis (DSA), solvent-assisted flavor evaporation–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (SAFE–GC–MS) and electronic nose (E-nose) were used to analyze the FPOs (FPO1–FPO4 represented the pepper oil fried at 110 °C, 120 °C, 130 °C, and 140 °C; FPO5–FPO7 represented the pepper oil fried for 10 min, 20 min and 30 min). The results showed that FPO3 and FPO6 had strong citrus-like and floral aromas and exhibited significant advantages in sensory attributes. A total of 46 volatile compounds were identified by SAFE–GC–MS; among them, FPO3 and FPO6 had a higher volatile compound content. β-Caryophyllene was detected in only FPO3 and FPO6; linalool was higher in FPO3 and FPO6, which might cause them to exhibit stronger floral and citrus-like aromas. The presence of (2E,4E)-2,4-decanedienal would be one of the reasons for the strong fatty aroma exhibited in FPO4 and FPO7. FPO3 and FPO6 were associated with citrus-like and floral aromas by partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis, which agreed with the sensory evaluation results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry)
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Article
EPS-Producing Lactobacillus plantarum MC5 as a Compound Starter Improves Rheology, Texture, and Antioxidant Activity of Yogurt during Storage
Foods 2022, 11(11), 1660; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11111660 - 05 Jun 2022
Viewed by 523
Abstract
This study evaluated the effects of probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum MC5 on the quality, antioxidant activity, and storage stability of yogurt, to determine its possible application as a starter in milk fermentation. Four groups of yogurt were made with different proportions of probiotic [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the effects of probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum MC5 on the quality, antioxidant activity, and storage stability of yogurt, to determine its possible application as a starter in milk fermentation. Four groups of yogurt were made with different proportions of probiotic L. plantarum MC5 and commercial starters. The yogurt samples’ rheological properties, texture properties, antioxidant activity, storage stability, and exopolysaccharides (EPS) content during storage were determined. The results showed that 2:1 and 1:1 yogurt samples (supplemented with L. plantarum MC5) attained the highest EPS content (982.42 mg/L and 751.71 mg/L) during storage. The apparent viscosity, consistency, cohesiveness, and water holding capacity (WHC) of yogurt samples supplemented with L. plantarum MC5 were significantly higher than those of the control group (p < 0.05). Further evaluation of antioxidant activity revealed that yogurt samples containing MC5 starter significantly increased in DPPH, ABTS, OH, and ferric iron-reducing power. The study also found that adding MC5 can promote the growth of Streptococcus thermophilus. Therefore, yogurt containing L. plantarum MC5 had favorable rheological properties, texture, and health effects. The probiotic MC5 usage in milk fermentation showed adequate potential for industrial application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing and Technology of Dairy Products Volume II)
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Article
Lacticaseibacillus paracasei as a Modulator of Fatty Acid Compositions and Vitamin D3 in Cream
Foods 2022, 11(11), 1659; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11111659 - 05 Jun 2022
Viewed by 516
Abstract
Butter is an important source of essential fatty acids, lipid-soluble vitamins, and antioxidants in the diet. However, this study showed that the presence of the Lacticaseibacillus paracasei strain has a great influence on the fatty acid profile as well as provitamin D3 and [...] Read more.
Butter is an important source of essential fatty acids, lipid-soluble vitamins, and antioxidants in the diet. However, this study showed that the presence of the Lacticaseibacillus paracasei strain has a great influence on the fatty acid profile as well as provitamin D3 and vitamin D3 content in the cream—the raw material from which the butter is obtained. The addition of this lactic acid bacteria enriches the cream in 9-hexadecenoic acid, oleic acid, octadeca-9,12-dienoic acid, and conjugated linoleic acid, which exhibit antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties. Moreover, a higher level of monounsaturated fatty acids can extend the shelf life of butter in the future. In the present work, we observed that the presence of lactic acid bacteria contributed to an increase in the level of provitamin D after 6 h of incubation and an increase in the levels of vitamin D3 after 24 and 48 h. Fatty acid profiles and the content of vitamins were largely dependent on the presence of light and mixing, which are probably associated with the status of lipid peroxidation. Full article
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Article
Classification of Tea Quality Levels Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Based on CLPSO-SVM
Foods 2022, 11(11), 1658; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11111658 - 05 Jun 2022
Viewed by 515
Abstract
In this paper, we propose a method for classifying tea quality levels based on near-infrared spectroscopy. Firstly, the absorbance spectra of Huangshan Maofeng tea samples were obtained in a wavenumber range of 10,000~4000 cm−1 using near-infrared spectroscopy. The spectral data were then [...] Read more.
In this paper, we propose a method for classifying tea quality levels based on near-infrared spectroscopy. Firstly, the absorbance spectra of Huangshan Maofeng tea samples were obtained in a wavenumber range of 10,000~4000 cm−1 using near-infrared spectroscopy. The spectral data were then converted to transmittance and smoothed using the Savitzky–Golay (SG) algorithm. The denoised transmittance spectra were dimensionally reduced using principal component analysis (PCA). The characteristic variables obtained using PCA were used as the input variables and the tea level was used as the output to establish a support vector machine (SVM) classification model. The penalty factor c and the kernel function parameter g in the SVM model were optimized using particle swarm optimization (PSO) and comprehensive-learning particle swarm optimization (CLPSO) algorithms. The final experimental results show that the CLPSO-SVM method had the best classification performance, and the classification accuracy reached 99.17%. Full article
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Article
Regulating the Physicochemical Properties of Chitosan Films through Concentration and Neutralization
Foods 2022, 11(11), 1657; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11111657 - 05 Jun 2022
Viewed by 428
Abstract
Chitosan offers real potential for use in food preservation, biomedicine, and environmental applications due to its excellent functional properties, such as ease in the fabrication of large films, biocompatibility, and antibacterial properties. However, the production and application of chitosan films were limited by [...] Read more.
Chitosan offers real potential for use in food preservation, biomedicine, and environmental applications due to its excellent functional properties, such as ease in the fabrication of large films, biocompatibility, and antibacterial properties. However, the production and application of chitosan films were limited by their strong residual acetic acid taste, weak mechanical properties, and poor water vapor barrier properties. In this study, the effects of the chitosan concentration in the film-forming solutions and the neutralization treatment on the physicochemical properties of chitosan films were examined. The results demonstrated that the chitosan concentration affected the mechanical and barrier properties of chitosan films without the neutralization treatment. This was mainly due to the low acetic acid contents in chitosan films after drying. Acetic acid acted as a plasticizer within chitosan films resulting in a looser network structure. After neutralization, the chitosan films showed improvements in properties, with little effect on the chitosan concentration in the film-forming solutions. Moreover, chitosan films after neutralization showed no residual acetic acid. Therefore, neutralization could effectively improve the performance of chitosan films. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Research on Food Hydrocolloids Applied for Packaging)
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Article
Ultrasound-Assisted Synthesis of Potentially Food-Grade Nano-Zinc Oxide in Ionic Liquids: A Safe, Green, Efficient Approach and Its Acoustics Mechanism
Foods 2022, 11(11), 1656; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11111656 - 04 Jun 2022
Viewed by 441
Abstract
In food application, nano-zinc oxide (nano-ZnO) is a very important nano metal material; thus, it is necessary to prepare potentially food-grade nano-ZnO. Nano-ZnO synthesized by the ultrasound-assisted method can reach a safe level because of its import physical processing characteristics. Firstly, the micromorphology [...] Read more.
In food application, nano-zinc oxide (nano-ZnO) is a very important nano metal material; thus, it is necessary to prepare potentially food-grade nano-ZnO. Nano-ZnO synthesized by the ultrasound-assisted method can reach a safe level because of its import physical processing characteristics. Firstly, the micromorphology and microstructure of nano-ZnO synthesized by the ultrasonic method were compared with that by the mechanical stirring method through atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier-transform infrared. Secondly, the on-line monitoring of different ultrasonic fields in real-time was studied during the whole synthesis process of nano-ZnO by polyvinylidene fluoride sensor, and two control groups (water medium) were set. The results showed that nano-ZnO obtained by the ultrasonic method were smaller in size and had less surface roughness compared with the mechanical stirring method. The nucleation and crystallization process of nano-ZnO was controlled by the ultrasonic method with sharp diffraction peaks of higher intensities. Moreover, for the ultrasonic mechanism, it was found that the oscillation behavior of bubbles varied from liquid to liquid, and variation was also found in the same liquid under different restraint of interfaces. Based on voltage waveforms monitored in the three liquid media, differences in the life cycle of cavitation bubble oscillation, cycle of collapse stage, maximum voltage amplitude, and acoustic intensity were observed. The physical mechanism of ultrasound-assisted synthesis of nano-ZnO was revealed through voltage fluctuations of the acoustics signal, which can lay a theoretical foundation for the controllability of food ultrasonic physical processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Ultrasonic Technology in Food Processing)
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Article
Comparison of Spectroscopy-Based Methods and Chemometrics to Confirm Classification of Specialty Coffees
Foods 2022, 11(11), 1655; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11111655 - 04 Jun 2022
Viewed by 474
Abstract
The Specialty Coffee Association (SCA) sensory analysis protocol is the methodology that is used to classify specialty coffees. However, because the sensory analysis is sensitive to the taster’s training, cognitive psychology, and physiology, among other parameters, the feasibility of instrumental approaches has been [...] Read more.
The Specialty Coffee Association (SCA) sensory analysis protocol is the methodology that is used to classify specialty coffees. However, because the sensory analysis is sensitive to the taster’s training, cognitive psychology, and physiology, among other parameters, the feasibility of instrumental approaches has been recently studied for complementing such analyses. Spectroscopic methods, mainly near infrared (NIR) and mid infrared (FTIR—Fourier Transform Infrared), have been extensively employed for food quality authentication. In view of the aforementioned, we compared NIR and FTIR to distinguish different qualities and sensory characteristics of specialty coffee samples in the present study. Twenty-eight green coffee beans samples were roasted (in duplicate), with roasting conditions following the SCA protocol for sensory analysis. FTIR and NIR were used to analyze the ground and roasted coffee samples, and the data then submitted to statistical analysis to build up PLS models in order to confirm the quality classifications. The PLS models provided good predictability and classification of the samples. The models were able to accurately predict the scores of specialty coffees. In addition, the NIR spectra provided relevant information on chemical bonds that define specialty coffee in association with sensory aspects, such as the cleanliness of the beverage. Full article
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Article
Isolation of Valuable Biological Substances from Microalgae Culture
Foods 2022, 11(11), 1654; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11111654 - 04 Jun 2022
Viewed by 503
Abstract
Methods for purifying, detecting, and characterizing protein concentrate, carbohydrates, lipids, and neutral fats from the microalgae were developed as a result of research. Microalgae were collected from natural sources (water, sand, soil of the Kaliningrad region, Russia). Microalgae were identified based on morphology [...] Read more.
Methods for purifying, detecting, and characterizing protein concentrate, carbohydrates, lipids, and neutral fats from the microalgae were developed as a result of research. Microalgae were collected from natural sources (water, sand, soil of the Kaliningrad region, Russia). Microalgae were identified based on morphology and polymerase chain reaction as Chlorella vulgaris Beijer, Arthrospira platensis Gomont, Arthrospira platensis (Nordst.) Geitl., and Dunaliella salina Teod. The protein content in all microalgae samples was determined using a spectrophotometer. The extracts were dried by spray freeze drying. Pressure acid hydrolysis with 1% sulfuric acid was determined to be the most effective method for extracting carbohydrates from microalgae biomass samples. The highest yield of carbohydrates (more than 56%) was obtained from A. platensis samples. The addition of carbohydrates to the cultivation medium increased the accumulation of fatty acids in microalgae, especially in Chlorella. When carbohydrates were introduced to nutrient media, neutral lipids increased by 10.9%, triacylglycerides by 10.9%, fatty acids by 13.9%, polar lipids by 3.1%, unsaponifiable substances by 13.1%, chlorophyllides by 12.1%, other impurities by 8.9% on average for all microalgae. It was demonstrated that on average the content of myristic acid increased by 10.8%, palmitic acid by 10.4%, oleic acid by 10.0%, stearic acid by 10.1%, and linoleic acid by 5.7% in all microalgae samples with the addition of carbohydrates to nutrient media. It was established that microalgae samples contained valuable components (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, fatty acids, minerals). Thereby the study of the composition of lipids and fatty acids in microalgae, as well as the influence of carbohydrates in the nutrient medium on lipid accumulation, is a promising direction for scientific research in the fields of physiology, biochemistry, biophysics, genetics, space biology and feed additive production. Full article
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Article
Effect of Microwave Treatment on Adzuki Beans (Vigna angularis L.) under Dry State—Analyzing Microstructure, Water Absorption, and Antioxidant Properties
Foods 2022, 11(11), 1653; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11111653 - 03 Jun 2022
Viewed by 439
Abstract
In this study, a microwave was used on adzuki beans (Arari and Geomguseul) without water, in order to investigate their changes in microstructure, water absorption, and antioxidative properties. As the microwave treatment time increased (2450 MHz, 0 to 60 s), the lightness, redness, and [...] Read more.
In this study, a microwave was used on adzuki beans (Arari and Geomguseul) without water, in order to investigate their changes in microstructure, water absorption, and antioxidative properties. As the microwave treatment time increased (2450 MHz, 0 to 60 s), the lightness, redness, and yellowness were reduced, and moisture content significantly decreased in both varieties. The microstructure space between the seed coat, cotyledon, and pores within the cotyledon were observed, due to the loss of moisture. Regardless of microwave treatment, the water absorption behavior of the adzuki beans was sigmoidal. However, the water absorption kinetics of Arari increased after microwave treatment, whereas with microwave-treated Geomguseul, the water absorption rate decreased, compared to the control, except for the sample treated for 30 s. During soaking, the water absorption and softening rates in the microwave-treated adzuki bean were twice as fast as the untreated beans. Antioxidant activity, total phenolic compounds, and total flavonoid compounds were greatly improved by microwave treatment. These results indicate that microwave treatment affects the color, hydration, and bioactive compounds, and it can be used as a pretreatment method before processing adzuki beans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Grain)
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Article
Black Bean Pasta Meals with Varying Protein Concentrations Reduce Postprandial Glycemia and Insulinemia Similarly Compared to White Bread Control in Adults
Foods 2022, 11(11), 1652; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11111652 - 03 Jun 2022
Viewed by 559
Abstract
Postprandial glycemic and insulinemic effects of three black bean pastas were evaluated among eighteen normoglycemic adults (8 men, 10 women) in a randomized crossover trial. Black beans were milled into flour using a commercial Knife or compression/decompression mill (C/D mill). The C/D-mill-derived pastas [...] Read more.
Postprandial glycemic and insulinemic effects of three black bean pastas were evaluated among eighteen normoglycemic adults (8 men, 10 women) in a randomized crossover trial. Black beans were milled into flour using a commercial Knife or compression/decompression mill (C/D mill). The C/D-mill-derived pastas had medium protein (Combo-MP) and low protein (Cyclone-LP) concentrations. Three black bean flour pastas (Knife, Combo-MP, and Cyclone-LP) were compared to two controls: white bread and whole black beans. Treatments contained 50 g of available carbohydrate. Plasma glucose, serum insulin, and appetite measures were collected at fasting and 30, 60, 90, 150, and 180 min postprandial. Gastrointestinal symptoms were evaluated 10–12 h postprandial. ANOVA (one-way, repeated measures) was used to evaluate satiety, gastrointestinal symptoms, sensory variables, glucose and insulin differences from baseline, and incremental area under the curve (iAUC) by time and/or treatment. Three-hour glucose and insulin iAUCs were lower with whole black beans than white bread. Black bean pasta meals increased satiety, reduced appetite, and produced numerically lower glucose and insulin responses than white bread. However, no differences were observed between pasta types, indicating a similar metabolic response regardless of milling technique. Our results provide evidence for dietary guidance to reduce postprandial glucose and related health risks through pulse food products. Full article
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Article
NMR-Based Metabolomic Approach for Evaluation of the Harvesting Time and Cooking Characteristics of Different Cassava Genotypes
Foods 2022, 11(11), 1651; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11111651 - 03 Jun 2022
Viewed by 499
Abstract
Cassava is an important staple food for low-income countries. However, its cooking characteristics are especially affected by genotype. In this study, two groups of genotypes, namely hard to cook (HTC) and easy to cook (ETC), were harvested at different times (9 and 15 [...] Read more.
Cassava is an important staple food for low-income countries. However, its cooking characteristics are especially affected by genotype. In this study, two groups of genotypes, namely hard to cook (HTC) and easy to cook (ETC), were harvested at different times (9 and 15 months), and evaluated by NMR coupled to chemometrics. Additionally, lignin of these materials was studied by 1H-13C HSQC NMR. The carbohydrates were the most important class of compounds to differentiate the cassava genotypes. The correlation of NMR with cooking time and starch content showed that the higher content of primary metabolites, mostly glucose, can be associated with longer cooking times and reduction of starch, corroborating the metabolic pathways analysis. Furthermore, it was observed that the lignin from cell walls did not differentiate the cooking performance of the genotypes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
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Article
Can the Introduction of Different Olive Cakes Affect the Carcass, Meat and Fat Quality of Bísaro Pork?
Foods 2022, 11(11), 1650; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11111650 - 03 Jun 2022
Viewed by 601
Abstract
The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of different olive cakes in the diet of Bísaro pigs on the carcass, meat and fat. The carcasses of 40 animals fed a diet with five treatments (T1—Basic diet and commercial feed; [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of different olive cakes in the diet of Bísaro pigs on the carcass, meat and fat. The carcasses of 40 animals fed a diet with five treatments (T1—Basic diet and commercial feed; T2—Basic diet + 10% crude olive cake; T3—Basic diet + 10% olive cake, two phases; T4—Basic diet + 10% exhausted olive cake; T5—Basic diet + 10% exhausted olive cake + 1% olive oil) were used to study the effect on carcass traits, physicochemical meat quality and lipid composition of meat and backfat. There were no significant differences between treatments for the conformation measurements performed, except for the length at the seventh and last rib (p < 0.05). The percentage of prime cuts of the carcass in Bísaro pig is within the values indicated by the Portuguese Standard 2931. No significant differences between treatments for body weight, pH and carcass weight were found. The values of ultimate pH (5.7), L* (51–52), b* (11–12) and SF (3.4–4.2) observed confirm a non-exudative and firm meat without quality deviations, such as DFD or PSE. Thus, as a general conclusion, the inclusion of different olive cakes in the diet of Bísaro pigs did not cause any negative consequences on the carcass characteristics and conformation as well as in the meat and lipidic quality. In addition, the inclusion of this olive industry by-product in the animal diet would be an important contribution to solving the problem of the great environmental impact from olive-mill wastewaters from the extractive industries. Full article
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Article
Bioprocessing of Wheat and Amaranth Bran for the Reduction of Fructan Levels and Application in 3D-Printed Snacks
Foods 2022, 11(11), 1649; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11111649 - 02 Jun 2022
Viewed by 565
Abstract
Bran can enrich snacks with dietary fibre but contains fructans that trigger symptoms in people with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This study aimed to investigate the bioprocessing of wheat and amaranth bran for degrading fructans and its application (at 20% flour-based) in 3D-printed [...] Read more.
Bran can enrich snacks with dietary fibre but contains fructans that trigger symptoms in people with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This study aimed to investigate the bioprocessing of wheat and amaranth bran for degrading fructans and its application (at 20% flour-based) in 3D-printed snacks. Bran was bioprocessed with Saccharomyces cerevisiae alone or combined with inulinase, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Limosilactobacillus fermentum, or commercial starter LV1 for 24 h. Fructans, fructose, glucose, and mannitol in the bran were analysed enzymatically. Dough rheology, snack printing precision, shrinkage in baking, texture, colour, and sensory attributes were determined. The fructan content of wheat bran was 2.64% dry weight, and in amaranth bran, it was 0.96% dry weight. Bioprocessing reduced fructan content (up to 93%) depending on the bran type and bioprocessing agent, while fructose and mannitol remained below the cut-off value for IBS patients. Bran bioprocessing increased the complex viscosity and yield stress of dough (by up to 43 and 183%, respectively) in addition to printing precision (by up to 13%), while it lessened shrinkage in baking (by 20–69%) and the hardness of the snacks (by 20%). The intensity of snack sensory attributes depended on the bran type and bioprocessing agent, but the liking (“neither like nor dislike”) was similar between samples. In conclusion, snacks can be enriched with fibre while remaining low in fructans by applying bioprocessed wheat or amaranth bran and 3D printing. Full article
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Article
The Healthy Food Environment Policy Index in Poland: Implementation Gaps and Actions for Improvement
Foods 2022, 11(11), 1648; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11111648 - 02 Jun 2022
Viewed by 494
Abstract
Background: Poland is facing the growing problem of overweight and obesity in the population, which makes it necessary to conduct a thorough assessment of the existing food environment policies. The aims of the study were: (1) to depict the strength of healthy food [...] Read more.
Background: Poland is facing the growing problem of overweight and obesity in the population, which makes it necessary to conduct a thorough assessment of the existing food environment policies. The aims of the study were: (1) to depict the strength of healthy food environment policies in Poland and identify implementation policies and infrastructure support gaps; (2) to identify and prioritise improvement policies, taking into account their importance, achievability and equity. Methods: We used the Healthy Food Environment Policy Index (Food-EPI). An experts’ panel rated Polish policies and infrastructure compared to international best practices and developed a list of recommended improvement actions addressing both components. Results: eight of the twenty-two policy and four of the twenty-two infrastructure indicators achieved the “no/very weak policy” result. Another four policy and five infrastructure indicators were considered “weak”. Another seven and eight indicators, respectively, were assessed as “moderate”. Among the identified actions, the highest priority was given to a food labelling system and training for persons involved in nutrition in schools. Conclusions: The Polish healthy food environment has been assessed as very weak or weak in most aspects. The infrastructure was assessed as slightly better compared to the policies domain, with more indicators receiving the “moderate” score. Full article
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Article
The Effect of In Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion on the Antioxidants, Antioxidant Activity, and Hypolipidemic Activity of Green Jujube Vinegar
Foods 2022, 11(11), 1647; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11111647 - 02 Jun 2022
Viewed by 462
Abstract
Healthy fruit vinegar has been extensively favored in China in recent years. As a new type of fruit vinegar developed by our laboratory, green jujube vinegar has the characteristics of good taste and rich nutrition. To study the effect of in vitro gastrointestinal [...] Read more.
Healthy fruit vinegar has been extensively favored in China in recent years. As a new type of fruit vinegar developed by our laboratory, green jujube vinegar has the characteristics of good taste and rich nutrition. To study the effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the antioxidant and hypolipidemic activity of green jujube vinegar, so as to provide basic data for research and the development of healthy food antioxidants, including the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), total acid content, and volatile acid content, were measured. The antioxidant activity was measured by using 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) free radical scavenging methods and the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP), and the hypolipidemic activity was measured by cholesterol adsorption and the sodium cholate adsorption capacities. The results show that gastric digestion significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the TPC, TFC, total acid content, and volatile acid content, for which the highest reductions were up to 54.17%, 72%, 88.83% and 82.35%, respectively. During intestinal digestion, the TFC remained at a high level and unchanged, and the TFC and volatile acid content significantly (p < 0.05) decreased by 72.66% and 89.05%, respectively. The volatile acid content did not significantly (p > 0.05) change within 2 h. The ABTS free radical scavenging ability and the reducing power free radical scavenging rate were correlated with the TPC, TFC, and total acid contents, and the DPPH free radical scavenging ability and cholesterol adsorption capacity were not. These findings suggest that green jujube vinegar can be a potential functional food for people’s use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research on Anti-chronic Disease of Food Active Components)
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Article
Combined Effect of Extraction and Purification Conditions on Yield, Composition and Functional and Structural Properties of Lupin Proteins
Foods 2022, 11(11), 1646; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11111646 - 02 Jun 2022
Viewed by 466
Abstract
Lupin meal presents great potential as an alternative plant-based source of proteins for human nutrition. In the present work, different conditions of extraction and purification were evaluated for production of lupin protein isolates. The results showed that the protein extraction yield was comparable [...] Read more.
Lupin meal presents great potential as an alternative plant-based source of proteins for human nutrition. In the present work, different conditions of extraction and purification were evaluated for production of lupin protein isolates. The results showed that the protein extraction yield was comparable at acidic and conventionally used alkaline extraction pH (37% vs. 40–45%, respectively). Proteins extracted were principally composed of globulins. The ionic strength negatively impacted the protein extractability at pH 2, whereas no significant differences were observed between extractions at 20 to 50 °C. The selected extraction conditions (pH 2 and 7) combined with purification by isoelectric precipitation or ultrafiltration process generated the isolate-grade products. Interestingly, further characterization revealed a partial denaturation of proteins extracted at pH 2 resulting in loss of protein solubility at pH 6 and 7 (10–50%), modifications in secondary structure, lower thermal stability, and formation of protein aggregates. However, foaming and emulsifying properties were generally similar for almost all lupin isolates. Further investigation might be of interest with regard to the extraction behaviours and structural and functional properties of specific lupin protein fractions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Foods)
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Article
Characteristics and Quality Analysis of Radio Frequency-Hot Air Combined Segmented Drying of Wolfberry (Lycium barbarum)
Foods 2022, 11(11), 1645; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11111645 - 02 Jun 2022
Viewed by 441
Abstract
To overcome the problems of a long conventional drying time, low energy efficiency, and poor product quality, a segmented drying approach was developed for fresh wolfberry (Lycium barbarum) using a radio frequency (RF)-hot air drying process, which was investigated under different [...] Read more.
To overcome the problems of a long conventional drying time, low energy efficiency, and poor product quality, a segmented drying approach was developed for fresh wolfberry (Lycium barbarum) using a radio frequency (RF)-hot air drying process, which was investigated under different parameters of plate spacing (80, 90, 100 mm), vacuum degree (0.015, 0.025, 0.035 Mpa), and hot air temperature (50, 55, 60 °C). Analysis of the wolfberry’s drying characteristics, comprehensive quality, and microstructure indicated that: combined drying was faster and less time-consuming than natural drying or hot air drying, and components such as polysaccharides, ascorbic acid, and betaine in wolfberries were effectively retained. Based on the acceptable drying rate, stable temperature application, and avoidance of arcing effects, the optimal combined segmented drying parameters were determined to be as follows: a plate spacing of 90 mm, vacuum degree of 0.025 MPa, and air temperature of 55 °C. For the dried wolfberries under these conditions, the total drying time was 17 h and the berries had an improved comprehensive quality, the content of total soluble sugars was 0.62 g/g, total phenol was 10.01 mg/g, total flavonoids was 2.60 mg/g, VC was 3.18 mg/100 g, betaine was 3.48%, oxidation resistance represented by an inhibition rate was 66.14%, color was better, and rehydration rate was 48.56%. The microstructure was more regular because of the special dielectric heating characteristics of RF vacuuming. Despite the differing drying characteristics of individual materials, the overall RF-hot air combined drying process was found to achieve high-quality dehydration of wolfberries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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Article
The Emulsion Properties of Chicken Liver Protein Recovered through Isoelectric Solubilization/Precipitation Processes
Foods 2022, 11(11), 1644; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11111644 - 02 Jun 2022
Viewed by 425
Abstract
This study investigated the feasibility to improve the emulsifying capacity of chicken liver (CL) protein using different isoelectric solubilization/precipitation (ISP) processes. The CL proteins were first solubilized at alkaline pH 10.5, 11.0, 11.5, and 12.0, followed by precipitation at pH 5.0, 5.5, and [...] Read more.
This study investigated the feasibility to improve the emulsifying capacity of chicken liver (CL) protein using different isoelectric solubilization/precipitation (ISP) processes. The CL proteins were first solubilized at alkaline pH 10.5, 11.0, 11.5, and 12.0, followed by precipitation at pH 5.0, 5.5, and 6.0, respectively. Fresh CL paste was set as the control (raw). With the increase in solubilization pH, the protein recovery yield increased under the same precipitation pH, and the pH 12.0, 5.5 treatment obtained the highest recovery yield of 82% (p < 0.05), followed by the pH 5.0 precipitation treatments and the pH 12.0, 6.0 treatment. The particle size distribution of D3,2 and D4,3 was smaller for the pH 10.5 (except for the D4,3 of pH 10.5, 5.0) and pH 11.0 solubilization treatments than those of the other treatments (p < 0.05), regardless of precipitation pH. Compared with that of the raw control, the emulsions of the pH 10.5 and pH 11.0 solubilization treatments, and pH 12.0, 6.0 treatment showed good stability. The pH 10.5, 6.0 treatment showed the best emulsification activity, followed by the pH 10.5, 5.5, pH 11.0, 6.0, pH 12.0, 6.0, pH 10.5, 5.0, pH 11.0, 5.5, and pH 11.0, 5.0 treatments, which were uniformly distributed and were stable without the stratification of emulsions. It was concluded that CL protein recovered through suitable ISP showed potential as an emulsifier, and thus expanded the application of CL protein for human consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Processing Technology of Meat and Meat Products)
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Article
Chemometric Differentiation of Sole and Plaice Fish Fillets Using Three Near-Infrared Instruments
Foods 2022, 11(11), 1643; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11111643 - 02 Jun 2022
Viewed by 476
Abstract
Fish species substitution is one of the most common forms of fraud all over the world, as fish identification can be very challenging for both consumers and experienced inspectors in the case of fish sold as fillets. The difficulties in distinguishing among different [...] Read more.
Fish species substitution is one of the most common forms of fraud all over the world, as fish identification can be very challenging for both consumers and experienced inspectors in the case of fish sold as fillets. The difficulties in distinguishing among different species may generate a “grey area” in which mislabelling can occur. Thus, the development of fast and reliable tools able to detect such frauds in the field is of crucial importance. In this study, we focused on the distinction between two flatfish species largely available on the market, namely the Guinean sole (Synaptura cadenati) and European plaice (Pleuronectes platessa), which are very similar looking. Fifty fillets of each species were analysed using three near-infrared (NIR) instruments: the handheld SCiO (Consumer Physics), the portable MicroNIR (VIAVI), and the benchtop MPA (Bruker). PLS-DA classification models were built using the spectral datasets, and all three instruments provided very good results, showing high accuracy: 94.1% for the SCiO and MicroNIR portable instruments, and 90.1% for the MPA benchtop spectrometer. The good classification results of the approach combining NIR spectroscopy, and simple chemometric classification methods suggest great applicability directly in the context of real-world marketplaces, as well as in official control plans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rapid and Untargeted Methods for Residues and Food Frauds)
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Article
Impact of Low-Temperature Storage on the Microstructure, Digestibility, and Absorption Capacity of Cooked Rice
Foods 2022, 11(11), 1642; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11111642 - 02 Jun 2022
Viewed by 440
Abstract
This study examined the effects of low-temperature storage on the microstructural, absorptive, and digestive properties of cooked rice. Cooked rice was refrigerated and stored at 4 °C for 0.5, 1, 3, 5, and 7 days, as well as frozen and preserved at −20, [...] Read more.
This study examined the effects of low-temperature storage on the microstructural, absorptive, and digestive properties of cooked rice. Cooked rice was refrigerated and stored at 4 °C for 0.5, 1, 3, 5, and 7 days, as well as frozen and preserved at −20, −40, and −80 °C for 0.5, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. The results indicated that the stored rice samples generally exhibited a higher absorption capacity for oil, cholesterol, and glucose than the freshly cooked rice. In addition, after storage, the digestibility of the cooked rice declined, namely, the rapidly digestible starch (RDS) content and estimated glycemic index (eGI) decreased, whereas the slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) content increased. Moreover, the increment of the storage temperatures or the extension of storage periods led to a lower amylolysis efficiency. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis indicated that storage temperature and duration could effectively modify the micromorphology of the stored rice samples and their digestion. Moreover, microstructural differences after storage and during simulated intestinal digestion could be correlated to the variations in the absorption capacity and digestibility. The findings from this study will be useful in providing alternative storage procedures to prepare rice products with improved nutritional qualities and functional properties. Full article
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Article
Dendrobium officinale Polysaccharides Better Regulate the Microbiota of Women Than Men
Foods 2022, 11(11), 1641; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11111641 - 02 Jun 2022
Viewed by 446
Abstract
Dendrobium officinale is widely used as a health supplement, but its specific impact on healthy gut microbiota has not yet been clarified, nor has its impact on different human genders. To overcome the problems mentioned above. DOP was extracted and purified with an [...] Read more.
Dendrobium officinale is widely used as a health supplement, but its specific impact on healthy gut microbiota has not yet been clarified, nor has its impact on different human genders. To overcome the problems mentioned above. DOP was extracted and purified with an 8000–12,000 Da dialysis bag. The molecular weight and monosaccharide composition were determined using HPGPC and GC. Gas chromatography was used to detect the content of SCFA. 16S rDNA sequencing was used to analyze the diversity of human microbiota. The results showed that DOP contained two fractions, with an average molecular weight of 277 kDa and 1318 Da, and mainly composed of mannose and glucose. DOP can increase the relative abundance of benign microbiota and decrease the harmful types. Propionic acid content in women was significantly increased after DOP treatment. Finally, the correlation analysis revealed that DOP was beneficial to the microbiota of both men and women. It can be concluded from the results that DOP is a health supplement suitable for humans, and especially women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods)
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Article
Preliminary Characterization of a Spray-Dried Hydrocolloid from a High Andean Algae (Nostoc sphaericum)
Foods 2022, 11(11), 1640; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11111640 - 01 Jun 2022
Viewed by 586
Abstract
The search for new natural sources of hydrocolloids with stabilizing, thickening, and good binding capacity, from raw materials that are environmentally friendly and that contribute to the circular economy is a challenge for the food industry. The aim of the study was the [...] Read more.
The search for new natural sources of hydrocolloids with stabilizing, thickening, and good binding capacity, from raw materials that are environmentally friendly and that contribute to the circular economy is a challenge for the food industry. The aim of the study was the preliminary characterization of a spray-dried hydrocolloid from high Andean algae Nostoc sphaericum. Four ecotypes of algae from Peruvian high Andean lagoons located above 4000 m were considered. The samples were collected in the period March–April 2021 and were subjected to a spray drying process in an aqueous medium. The characterization showed that the dehydrated nostoc ecotypes presented high protein and carbohydrate content, making it a potential material for direct use as a functional food for humans. The spray-dried product presented good stability for its use as a hydrocolloid, with zeta potential values (ζ), around 30 mV, evidencing the presence of -CO-, -OH, -COO-, and -CH groups, characteristic of polysaccharides, representing 40% of total organic carbon on average, giving it low water activity values and particle size at the nanometric level. Major minerals such as Ca (>277 mg/100 g), Mg (>19.7 mg/100 g), and Fe (>7.7 mg/100 g) were reported. Spray-dried nostoc is a hydrocolloid material with high potential for the food industry, with good nutritional content and techno-functional behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods)
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Article
Metabolomics Combined with Transcriptomics Analysis Revealed the Amino Acids, Phenolic Acids, and Flavonol Derivatives Biosynthesis Network in Developing Rosa roxburghii Fruit
Foods 2022, 11(11), 1639; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11111639 - 01 Jun 2022
Viewed by 451
Abstract
Rosa roxburghii Tratt. is a specific fruit with high nutritional value and antioxidative activities. However, the key metabolites and their biosynthesis are still unknown. Herein, a main cultivated variety, ‘Guinong 5’ (Rr5), was chosen to analyze the metabolomics of the three developmental stages [...] Read more.
Rosa roxburghii Tratt. is a specific fruit with high nutritional value and antioxidative activities. However, the key metabolites and their biosynthesis are still unknown. Herein, a main cultivated variety, ‘Guinong 5’ (Rr5), was chosen to analyze the metabolomics of the three developmental stages of R. roxburghii fruit by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A total of 533 metabolites were identified, of which 339 were significantly altered. Total phenols, flavonoids, and amino acids were significantly correlated to at least one in vitro antioxidant activity. The conjoint Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) co-enrichment analysis of metabolome and transcriptome was focused on amino acid, phenylpropanoid, and flavonoid biosynthesis pathways. The amino acid, phenolic acid, and flavonol biosynthesis networks were constructed with 32 structural genes, 48 RrMYBs, and 23 metabolites. Of these, six RrMYBs correlated to 9–15 metabolites in the network were selected to detect the gene expression in six different R. roxburghii genotypes fruits. Subsequently, 21 key metabolites were identified in the in vitro antioxidant activities in the fruits at various developmental stages or in fruits of different R. roxburghii genotypes. We found that four key RrMYBs were related to the significantly varied amino acids, phenolic acids, and flavonol derivatives in the network during fruit development and the key metabolites in the in vitro antioxidative activities in the fruits of six R. roxburghii genotypes. This finding provided novel insights into the flavonoid, polyphenol, and amino acid synthesis in R. roxburghii. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Foodomics)
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Article
Large Yellow Tea Extract Ameliorates Metabolic Syndrome by Suppressing Lipogenesis through SIRT6/SREBP1 Pathway and Modulating Microbiota in Leptin Receptor Knockout Rats
Foods 2022, 11(11), 1638; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11111638 - 01 Jun 2022
Viewed by 561
Abstract
Metabolic syndrome is a chronic metabolic disorder that has turned into a severe health problem worldwide. A previous study reported that large yellow tea exhibited better anti-diabetic and lipid-lowering effects than green tea. Nevertheless, the potential mechanisms are not yet understood. In this [...] Read more.
Metabolic syndrome is a chronic metabolic disorder that has turned into a severe health problem worldwide. A previous study reported that large yellow tea exhibited better anti-diabetic and lipid-lowering effects than green tea. Nevertheless, the potential mechanisms are not yet understood. In this study, we examined the prevention effects and mechanisms of large yellow tea water extract (LWE) on metabolic syndrome using leptin receptor knockout (Lepr−/−) rats. Seven-week-old male Lepr−/− and wild type (WT) littermate rats were divided into Lepr−/− control group (KO) (n = 5), Lepr−/− with LWE-treated group (KL) (n = 5), WT control group (WT) (n = 6), and WT with LWE intervention group (WL) (n = 6). Then, the rats were administered water or LWE (700 mg/kg BW) daily by oral gavage for 24 weeks, respectively. The results showed that the administration of LWE significantly reduced the serum concentrations of random blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and free fatty acids, and increased glucose tolerance in Lepr−/− rats. Moreover, LWE remarkably reduced hepatic lipid accumulation and alleviated fatty liver formation in Lepr−/− rats. A mechanistic study showed that LWE obviously activated SIRT6 and decreased the expression of key lipogenesis-related molecules SREBP1, FAS, and DGAT1 in the livers of Lepr−/− rats. Furthermore, LWE significantly improved microbiota dysbiosis via an increase in gut microbiota diversity and an abundance of the microbiota that produce short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as Ruminococcaceae, Faecalibaculum, Intestinimonas, and Alistipes. Finally, LWE supplementation increased the concentrations of SCFAs in the feces of Lepr−/− rats. These results revealed that LWE attenuated metabolic syndrome of Lepr−/− rats via the reduction of hepatic lipid synthesis through the SIRT6/SREBP1 pathway and the modulation of gut microbiota. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intervention Effect of Natural Food Products on Chronic Diseases)
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Article
Isolation and Characterization of Chicken Serum Albumin (Hen Egg Alpha-Livetin, Gal d 5)
Foods 2022, 11(11), 1637; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11111637 - 01 Jun 2022
Viewed by 506
Abstract
Chicken serum albumin, i.e., hen egg alpha-livetin, is a recognized food allergen in chicken meat and hen eggs. Currently, there is no immunoassay available for its detection from food matrices. The characterization of chicken serum albumin-specific antibodies and the extraction of the target [...] Read more.
Chicken serum albumin, i.e., hen egg alpha-livetin, is a recognized food allergen in chicken meat and hen eggs. Currently, there is no immunoassay available for its detection from food matrices. The characterization of chicken serum albumin-specific antibodies and the extraction of the target protein are essential for immunoassay development. One monoclonal antibody (mAb), 3H4, was used in this study due to its selectivity to a linear epitope on avian serum albumin. To study the extraction of chicken serum albumin, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) with two additives, i.e., sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and dithiothreitol (DTT), was used for its extraction from chicken blood plasma and hen egg yolk. SDS and DTT improved the chicken serum albumin’s recovery and enhanced chicken serum albumin’s immunodetection. In addition, chicken serum albumin retained the best solubility and immunoreactivity after heat treatment in a neutral condition. It experienced degradation and aggregation in acidic and alkaline conditions, respectively. Overall, PBS containing 0.1% SDS and 1 mM DTT (pH 7.2) was a better extraction buffer for chicken serum albumin. However, the complexity of the food matrix and elevated temperature could reduce its solubility and immunoreactivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rapid Analysis Technology for Food Quality and Safety)
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