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Processes, Volume 7, Issue 9 (September 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
Pressure-Relief Impact Control of Open Circuit Hydraulic Pump-Controlled Forging Press System
Processes 2019, 7(9), 638; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7090638 - 19 Sep 2019
Viewed by 154
Abstract
Taking the open circuit hydraulic pump-controlled forging press system as the research object, according to the problems of pressure-relief impact of this system, the pressure-relief rules, mathematic models of the energy release rules, and the flow release rules were established, and the pressure-relief [...] Read more.
Taking the open circuit hydraulic pump-controlled forging press system as the research object, according to the problems of pressure-relief impact of this system, the pressure-relief rules, mathematic models of the energy release rules, and the flow release rules were established, and the pressure-relief performance in different stages of each pressure-relief curve was analyzed. Based on the different requirements of the pressure gradient decrease, the combined pressure-relief curve (CPRC) was proposed to realize variable-pump eccentric magnitude planning. An experimental study on the pressure-relief process with CPRC was carried out. The results show that the pressure fluctuation of the pressure-relief pipe was reduced and the suppression effect of pressure-relief impact was better than that of the single regular pressure-relief curve. When the initial pressures were 10 MPa and 15 MPa, the pressure impact of the pressure-relief tube decreased by 45.45% and 37.5%, respectively, which realized the smooth pressure relief of the main cylinder. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials Processes)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Novel 3-D T-Shaped Passive Micromixer Design with Helicoidal Flows
Processes 2019, 7(9), 637; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7090637 - 19 Sep 2019
Viewed by 139
Abstract
Laminar fluid flow and advection-dominant transport produce ineffective mixing conditions in micromixers. In these systems, a desirable fluid mixing over a short distance may be achieved using special geometries in which complex flow paths are generated. In this paper, a novel design, utilizing [...] Read more.
Laminar fluid flow and advection-dominant transport produce ineffective mixing conditions in micromixers. In these systems, a desirable fluid mixing over a short distance may be achieved using special geometries in which complex flow paths are generated. In this paper, a novel design, utilizing semi-circular ridges, is proposed to improve mixing in micro channels. Fluid flow and scalar transport are investigated employing Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tool. Mixing dynamics are investigated in detail for alternative designs, injection, and diffusivity conditions. Results indicate that the convex alignment of semi-circular elements yields a specific, helicoidal-shaped fluid flow along the mixing channel which in turn enhances fluid mixing. In all cases examined, homogenous concentration distributions with mixing index values over 80% are obtained. When it is compared to the classical T-shaped micromixer, the novel design increases mixing index and mixing performance values by the factors of 8.7 and 3.3, respectively. It is also shown that different orientations of ridges adversely affect the mixing efficiency by disturbing the formation of helicoidal-shaped flow profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Modelling)
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Open AccessArticle
Techno-Economic Analysis and Physicochemical Properties of Ceiba pentandra as Second-Generation Biodiesel Based on ASTM D6751 and EN 14214
Processes 2019, 7(9), 636; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7090636 - 19 Sep 2019
Viewed by 127
Abstract
Processing biodiesel from non-edible sources of feedstock seems to be thriving in recent years. It also has also gathered more attention than in the past, mainly because the biodiesel product is renewable and emits lower pollution compared to fossil fuels. Researchers have started [...] Read more.
Processing biodiesel from non-edible sources of feedstock seems to be thriving in recent years. It also has also gathered more attention than in the past, mainly because the biodiesel product is renewable and emits lower pollution compared to fossil fuels. Researchers have started their work on various kinds of biodiesel product, especially from a non-edible feedstock. Non-edible feedstocks such as Ceiba pentandra show great potential in the production of biodiesel, especially in the Southeast Asia region because the plants seem to be abundant in that region. Ceiba pentandra, also known as the Kapok tree, produces hundreds of pods with a length of 15 cm (5.9 in) and diameter 2–5 cm (1–2 in). The pods consist of seeds and fluff in the surrounding areas inside the pod, which itself contains yellowish fibre, a mixture of cellulose and lignin. The seeds of Ceiba pentandra can be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. The study for Ceiba pentandra will involve techno-economic, as well as a sensitivity analysis. Moreover, the study also shows that the techno-economic analysis of a biodiesel processing plant for 50 ktons Ceiba pentandra with a life span of 20 years is around $701 million with 3.7 years of the payback period. Besides that, this study also shows the differences in operating cost and oil conversion yield, which has the least impact on running cost. By improving the conversion processes continuously and by increasing the operational efficiency, the cost of production will decrease. In addition, the study also explains the differences of final price biodiesel and diesel fossil fuel, both showing dissimilar scenarios subsidy and taxation. Biodiesel has a subsidy of $0.10/L and $0.18/L with a total tax exemption of 15%. The value was obtained from the latest subsidy cost and diesel in Malaysia. Finally, further research is needed in order to fully utilize the use of Ceiba pentandra as one of the non-edible sources of biodiesel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioenergy Systems, Material Management, and Sustainability)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Biogas Generation through Anaerobic Digestion of Compost Leachate in Semi-Continuous Completely Stirred Tank Reactors
Processes 2019, 7(9), 635; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7090635 - 18 Sep 2019
Viewed by 164
Abstract
The composting process of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, besides to the residual compost, generates a wastewater that is characterized by a high organic load. The application of anaerobic processes represents an advantageous solution for the treatment and valorization of this type [...] Read more.
The composting process of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, besides to the residual compost, generates a wastewater that is characterized by a high organic load. The application of anaerobic processes represents an advantageous solution for the treatment and valorization of this type of wastewater. Nevertheless, few works have been focused on the anaerobic digestion of compost leachate. To overcome this dearth, in the present paper an extensive experimental investigation was carried out to develop and analyse the anaerobic treatment of young leachate in completely stirred tank reactors (CSTR). Initially, it was defined a suitable leachate pretreatment to correct its acidic characteristics that is potentially able to inhibit methanogenic biomass activity. The pretreated leachate was fed to the digester over the start-up phase that was completed in about 40 days. During the operational period, the organic load rate (OLR) changed between 4.25 kgCOD/m3d and 38.5 kgCOD/m3d. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) abatement was higher than 90% for OLR values up to 14.5 kgCOD/m3d and around to 80% for applied loads equal to 24.5 kgCOD/m3d. At this OLR, it was reached the maximum daily biogas production of about 9.3 Lbiogas/(Lreactord). The CH4 fraction was between 70%–78% and the methane production yield in the range 0.34–0.38 LCH4/gCODremoved. The deterioration of biogas production started for OLR values that were over the threshold of 24.5 kgCOD/m3d when a volatile fatty acids (VFA) accumulation occurred and the pH dropped below 6.5. The maximum ratio between VFA and alkalinity (ALK) tolerable in the CSTR was identified to be 0.5 gCH3COOH/gCaCO3. Through an economic analysis, it was proven that the digestion of compost leachate could ensure significant economic profits. Furthermore, the produced digestate had characteristics that were compatible for agricultural applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anaerobic Digestion Processes)
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Open AccessArticle
CVD Synthesis, Functionalization and CO2 Adsorption Attributes of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes
Processes 2019, 7(9), 634; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7090634 - 18 Sep 2019
Viewed by 153
Abstract
Carbon dioxide is one of the major greenhouse gases and a leading source of global warming. Several adsorbent materials are being tested for removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere. The use of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as a CO [...] Read more.
Carbon dioxide is one of the major greenhouse gases and a leading source of global warming. Several adsorbent materials are being tested for removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere. The use of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as a CO2 adsorbent material is a relatively new research avenue. In this study, Fe2O3/Al2O3 composite catalyst was used to synthesize MWCNTs by cracking ethylene gas molecules in a fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) chamber. These nanotubes were treated with H2SO4/HNO3 solution and functionalized with 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APTS). Chemical modification of nanotubes removed the endcaps and introduced some functional groups along the sidewalls at defected sites. The functionalization of nanotubes with amine introduced carboxylic groups on the tube surface. These functional groups significantly enhance the surface wettability, hydrophilicity and CO2 adsorption capacity of MWCNTs. The CO2 adsorption capacity of as-grown and amine-functionalized CNTs was computed by generating their breakthrough curves. BELSORP-mini equipment was used to generate CO2 breakthrough curves. The oxidation and functionalization of MWCNTs revealed significant improvement in their adsorption capacity. The highest CO2 adsorption of 129 cm3/g was achieved with amine-functionalized MWCNTs among all the tested samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials Processes)
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Open AccessArticle
Using PSO Algorithm to Compensate Power Loss Due to the Aeroelastic Effect of the Wind Turbine Blade
Processes 2019, 7(9), 633; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7090633 - 18 Sep 2019
Viewed by 114
Abstract
Power loss due to the aeroelastic effect of the blade is becoming an important problem of large-scale blade design. Prior work has already employed the pretwisting method to deal with this problem and obtained some good results at reference wind speed. The aim [...] Read more.
Power loss due to the aeroelastic effect of the blade is becoming an important problem of large-scale blade design. Prior work has already employed the pretwisting method to deal with this problem and obtained some good results at reference wind speed. The aim of this study was to compensate for the power loss for all of the wind speeds by using the pretwisting method. Therefore, we developed an aeroelastic coupling optimization model, which takes the pretwist angles along the blade as free variables, the maximum AEP (annual energy production) as the optimal object, and the smooth of the twist distribution as one of the constraint conditions. In this optimization model, a PSO (particle swarm optimization) algorithm is used and combined with the BEM-3DFEM (blade element momentum—three-dimensional finite element method) model. Then, the optimization model was compared with an iteration method, which was recently developed by another study and can well compensate the power loss at reference wind speed. By a design test, we found that the power loss can be reduced by pretwisting the origin blade, whether using the optimization model or the iteration method. Moreover, the optimization model has better ability than the iteration method to compensate the power loss with lower thrust coefficient while keeping the twist distribution smooth. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Air–Oil Flow and Heat Transfer inside a Grooved Rotating-Disk System
Processes 2019, 7(9), 632; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7090632 - 18 Sep 2019
Viewed by 109
Abstract
An investigation on the two-phase flow field inside a grooved rotating-disk system is presented by experiment and computational fluid dynamics numerical simulation. The grooved rotating-disk system consists of one stationary flat disk and one rotating grooved disk. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model [...] Read more.
An investigation on the two-phase flow field inside a grooved rotating-disk system is presented by experiment and computational fluid dynamics numerical simulation. The grooved rotating-disk system consists of one stationary flat disk and one rotating grooved disk. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model considering two-phase flow and heat transfer was utilized to simulate phase distributions and heat dissipation capability. Visualization tests were conducted to validate the flow patterns and the parametric effects on the flow field. The results indicate that the flow field of the grooved rotating-disk system was identified to be an air–oil flow. A stable interface between the continuous oil phase and the two-phase area could be formed and observed. The parametric analysis demonstrated that the inter moved outwards in the radial direction, and the average oil volume fraction over the whole flow field increased with smaller angular speed, more inlet mass flow of oil, or decreasing disk spacing. The local Nusselt number was remarkably affected by the oil volume fraction and the fluid flow speed distributions in this two-phase flow at different radial positions. Lastly, due to the change of phase volume fraction and fluid flow speed, the variation of the average Nusselt number over the whole flow field could be divided into three stages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Flow Control Processes in Micro Scale)
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Open AccessArticle
Green and Facile Synthesis of Dendritic and Branched Gold Nanoparticles by Gelatin and Investigation of Their Biocompatibility on Fibroblast Cells
Processes 2019, 7(9), 631; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7090631 - 18 Sep 2019
Viewed by 143
Abstract
In this work, gold nanostar (AuNPs) and gold nanodendrites were synthesized by one-pot and environmentally friendly approach in the presence of gelatin. Influence of gelatin concentrations and reaction conditions on the growth of branched (AuNPs) were investigated further. Interestingly, the conversion of morphology [...] Read more.
In this work, gold nanostar (AuNPs) and gold nanodendrites were synthesized by one-pot and environmentally friendly approach in the presence of gelatin. Influence of gelatin concentrations and reaction conditions on the growth of branched (AuNPs) were investigated further. Interestingly, the conversion of morphology between dendritic and branched nanostructure can be attained by changing the pH value of gelatin solution. The role of gelatin as a protecting agent through the electrostatic and steric interaction was also revealed. Branched nanoparticles were characterized by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy (SPR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), XRD, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta-potential. The chemical interaction of gelatin with branched gold nanoparticles was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IT) technique. Ultraviolet visible spectroscopy results indicated the formation of branched gold nanoparticles with the maximum surface plasmon resonance peak at 575–702 nm. The structure of both nanodendrites and nanostars were determined by TEM. The crystal sizes of nano-star ranged from 42 to 55 nm and the nanodendrites sizes were about 75–112 nm. Based on the characterizations, a growth mechanism could be proposed to explain morphology evolutions of branched AuNPs. Moreover, the branched AuNPs is high viability at 100 μg/mL concentration when performed by the SRB assay with human foreskin fibroblast cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Characterization of Biomedical Materials)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Mild Hydrothermal Pretreatment of Microalgae for the Production of Biocrude with a Low N and O Content
Processes 2019, 7(9), 630; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7090630 - 17 Sep 2019
Viewed by 217
Abstract
A hydrothermal pretreatment of the microalga Nannochloropsis gaditana at mild temperatures was studied in order to reduce the N and O content in the biocrude obtained by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). The work focused on the evaluation of temperature, reactor loading, and time (factors) [...] Read more.
A hydrothermal pretreatment of the microalga Nannochloropsis gaditana at mild temperatures was studied in order to reduce the N and O content in the biocrude obtained by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). The work focused on the evaluation of temperature, reactor loading, and time (factors) to maximize the yield of the pretreated biomass and the heteroatom contents transferred from the microalga biomass to the aqueous phase (responses). The study followed the factorial design and response surface methodology. An equation for every response was obtained, which led to the accurate calculation of the operating conditions required to obtain a given value of these responses. Temperature and time are critical factors with a negative effect on the pretreated biomass yield but a positive one on the N and O recovery in the aqueous phase. The slurry concentration has to be low to increase heteroatom recovery and has to be high to maximize the pretreated microalga yields. Response equations were obtained for the analyzed responses, which facilitated the accurate prediction of the operating conditions required to obtain a given value of these responses. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Single-arc Blade Profile Length on the Performance of a Forward Multiblade Fan
Processes 2019, 7(9), 629; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7090629 - 17 Sep 2019
Viewed by 127
Abstract
The effects of single-arc blade profile length on the performance of a forward multiblade fan are investigated in this paper by computational fluid dynamics and experimental measurement. The present work emphasizes that the use of a properly reduced blade inlet angle (β1A [...] Read more.
The effects of single-arc blade profile length on the performance of a forward multiblade fan are investigated in this paper by computational fluid dynamics and experimental measurement. The present work emphasizes that the use of a properly reduced blade inlet angle (β1A) and properly improved blade outlet angle (β2A) is to increase the length blade profile, which suggests a good physical understanding of internal complex flow characteristics and the aerodynamic performance of the fan. Numerical results indicate that the gradient of the absolute velocity among the blades in model-L (reducing the blade inlet angle and improving blade outlet angle) is clearly lower than that of the baseline model and model-S (improving the blade inlet angle and reducing blade outlet angle), where a number of secondary flows arise on the exit surface of baseline model and model-S. However, no secondary flow occurs in model-L, and the flow loss at the exit surface of the volute (scroll-shaped flow patterns) for model-L is obviously lower than that of the baseline model at the design point. The comparison of the test results further shows that to improve the blade profile length is to increase the static pressure and the efficiency of the static pressure, since the improved static pressure of the model-L rises as much as 22.5 Pa and 26.2%, and the improved static pressure efficiency of the model-L rises as much as 5 % at the design flow rates. It is further indicated that increasing the blade working area provides significant physical insight into increasing the static pressure, total pressure, the efficiency of the static pressure and the total pressure efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CFD Applications in Energy Engineering Research and Simulation)
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Open AccessArticle
Finite Element Simulation of Multiple Slip Effects on MHD Unsteady Maxwell Nanofluid Flow over a Permeable Stretching Sheet with Radiation and Thermo-Diffusion in the Presence of Chemical Reaction
Processes 2019, 7(9), 628; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7090628 - 17 Sep 2019
Viewed by 113
Abstract
The aim of the present study is to investigate the multiple slip effects on magnetohydrodynamic unsteady Maxwell nanofluid flow over a permeable stretching sheet with thermal radiation and thermo-diffusion in the presence of chemical reaction. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations are transformed [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study is to investigate the multiple slip effects on magnetohydrodynamic unsteady Maxwell nanofluid flow over a permeable stretching sheet with thermal radiation and thermo-diffusion in the presence of chemical reaction. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations are transformed into a system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations with the aid of appropriate similarity variables, and the transformed equations are then solved numerically by using a variational finite element method. The effects of various physical parameters on the velocity, temperature, solutal concentration, and nanoparticle concentration profiles as well as on the skin friction coefficient, rate of heat transfer, and Sherwood number for solutal concentration are discussed by the aid of graphs and tables. An exact solution of flow velocity, skin friction coefficient, and Nusselt number is compared with the numerical solution obtained by FEM and also with numerical results available in the literature. A good agreement between the exact and numerical solution is observed. Also, to justify the convergence of the finite element numerical solution, the calculations are carried out by reducing the mesh size. The present investigation is relevant to high-temperature nanomaterial processing technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer of Nanofluids)
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Open AccessArticle
Improvement of the Quality of Ginkgo biloba Leaves Fermented by Eurotium cristatum as High Value-Added Feed
Processes 2019, 7(9), 627; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7090627 - 17 Sep 2019
Viewed by 125
Abstract
Ginkgo biloba leaves are well known for their high content of nutrients and bioactive substances. However, unpleasant smell and a small number of ginkgolic acids greatly reduce the utilization of the leaves. In this work, solid-state fermentation of G. biloba leaves using Eurotium [...] Read more.
Ginkgo biloba leaves are well known for their high content of nutrients and bioactive substances. However, unpleasant smell and a small number of ginkgolic acids greatly reduce the utilization of the leaves. In this work, solid-state fermentation of G. biloba leaves using Eurotium cristatum was studied by investigation of the nutrient changes and its feasibility as a functional feed. E. cristatum could grow on pure G. biloba leaves and the addition of excipients could significantly improve the growth of E. cristatum. The optimal medium was with 10% (w/w) of whole G. biloba seeds and the optimized water content, pH, inoculum size and fermentation time were 45% (w/w), 4.5, 4.76 × 107 CFU/100 g wet medium, and eight days, respectively. Under the optimal conditions, the spore number increased by about 40 times. The content of flavonoids was greatly increased by 118.6%, and the protein and polyprenyl acetates (PPAs) were increased by 64.9% and 10.6%, respectively. The ginkgolic acids, lignin, and cellulose were decreased by 52.4%, 38.5%, and 20.1% than before, respectively. Furthermore, the fermented G. biloba leaves showed higher antioxidant activity and held more aroma substances. Thus, G. biloba leaves fermented by E. cristatum have potential as s high value-added feed. This is the first investigation of E. cristatum fermentation on ginkgo leaves, which will facilitate the use of ginkgo leaves in the feed industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Green Processes)
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Solutions of Heat Transfer for Magnetohydrodynamic Jeffery-Hamel Flow Using Spectral Homotopy Analysis Method
Processes 2019, 7(9), 626; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7090626 - 17 Sep 2019
Viewed by 121
Abstract
This paper studies heat transfer in a two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic viscous incompressible flow in convergent/divergent channels. The temperature profile was obtained numerically for both cases of convergent/divergent channels. It was found that the temperature profile increases with an increase in Reynold number, Prandtl number, [...] Read more.
This paper studies heat transfer in a two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic viscous incompressible flow in convergent/divergent channels. The temperature profile was obtained numerically for both cases of convergent/divergent channels. It was found that the temperature profile increases with an increase in Reynold number, Prandtl number, Nusselt number and angle of the wall but decreases with an increase in Hartmann number. A relatively new numerical method called the spectral homotopy analysis method (SHAM) was used to solve the governing non-linear differential equations. The SHAM 3rd order results matched with the DTM and shooting, showing that SHAM is feasible as a technique to be used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flow, Heat and Mass Transport in Microdevices)
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Open AccessArticle
The Role of Blade Sinusoidal Tubercle Trailing Edge in a Centrifugal Pump with Low Specific Speed
Processes 2019, 7(9), 625; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7090625 - 17 Sep 2019
Viewed by 110
Abstract
Pressure pulsations may cause high-amplitude vibrations during the process of a centrifugal pump. The trailing edge shape of the blade has a critical influence on the pump’s pressure fluctuation and hydraulic characterization. In this paper, inspired by the humpback whale flipper, the authors [...] Read more.
Pressure pulsations may cause high-amplitude vibrations during the process of a centrifugal pump. The trailing edge shape of the blade has a critical influence on the pump’s pressure fluctuation and hydraulic characterization. In this paper, inspired by the humpback whale flipper, the authors research the impact of applying the sinusoidal tubercles to the blade suction side of the trailing edge. Numerical calculation and experiments are carried out to investigate the impact of the trailing edge shape on the pressure pulsations and performance of a centrifugal pump with low specific speed. Two designed impellers are tested, one is a sinusoidal tubercle trailing edge (STTE) impeller and the other is the original trailing edge (OTE) prototype. The detailed study indicates that the sinusoidal tubercle trailing edge (STTE) reduces pressure pulsation and enhances hydraulic performance. In the volute tongue region, the pressure pulsation amplitudes of STTE at fBPF decrease significantly. The STTE impeller also effectively changes the vortex structure and intensity in the blade trailing edge area. This investigation will be of great benefit to the optimal design of pumps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CFD Applications in Energy Engineering Research and Simulation)
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Open AccessArticle
The Direct Speed Control of Pmsm Based on Terminal Sliding Mode and Finite Time Observer
Processes 2019, 7(9), 624; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7090624 - 16 Sep 2019
Viewed by 154
Abstract
A non-singular terminal sliding mode control based on finite time observer is designed to achieve speed direct control for the permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drive system. Speed and current are regulated in one loop under the non-cascade structure, taking place of the [...] Read more.
A non-singular terminal sliding mode control based on finite time observer is designed to achieve speed direct control for the permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drive system. Speed and current are regulated in one loop under the non-cascade structure, taking place of the cascade structure control method in the vector control of PMSM. Based on the second-order speed function of the PMSM, the disturbance and parameters uncertainties are estimated by the designed finite time observer (FTO), and compensate to the drive system. The estimated value of the finite time observer will converge to the actual disturbance value in a finite time. A second-order non-singular terminal sliding mode controller is proposed to realize the speed and current single-loop, which can track the reference speed and reference current in a finite time. Rigorous stability analysis is established. Comparative results verified that the proposed method has faster speed tracking performance and disturbance rejection property. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Rainwater Harvesting Potential and Utilization for Artificial Recharge of Groundwater Using Recharge Wells
Processes 2019, 7(9), 623; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7090623 - 16 Sep 2019
Viewed by 142
Abstract
This study devised a practical solution to mitigate urban inundation and artificial recharge of groundwater using recharge wells which is the most viable surface runoff rainwater harvesting (RWH) technique in urban areas. The Rainwater Harvesting Pilot Project at Gaddafi Stadium Lahore was established [...] Read more.
This study devised a practical solution to mitigate urban inundation and artificial recharge of groundwater using recharge wells which is the most viable surface runoff rainwater harvesting (RWH) technique in urban areas. The Rainwater Harvesting Pilot Project at Gaddafi Stadium Lahore was established to deal with urban flooding, artificial recharge of groundwater, and to avoid the mixing of rainwater in municipal sewerage. The study showed that Lahore city has great RWH potential from critical ponding roads that can be utilized to recharge the Lahore aquifer. With that ratio of recharge, the groundwater level can rise to 3.54 ft after every monsoon period if the same recharge wells structure are used, which is a key to groundwater sustainability in Lahore city. Moreover, the maximum recharging capacity of wells was 29.32 m3/h with satisfactory performance. Both recharge wells cleared the ponding volume within 3 to 3.5 h after the rainfall stopped. The filter media performance was also favorable with 25%–30% removal of contamination. All the water quality parameters were within the permissible limit against prescribed standards except coliform count that indicated the presence of sewage. In such a case the mixing of charcoal is recommended to shut up the coliform signals. This study identified that RWH using recharge wells is an alternative freshwater supply source for sustainable development of Lahore city and this technique should be the part of Master Planning and Policy Decision of Lahore as a suggestion. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Water Treatment Using Metallic Iron: A Tutorial Review
Processes 2019, 7(9), 622; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7090622 - 14 Sep 2019
Viewed by 173
Abstract
Researchers and engineers using metallic iron (Fe0) for water treatment need a tutorial review on the operating mode of the Fe0/H2O system. There are few review articles attempting to present systematic information to guide proper material selection [...] Read more.
Researchers and engineers using metallic iron (Fe0) for water treatment need a tutorial review on the operating mode of the Fe0/H2O system. There are few review articles attempting to present systematic information to guide proper material selection and application conditions. However, they are full of conflicting reports. This review seeks to: (i) Summarize the state-of-the-art knowledge on the remediation Fe0/H2O system, (ii) discuss relevant contaminant removal mechanisms, and (iii) provide solutions for practical engineering application of Fe0-based systems for water treatment. Specifically, the following aspects are summarized and discussed in detail: (i) Fe0 intrinsic reactivity and material selection, (ii) main abiotic contaminant removal mechanisms, and (iii) relevance of biological and bio-chemical processes in the Fe0/H2O system. In addition, challenges for the design of the next generation Fe0/H2O systems are discussed. This paper serves as a handout to enable better practical engineering applications for environmental remediation using Fe0. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Simulation Study of Heavy Oil Production by Using In-Situ Combustion
Processes 2019, 7(9), 621; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7090621 - 14 Sep 2019
Viewed by 139
Abstract
An in-situ combustion method is an effective method to enhance oil recovery with high economic recovery rate, low risk, fast promotion and application speed. Currently, in-situ combustion technique is regarded as the last feasible thermal recovery technology to replace steam injection in the [...] Read more.
An in-situ combustion method is an effective method to enhance oil recovery with high economic recovery rate, low risk, fast promotion and application speed. Currently, in-situ combustion technique is regarded as the last feasible thermal recovery technology to replace steam injection in the exploitation of bitumen sands and heavy oil reservoirs. However, the oil-discharging mechanism during the in-situ combustion process is still not clearly understood. In this paper, the in-situ combustion process has been numerically simulated based on the Du 66 block. The effect of production parameters (huff and puff rounds, air injection speed, and air injection temperature) and geological parameters (bottom water thickness, stratigraphic layering, permeability ratio, and formation thickness) on the heavy oil recovery have been comprehensively analyzed. Results show that the flooding efficiency is positively correlated with the thickness of the bottom water, and negatively correlated with the formation heterogeneity. There exist optimum values for the oil layer thickness, huff and puff rounds, and air injection speed. And the effect of air injection temperature is not significant. The results of this paper can contribute to the understanding of mechanisms during in-situ combustion and the better production design for heavy oil reservoirs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Process Design, Simulation and Optimization)
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Open AccessBrief Report
Water-In-Oil Emulsions through Porous Media and the Effect of Surfactants: Theoretical Approaches
Processes 2019, 7(9), 620; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7090620 - 12 Sep 2019
Viewed by 160
Abstract
The most complex components in heavy crude oils tend to form aggregates that constitute the dispersed phase in these fluids, showing the high viscosity values that characterize them. Water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions are affected by the presence and concentration of this phase in crude [...] Read more.
The most complex components in heavy crude oils tend to form aggregates that constitute the dispersed phase in these fluids, showing the high viscosity values that characterize them. Water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions are affected by the presence and concentration of this phase in crude oil. In this paper, a theoretical study based on computational chemistry was carried out to determine the molecular interaction energies between paraffin–asphaltenes–water and four surfactant molecules to predict their effect in W/O emulsions and the theoretical influence on the pressure drop behavior for fluids that move through porous media. The mathematical model determined a typical behavior of the fluid when the parameters of the system are changed (pore size, particle size, dispersed phase fraction in the fluid, and stratified fluid) and the viscosity model determined that two of the surfactant molecules are suitable for applications in the destabilization of W/O emulsions. Therefore, an experimental study must be set to determine the feasibility of the methodology and mathematical model displayed in this work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Other Topics)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimization of Tubular Microalgal Photobioreactors with Spiral Ribs under Single-Sided and Double-Sided Illuminations
Processes 2019, 7(9), 619; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7090619 - 12 Sep 2019
Viewed by 122
Abstract
Microalgae can be raw materials for the production of clean energy and have great potential for development. The design of the microalgal photobioreactor (PBR) affects the mixing of the algal suspension and the utilization efficiency of the light energy, thereby affecting the high-efficiency [...] Read more.
Microalgae can be raw materials for the production of clean energy and have great potential for development. The design of the microalgal photobioreactor (PBR) affects the mixing of the algal suspension and the utilization efficiency of the light energy, thereby affecting the high-efficiency cultivation of the microalgae. In this study, a spiral rib structure was introduced into a tubular microalgal PBR to improve the mixing performance and the light utilization efficiency. The number of spiral ribs, the inclination angle, and the velocity of the algal suspension were optimized for single-sided and double-sided parallel light illuminations with the same total incident light intensity. Next, the optimization results under the two illumination modes were compared. The results showed that the double-sided illumination did not increase the average light/dark (L/D) cycle frequency of the microalgae particles, but it reduced the efficiency of the L/D cycle enhancement. This outcome was analyzed from the point of view of the relative position between the L/D boundary and the vortex in the flow field. Finally, a method to increase the average L/D cycle frequency was proposed and validated. In this method, the relative position between the L/D boundary and the vortex was adjusted so that the L/D boundary passed through the central region of the vortex. This method can also be applied to the design of other types of PBRs to increase the average L/D cycle frequency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy, Economic and Environment for Industrial Production Processes)
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Open AccessArticle
Extended State Observer-Based Predictive Speed Control for Permanent Magnet Linear Synchronous Motor
Processes 2019, 7(9), 618; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7090618 - 11 Sep 2019
Viewed by 144
Abstract
Combining the feedback of predictive function control and the feedforward of extended state observer, a composite control strategy is proposed for the permanent magnet linear synchronous motor (PMLSM). The mathematical model of the PMLSM vector control system is established based on the basic [...] Read more.
Combining the feedback of predictive function control and the feedforward of extended state observer, a composite control strategy is proposed for the permanent magnet linear synchronous motor (PMLSM). The mathematical model of the PMLSM vector control system is established based on the basic structure and operation mechanism of PMLSM. Then, a speed regulator based on predictive function control (PFC) is designed to improve the speed tracking performance of the PMLSM drive system. The state and disturbance of the PMLSM system estimated by the extended state observer (ESO) transferred to the PMLSM drive system, and the robustness of the drive system will be improved. Comparative simulation and experiment results show that the proposed method has better speed tracking performance and disturbance rejection property. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Nanoemulsions: Factory for Food, Pharmaceutical and Cosmetics
Processes 2019, 7(9), 617; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7090617 - 11 Sep 2019
Viewed by 163
Abstract
Nanotechnology, particularly nanoemulsions (NEs), have gained increasing interest from researchers throughout the years. The small-sized droplet with a high surface area makes NEs important in many industries. In this review article, the components, properties, formation, and applications are summarized. The advantages and disadvantages [...] Read more.
Nanotechnology, particularly nanoemulsions (NEs), have gained increasing interest from researchers throughout the years. The small-sized droplet with a high surface area makes NEs important in many industries. In this review article, the components, properties, formation, and applications are summarized. The advantages and disadvantages are also described in this article. The formation of the nanosized emulsion can be divided into two types: high and low energy methods. In high energy methods, high-pressure homogenization, microfluidization, and ultrasonic emulsification are described thoroughly. Spontaneous emulsification, phase inversion temperature (PIT), phase inversion composition (PIC), and the less known D-phase emulsification (DPE) methods are emphasized in low energy methods. The applications of NEs are described in three main areas which are food, cosmetics, and drug delivery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Sustainable Chemical Processes)
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Open AccessArticle
Air-Core–Liquid-Ring (ACLR) Atomization Part II: Influence of Process Parameters on the Stability of Internal Liquid Film Thickness and Resulting Spray Droplet Sizes
Processes 2019, 7(9), 616; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7090616 - 10 Sep 2019
Viewed by 202
Abstract
Air-core–liquid-ring (ACLR) atomization presents a specific type of internal mixing pneumatic atomization. It can be used for disintegration of high viscous feed liquids into small droplets at relatively low gas consumptions. However, the specific principle of ACLR atomization is still under research and [...] Read more.
Air-core–liquid-ring (ACLR) atomization presents a specific type of internal mixing pneumatic atomization. It can be used for disintegration of high viscous feed liquids into small droplets at relatively low gas consumptions. However, the specific principle of ACLR atomization is still under research and no guidelines for process and atomizer design are available. Regarding literature on pre-filming atomizers, it can be hypothesized for ACLR atomization that the liquid film thickness inside the exit orifice of the atomizer, as well as the resulting spray droplet sizes decrease with increasing air-to-liquid ratio (ALR) and decreasing feed viscosity. In this study, the time dependent liquid film thickness inside the exit orifice of the atomizer was predicted by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. Results were compared to high speed video images and correlated to measured spray droplet sizes. In conclusion, the hypothesis could be validated by simulation and experimental data, however, at high viscosity and low ALR, periodic gas core breakups were detected in optical measurements. These breakups could not be predicted in CFD simulations, as the simplification of an incompressible gas phase was applied in order to reduce computational costs and time. Nevertheless, the presented methods show good potential for improvement of atomizer geometry and process design as well as for further investigation of the ACLR atomization principle. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Explicit Residence Time Distribution of a Generalised Cascade of Continuous Stirred Tank Reactors for a Description of Short Recirculation Time (Bypassing)
Processes 2019, 7(9), 615; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7090615 - 10 Sep 2019
Viewed by 257
Abstract
The tanks-in-series model (TIS) is a popular model to describe the residence time distribution (RTD) of non-ideal continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) with limited back-mixing. In this work, the TIS model was generalised to a cascade of n CSTRs with non-integer non-negative n. [...] Read more.
The tanks-in-series model (TIS) is a popular model to describe the residence time distribution (RTD) of non-ideal continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) with limited back-mixing. In this work, the TIS model was generalised to a cascade of n CSTRs with non-integer non-negative n. The resulting model describes non-ideal back-mixing with n > 1. However, the most interesting feature of the n-CSTR model is the ability to describe short recirculation times (bypassing) with n < 1 without the need of complex reactor networks. The n-CSTR model is the only model that connects the three fundamental RTDs occurring in reactor modelling by variation of a single shape parameter n: The unit impulse at n→0, the exponential RTD of an ideal CSTR at n = 1, and the delayed impulse of an ideal plug flow reactor at n→∞. The n-CSTR model can be used as a stand-alone model or as part of a reactor network. The bypassing material fraction for the regime n < 1 was analysed. Finally, a Fourier analysis of the n-CSTR was performed to predict the ability of a unit operation to filter out upstream fluctuations and to model the response to upstream set point changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Model-Based Tools for Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Processes)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A Comparison of Clustering and Prediction Methods for Identifying Key Chemical–Biological Features Affecting Bioreactor Performance
Processes 2019, 7(9), 614; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7090614 - 10 Sep 2019
Viewed by 179
Abstract
Chemical–biological systems, such as bioreactors, contain stochastic and non-linear interactions which are difficult to characterize. The highly complex interactions between microbial species and communities may not be sufficiently captured using first-principles, stationary, or low-dimensional models. This paper compares and contrasts multiple data analysis [...] Read more.
Chemical–biological systems, such as bioreactors, contain stochastic and non-linear interactions which are difficult to characterize. The highly complex interactions between microbial species and communities may not be sufficiently captured using first-principles, stationary, or low-dimensional models. This paper compares and contrasts multiple data analysis strategies, which include three predictive models (random forests, support vector machines, and neural networks), three clustering models (hierarchical, Gaussian mixtures, and Dirichlet mixtures), and two feature selection approaches (mean decrease in accuracy and its conditional variant). These methods not only predict the bioreactor outcome with sufficient accuracy, but the important features correlated with said outcome are also identified. The novelty of this work lies in the extensive exploration and critique of a wide arsenal of methods instead of single methods, as observed in many papers of similar nature. The results show that random forest models predict the test set outcomes with the highest accuracy. The identified contributory features include process features which agree with domain knowledge, as well as several different biomarker operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The results reinforce the notion that both chemical and biological features significantly affect bioreactor performance. However, they also indicate that the quality of the biological features can be improved by considering non-clustering methods, which may better represent the true behaviour within the OTU communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Process Systems Engineering à la Canada)
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Open AccessArticle
Proposal of a Learning Health System to Transform the National Health System of Spain
Processes 2019, 7(9), 613; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7090613 - 10 Sep 2019
Viewed by 182
Abstract
This article identifies the main challenges of the National Health Service of Spain and proposes its transformation into a Learning Health System. For this purpose, the main indicators and reports published by the Spanish Ministries of Health and Finance, Organization for Economic Co-operation [...] Read more.
This article identifies the main challenges of the National Health Service of Spain and proposes its transformation into a Learning Health System. For this purpose, the main indicators and reports published by the Spanish Ministries of Health and Finance, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and World Health Organization (WHO) were reviewed. The Learning Health System proposal is based on some sections of an unpublished report, written by two of the authors under request of the Ministry of Health of Spain on Big Data for the National Health System. The main challenges identified are the rising old age dependency ratio; health expenditure pressures and the likely increase of out-of-pocket expenditure; drug expenditures, both retail and consumed in hospitals; waiting lists for surgery; potentially preventable hospital admissions; and the use of electronic health record (EHR) data to fulfil national health information and research objectives. To improve its efficacy, efficiency, and quality, the National Health Service of Spain should be transformed into a Learning Health System. Information and communication technologies (IT) enablers are a fundamental tool to address the complexity and vastness of health data as well as the urgency that clinical and management decisions require. Big Data solutions are a perfect match for that problem in health systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Big Data in Biology, Life Sciences and Healthcare)
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Open AccessArticle
The Removal of Silicate(IV) by Adsorption onto Hydrocalumite from the Sodium Hydroxide Leaching Solution of Black Dross
Processes 2019, 7(9), 612; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7090612 - 10 Sep 2019
Viewed by 172
Abstract
Alkaline leaching of mechanically activated black dross resulted in an aluminate(III) solution with a small amount of silicate(IV). To obtain pure aluminate(III) solution, the removal of silicate(IV) from the alkaline leaching solution was investigated by adsorption with hydrocalumite (Ca2Al(OH)6Cl·2H [...] Read more.
Alkaline leaching of mechanically activated black dross resulted in an aluminate(III) solution with a small amount of silicate(IV). To obtain pure aluminate(III) solution, the removal of silicate(IV) from the alkaline leaching solution was investigated by adsorption with hydrocalumite (Ca2Al(OH)6Cl·2H2O). The hydrocalumite was synthesized by the coprecipitation method. The characterization of the synthesized hydrocalumite was analyzed via X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). In our experimental conditions, silicate(IV) was selectively adsorbed onto hydrocalumite over aluminate(III). The reaction time greatly affected the removal percentage of aluminate(III) owing to mass action effect. When the reaction time was longer than 2 h, no aluminate(III) was adsorbed onto hydrocalumite and thus it was possible to selectively remove silicate(IV). When the dosage of hydrocalumite was in excess, the removal percentage of silicate(IV) was rather reduced. Complete removal of silicate(IV) from the solution was accomplished in the reaction temperature between 50 and 70 °C. By selective adsorption of silicate(IV) from the solution at the optimum condition (30 g/L hydrocalumite, 50 °C, 400 rpm, and 2 h), an aluminate(III) solution with purity higher than 99.9% was obtained. The adsorption of silicate(IV) onto hydrocalumite followed the Freundlich isotherm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Green Processes)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Review and Modeling of Crystal Growth of Atropisomers from Solutions
Processes 2019, 7(9), 611; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7090611 - 10 Sep 2019
Viewed by 209
Abstract
In this paper, theories on anisotropic crystal growth and crystallization of atropisomers are reviewed and a model for anisotropic crystal growth from solution containing slow inter-converting conformers is presented. The model applies to systems with growth-dominated crystallization from solutions and assumes that only [...] Read more.
In this paper, theories on anisotropic crystal growth and crystallization of atropisomers are reviewed and a model for anisotropic crystal growth from solution containing slow inter-converting conformers is presented. The model applies to systems with growth-dominated crystallization from solutions and assumes that only one conformation participates in the solute integration step and is present in the crystal lattice. Other conformers, defined as the wrong conformers, must convert to the right conformer before they can assemble to the crystal lattice. The model presents a simple implicit method for evaluating the growth inhibition effect by the wrong conformers. The crystal growth model applies to anisotropic growth in two main directions, namely a slow-growing face and a fast-growing face and requires the knowledge of solute crystal face integration coefficients in both directions. A parameter estimation algorithm was derived to extract those coefficients from data about temporal concentration and crystal size during crystallization and was designed to have a short run time, while providing a high-resolution estimation. The model predicts a size-dependent growth rate and simulations indicated that for a given seed size and solvent system and for an isothermal anti-solvent addition crystallization, the seed loading and the supersaturation at seeding are the main factors impacting the final aspect ratio. The model predicts a decrease of the growth inhibition effect by the wrong conformer with increasing temperature, likely due to faster equilibration between conformers and/or a decrease of the population of the wrong conformer, if of low energy, at elevated temperatures. Finally, the model predicts that solute surface integration becomes the rate-limiting mechanism for high solute integration activation energies, resulting in no impact of the WC on the overall crystal growth process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling and Control of Crystallization)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Handling Constraints and Raw Material Variability in Rotomolding through Data-Driven Model Predictive Control
Processes 2019, 7(9), 610; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7090610 - 10 Sep 2019
Viewed by 194
Abstract
This work addresses the problems of uniquely specifying and robustly achieving user-specified product quality in a complex industrial batch process, which has been demonstrated using a lab-scale uni-axial rotational molding process. In particular, a data-driven modeling and control framework is developed that is [...] Read more.
This work addresses the problems of uniquely specifying and robustly achieving user-specified product quality in a complex industrial batch process, which has been demonstrated using a lab-scale uni-axial rotational molding process. In particular, a data-driven modeling and control framework is developed that is able to reject raw material variation and achieve product quality which is specified through constraints on quality variables. To this end, a subspace state-space model of the rotational molding process is first identified from historical data generated in the lab. This dynamic model predicts the evolution of the internal mold temperature for a given set of input move trajectory (heater and compressed air profiles). Further, this dynamic model is augmented with a linear least-squares based quality model, which relates its terminal (states) prediction with key quality variables. For the lab-scale process, the chosen quality variables are sinkhole area, ultrasonic spectra amplitude, impact energy and shear viscosity. The complete model is then deployed within a model-based control scheme that facilitates specifying on-spec products via limits on the quality variables. Further, this framework is demonstrated to be capable of rejecting raw material variability to achieve the desired specifications. To replicate raw material variability observed in practice, in this work, the raw material is obtained by blending the matrix resin with a resin of slightly different viscosity at varying weight fractions. Results obtained from experimental studies demonstrate the capability of the proposed model predictive control (MPC) in meeting process specifications and rejecting raw material variability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Methods for Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle
Energetic and Exergetic Investigations of Hybrid Configurations in an Absorption Refrigeration Chiller by Aspen Plus
Processes 2019, 7(9), 609; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7090609 - 10 Sep 2019
Viewed by 147
Abstract
In the present study, a steady-state simulation model was built and validated by Aspen Plus to assess the performance of an absorption refrigeration chiller according to the open literature. Given the complex heat transfer happening in the absorbers and the generator, several assumptions [...] Read more.
In the present study, a steady-state simulation model was built and validated by Aspen Plus to assess the performance of an absorption refrigeration chiller according to the open literature. Given the complex heat transfer happening in the absorbers and the generator, several assumptions were proposed to simplify the model, for which a new parameter ε l i q was introduced to describe the ratio of possible heat that could be recovered from the absorption and heat-transferring process in the solution cooling absorber. The energetic and the exergetic investigations of a basic cycle and hybrid cycles were conducted, in which the following parameters were analyzed: coefficient of performance (COP), exergetic efficiency, exergy destruction, and irreversibility. According to the results, the basic cycle exhibited major irreversibility in the absorbers and the generator. Subsequently, two proposed novel configurations were adopted to enhance its performance; the first (configuration 1) involved a compressor between a solution heat exchanger and a solution cooling absorber, and the second (configuration 2) involved a compressor between a rectifier and a condenser. The peak COP and the overall exergetic efficiency (η) of configuration 1 were found to be better, increasing by 15% and 5.5%, respectively, and those of configuration 2 were also upregulated by 5% and 4%, respectively. The rise in intermediate compressor ratio not only reduced the driving generator temperature of both configurations but also expanded the operating range of the system under configuration 1, thus proving their feasibility in waste heat sources and the superiority of configuration 1. Detailed information about the optimal state for hybrid cycles is also presented. Full article
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