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Processes, Volume 11, Issue 2 (February 2023) – 348 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The demand for environmentally friendly products is increasing in the cosmetic and textile industries. Cork extracts have interesting properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial activities. This work investigates two different applications for NADES-based cork extracts: (i) incorporation into cosmetics and (ii) as textile dyeing agents. The results demonstrated that extracts improved the antioxidant performance of the tested formulations without compromising their toxicity. Cotton fabrics were efficiently dyed with the NADES-based cork extracts acquiring antioxidant and antibacterial abilities. The application of cork extracts as ingredients in cosmetics or as dyeing agents for textiles is a promising and green way to replace harmful ingredients. View this paper
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24 pages, 8541 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Analysis of the Lifting Arm System in the Integrated Offshore Platform Decommissioning Equipment in Complicated Sea States
by Wensheng Xiao, Changjiang Li, Lianghuan Fan, Quan Li and Liping Tan
Processes 2023, 11(2), 645; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11020645 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1731
Abstract
With the further exploitation of offshore resources, there are more and more offshore oil and gas fields which cannot meet the production capacity requirements. So, it becomes extremely urgent to pay attention to the decommissioning of the exploitation equipment in abandoned offshore fields. [...] Read more.
With the further exploitation of offshore resources, there are more and more offshore oil and gas fields which cannot meet the production capacity requirements. So, it becomes extremely urgent to pay attention to the decommissioning of the exploitation equipment in abandoned offshore fields. A new decommissioning solution is offered by the double-ship integrated offshore platform decommissioning equipment comes. However, as the equipment will inevitably bear the combined actions of various dynamic and static loads during operation, the strength and stability of the overall unit and the connections between different modules will be greatly challenged by the complex ocean. Firstly, the dynamic characteristics of the integrated decommissioning system are analyzed in this paper. Mathematical modeling of the lifting arm system is established based on the unit characteristics matrix, and a dynamic equation of the flexible lifting arm unit and system is developed based on Lagrange’s equation and solved through numerical calculation. Secondly, modal analysis and transient analysis of the lifting arm in specific working conditions are performed according to the prototype parameters of the designed decommissioning system. Finally, according to the principle of similitude, a hydrodynamic experiment method is proposed with an integrated decommissioning multi-dimensional vibration test bench. The decommissioning system model test bench is designed and built to perform the dynamic response test, and this paper compares the test results and the simulation results for verification. The comparison verifies that the theoretical analysis and the tests prove each other valid and the results are accurate, meaning this work provides a powerful theoretical reference and offers effective research methods for future studies on super-large-scale integrated decommissioning equipment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Assessment and Reliability Engineering of Process Operations)
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28 pages, 21788 KiB  
Article
CFD Modeling of an H-Type Darrieus VAWT under High Winds: The Vorticity Index and the Imminent Vortex Separation Condition
by Jansen Gabriel Acosta-López, Alberto Pedro Blasetti, Sandra Lopez-Zamora and Hugo de Lasa
Processes 2023, 11(2), 644; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11020644 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2685
Abstract
This study introduces a Vorticity Index (VI) and an Imminent Vortex Separation Condition (IVSC), which are considered valuable indicators to quantify the vorticity impact on vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) operation. The VI and IVSC are specifically applied to a H-Darrieus vertical axis [...] Read more.
This study introduces a Vorticity Index (VI) and an Imminent Vortex Separation Condition (IVSC), which are considered valuable indicators to quantify the vorticity impact on vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) operation. The VI and IVSC are specifically applied to a H-Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT). Findings show that these two parameters display a direct relationship with the aerodynamic forces that govern the performance of this type of VAWT. This analysis is accomplished via 2D-CFD simulations of a H-Darrieus with a symmetrical NACA 0018, powered by high winds (8 and 20 m/s), by using a Shear Stress Transport SST k-ω model. The 2D model used is validated for Class II winds (8 m/s), for tip speed ratios (λ) ranging from 0.4 to 0.9. Power coefficients (Cp) predictions are close to those obtained with both 3D simulations and with experimental data, reported in the technical literature. It is found with the numerical simulations developed, that despite the significant increase of the average rotor overall torque values, when the wind speed is augmented from 8 m/s to 20 m/s, the energy extracted by the rotor seems to be moderately lessened by the amplified turbulence and vorticity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Renewable Energy Systems)
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11 pages, 1267 KiB  
Article
Mechanism of Water Use Behavior of College Students Based on the Improved TPB Model
by Lan Zhang, Xue Bai, Jialin Liu, Yan Bai and Jinxin Guan
Processes 2023, 11(2), 643; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11020643 - 20 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1517
Abstract
Colleges and universities are a typical service water consumers in China, i.e., with a dense population, single structure, and regular water use. This means it is crucial to strengthen the management of their water use behavior. In this paper, first of all, the [...] Read more.
Colleges and universities are a typical service water consumers in China, i.e., with a dense population, single structure, and regular water use. This means it is crucial to strengthen the management of their water use behavior. In this paper, first of all, the main water devices and water use behavior of students were elucidated by investigating and analyzing the structure and scenarios of water use in colleges and universities. Then, a model of water use behavior of college students with sociodemographic and environmental characteristics was constructed based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB). By investigating and analyzing the water use behavior, the theoretical judgment of the improved TPB model that “behavior is the result of interaction between individual and environmental characteristics” was proved, which provides a reference for studying the water demand requirements of college students and supports scientific water-use management in colleges, our results also help the exploration of potential water-saving solutions in order to construct water-conservative colleges and universities. Full article
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14 pages, 5033 KiB  
Article
Evanescent-Field Excited Surface Plasmon-Enhanced U-Bent Fiber Probes Coated with Au and ZnO Nanoparticles for Humidity Detection
by Elnaz Afsharipour, Kirtiman Deo Malviya, Mohammadreza Montazeri, Ebrahim Mortazy, Ramin Soltanzadeh, Alireza Hassani, Federico Rosei and Mohamed Chaker
Processes 2023, 11(2), 642; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11020642 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1603
Abstract
We report the design, fabrication, and testing of a humidity sensor based on an optical fiber-based evanescent wave probe. The fiber was bent into a U-shape and de-cladded at the location of the bending. The de-cladded section was coated either with Au or [...] Read more.
We report the design, fabrication, and testing of a humidity sensor based on an optical fiber-based evanescent wave probe. The fiber was bent into a U-shape and de-cladded at the location of the bending. The de-cladded section was coated either with Au or with ZnO nanoparticles. Humidity is detected based on the interaction in the surface plasmon resonance of the Au/ZnO nanoparticles excited by an evanescent wave of light passing through the optical fiber. The response of the U-bent fibers to humidity was investigated using a specifically designed low-voltage portable interrogation box. We found that the fibers coated with ZnO nanoparticles were able to detect a minimum 0.1% change in humidity with an average sensitivity of 143 µV/%RH and 95% linearity over the 10% to 80% humidity range. In comparison, samples coated with Au and Au + ZnO nanoparticles demonstrated a minimum change detection of 0.3% RH and 2% RH respectively. The response and recovery time of the sensor were measured to be 3 s and 4 s, respectively, for a 60% change in humidity from 20% to 80%. The entire measurement system was operated by consuming an electrical power of 1.62 W at an input voltage of 12 Vdc. Full article
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24 pages, 8833 KiB  
Article
Surface Topography Model of Ultra-High Strength Steel AF1410 Based on Dynamic Characteristics of Milling System
by Jin Xu, Fuwu Yan, Xiaojin Wan, Yan Li and Qiang Zhu
Processes 2023, 11(2), 641; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11020641 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1443
Abstract
AF1410 is a low carbon high alloy ultra-high strength steel. It not only has high strength and high toughness, but also has a high stress corrosion resistance. However, due to the characteristics of hard quality and poor thermal conductivity, AF1410 is a difficult [...] Read more.
AF1410 is a low carbon high alloy ultra-high strength steel. It not only has high strength and high toughness, but also has a high stress corrosion resistance. However, due to the characteristics of hard quality and poor thermal conductivity, AF1410 is a difficult material to process. In the process of milling, the geometric factors of process parameters, the flexible deformation of milling cutter and the flutter of the process system all affect the surface roughness, which makes it difficult to predict the surface roughness of milling parts. In order to solve this problem, a prediction model for surface topography of ultrahigh strength steel AF1410 was studied. To solve this problem, this paper studies the formation of milling surface topography, considers the dynamic displacement of the milling system, proposes a modeling method of surface topography based on the dynamic characteristics of the milling system and forms a prediction model. On this basis, the surface topography of ultra-high strength steel is simulated and analyzed, and the accuracy of the model is verified by experiments. The study realizes the prediction of milling surface topography of AF1410 parts and reveals the formation mechanism of milling surface topography from geometric and physical perspectives. Full article
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15 pages, 2825 KiB  
Review
Progress of Reactions between Furfural and Aliphatic Alcohols via Catalytic Oxidation Processes: Reaction Routes, Catalysts, and Perspectives
by Junying Tian, Xiaowei Cheng, Yingying Fan, Weiguo Fang, Peng Dong, Guixian Li and Yongle Guo
Processes 2023, 11(2), 640; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11020640 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1874
Abstract
Furfural is one of the most important biomass platform compounds and can be used to prepare various high-value-added chemicals. The reactions of furfural with aliphatic alcohols via an oxidative esterification reaction or oxidative condensation reaction can bond two carbon molecules together and produce [...] Read more.
Furfural is one of the most important biomass platform compounds and can be used to prepare various high-value-added chemicals. The reactions of furfural with aliphatic alcohols via an oxidative esterification reaction or oxidative condensation reaction can bond two carbon molecules together and produce longer hydrocarbon chains chemicals, including methylfuroate and some low-volatility liquid biomass fuels. Thus, these reactions are considered significant utilization routes of furfural, and many inspiring catalytic systems have been designed to promoted these reactions. In this work, the reported catalytic systems for the oxidative esterification and oxidative condensation reactions are reviewed separately. The catalysts for the oxidative esterification reaction are reviewed for the classification of noble metal catalysts and non-noble metal catalysts, according to the active metals in the catalysts. For the oxidative condensation reactions, the studies using oxygen as the oxidant are reviewed firstly, and then the studies conducted using the hydrogen transfer process are analyzed subsequently. Furthermore, suggestions for future research directions for the oxidative esterification and oxidative condensation reactions are put forward. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomass Conversion)
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12 pages, 1946 KiB  
Article
Application of Parametric Design in the Optimization of Traditional Landscape Architecture
by Yue Han, Kejia Zhang, Yanyan Xu, Hao Wang and Tianlong Chai
Processes 2023, 11(2), 639; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11020639 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2394
Abstract
Parametric design, with its unique scientific and logical nature, is gradually applied in the field of landscape design. Therefore, the GIS (geographic information systems) technology of parametric software was applied to the optimization of traditional landscape architecture, and its practical application quality was [...] Read more.
Parametric design, with its unique scientific and logical nature, is gradually applied in the field of landscape design. Therefore, the GIS (geographic information systems) technology of parametric software was applied to the optimization of traditional landscape architecture, and its practical application quality was discussed. The actual analysis results showed that the evaluation result of parametric design had the highest score of 7.71 in behavioral perception. The overall score was 7.28, showing a high scientific nature. In the evaluation of landscape environmental benefits, after the optimization of landscape greening by parametric design, the air cleanliness and living comfort were generally improved, compared with those before optimization, and the highest values were 11.97 ± 6.01 and 5.86 ± 2.11 respectively. In the evaluation of the economic benefits of gardens, the economic income of gardens in the past 8 years generally increased, reaching the highest of 3.5795 billion yuan, with a growth rate of 78.92%. At the same time, the return on investment reached 26.17%, far exceeding the expected 20%. Among the social benefits, the weight of increasing employment opportunities was the largest at 0.36. In summary, parameterized optimization of traditional landscape design can effectively improve its social, environmental, and economic benefits and has good practical value. Full article
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19 pages, 6891 KiB  
Article
Creep Characteristics and Creep Model of Coal Based on Pore Water Pressure
by Fumin Zhang, Dongfeng Zhang and Shunjie Huang
Processes 2023, 11(2), 638; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11020638 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1214
Abstract
Anthracite in a specific area of Shanxi Province is the subject of this essay’s research. In the creep studies, different porosity intervals and pore water pressures were employed to evaluate the mechanical properties of creep under various test paths. The conventional Burges model [...] Read more.
Anthracite in a specific area of Shanxi Province is the subject of this essay’s research. In the creep studies, different porosity intervals and pore water pressures were employed to evaluate the mechanical properties of creep under various test paths. The conventional Burges model was coupled in series with the nonlinear viscous elements and plastic elements. The key parameters in the equation are fitted, and a creep model is created to describe the nonlinear viscosity-elastic-plastic characteristics of coal under the influence of pore water pressure with varying porosities. The creep tests used varied porosity intervals, pore water pressures, and test paths to study the mechanical properties of creep. The conventional Burges model was coupled in series with the nonlinear viscous element and plastic element. To represent the nonlinear viscosity-elastic-plastic properties of coal under the effect of pore water pressure with variable porosities, the main parameters in the equation are fitted, and a creep model is developed. The results show that the porosity and strength of the coal sample are negatively correlated. In comparison to coal samples with a porosity of 5–10%, the uniaxial compressive strength of coal samples with a porosity of 10–15% and 15–20% reduced by 9.6% and 22.3%. Throughout the creep process, instantaneous strain rises with porosity, and changes in pore water pressure and porosity have an effect on instantaneous creep under low-stress loading, resulting in different creep curve starting strain values. The duration from stress loading to the accelerated creep stage in the failure stage and the time from the deceleration creep stage to the accelerated creep stage are both gradually shortened with an increase in porosity and pore water pressure. For regression analysis and parameter identification, a creep constitutive model was developed to describe the creep characteristics of coal samples with varying porosity under varying pore water pressure. The creep parameters of the new constitutive model were obtained, and they could very well reflect the creep characteristics of specimens with varying porosity intervals under the influence of pore water pressure. Full article
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14 pages, 7675 KiB  
Article
Investigation of the Fuel Shape Impact on the MTR Reactor Parameters Using the OpenMC Code
by Alaa H. Alnahdi, Ahmed A. Alghamdi and Abdullah I. Almarshad
Processes 2023, 11(2), 637; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11020637 - 19 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2826
Abstract
The goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of simulating different fuel shapes for the material testing reactor (MTR). Two OpenMC codes were built, and the first OpenMC model was simulated using a curved shape fuel element to mimic the real [...] Read more.
The goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of simulating different fuel shapes for the material testing reactor (MTR). Two OpenMC codes were built, and the first OpenMC model was simulated using a curved shape fuel element to mimic the real dimensions and shape of the MTR. The code core parameters were validated with the collected parameters from the experimental work and two well-known Monte Carlo simulation codes (MCNP and SCALE). The validation process included the axial flux profile and criticality. After the OpenMC curve fuel model was validated, the MTR fuel was simulated as flat fuel elements with the exact amount of fuel as in the curve fuel model. By comparing the two OpenMC models’ calculations, it was observed that the radial flux distribution has only a slight difference due to fuel mass similarity. In conclusion, simulating the MTR fuel as flat elements provided a good agreement calculation compared to the real shape, but it was also observed that this might carry some discrepancies for in-depth simulation studies. Full article
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13 pages, 3868 KiB  
Article
Efficiency of Electrochemical Methods of Purification and Control over the Oxide Concentration in Halide Melts: PbCl2
by Andrey Nikolaev, Albert Mullabaev, Andrey Suzdaltsev and Yuriy P. Zaikov
Processes 2023, 11(2), 636; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11020636 - 19 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1747
Abstract
The purification of molten salts from admixtures as well as the effective control of admixture concentration has attracted researchers’ interests. In the present paper, the possibility of the electrochemical purification of PbCl2 from PbO and the effective control over the oxide ions [...] Read more.
The purification of molten salts from admixtures as well as the effective control of admixture concentration has attracted researchers’ interests. In the present paper, the possibility of the electrochemical purification of PbCl2 from PbO and the effective control over the oxide ions concentration in molten PbCl2 is studied at the temperature of 520 °C. The PbCl2 melt with the initial addition of 0.5 wt% of PbO was used as a molten salt sample. The method of potentiostatic electrolysis was used to remove the oxide additions from the melt; the linear and square-wave voltammetry dependencies were recorded, and the melt samples were taken for analysis. Based both on the results of the electrochemical measurements and the analysis of oxygen concentration in the electrolyte, we built linear empirical dependencies of the anode peak current of the oxidation of oxygen-containing electroactive anions on the PbO concentration in the studied melt. We demonstrated that the obtained dependencies may be used for direct electrochemical nondestructive in-situ control over the concentration of PbO dissolved in the PbCl2 melt containing up to 0.5 wt% of PbO. The deep electrochemical purification of the chloride PbCl2 melt from molten oxide (up to 0.044 wt% PbO or to 0.007 wt% of oxygen) was achieved by the potentiostatic electrolysis. Full article
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14 pages, 874 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Capital Structure on the Profitability Performance of ICT Firms
by Yeongjun Kim, Sungwook Jung and Changhee Kim
Processes 2023, 11(2), 635; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11020635 - 19 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4345
Abstract
Information and communication technology (ICT) companies strive for ceaseless innovation to remain competitive while facing the challenge of maximizing firm value (FV) with limited resources, and increasing the interests of shareholders. However, capital structures have a considerable effect on FV, and the literature [...] Read more.
Information and communication technology (ICT) companies strive for ceaseless innovation to remain competitive while facing the challenge of maximizing firm value (FV) with limited resources, and increasing the interests of shareholders. However, capital structures have a considerable effect on FV, and the literature still disagrees with the optimum structure in specific industries and countries. Therefore, this study evaluates the FV of ICT companies in terms of profitability efficiency using data envelopment analysis. In addition, this study applies a Tobit regression and Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA to identify the impact of leverage, liquidity, and firm size, which are major capital structure factors influencing FV. The analysis yields three main results. First, in the ICT industry, small and medium companies tend to have better profitability efficiency than companies of other sizes. Second, only small and medium ICT manufacturing companies’ profitability efficiency is positively impacted by the current ratio. Third, only mid-sized service companies’ profitability efficiency is positively impacted by the debt-equity ratio. The results have policy and practical implications for improving the FV of ICT companies. Full article
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14 pages, 2629 KiB  
Article
Three-Parameter P-S-N Curve Fitting Based on Improved Maximum Likelihood Estimation Method
by Xiufeng Tan, Qiang Li, Guanqin Wang and Kai Xie
Processes 2023, 11(2), 634; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11020634 - 19 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1644
Abstract
The P-S-N curve is a vital tool for dealing with fatigue life analysis, and its fitting under the condition of small samples is always concerned. In the view that the three parameters of the P-S-N curve equation can better describe the relationship between [...] Read more.
The P-S-N curve is a vital tool for dealing with fatigue life analysis, and its fitting under the condition of small samples is always concerned. In the view that the three parameters of the P-S-N curve equation can better describe the relationship between stress and fatigue life in the middle- and long-life range, this paper proposes an improved maximum likelihood method (IMLM). The backward statistical inference method (BSIM) recently proposed has been proven to be a good solution to the two-parameter P-S-N curve fitting problem under the condition of small samples. Because of the addition of an unknown parameter, the problem exists in the search for the optimal solution to the three-parameter P-S-N curve fitting. Considering that the maximum likelihood estimation is a commonly used P-S-N curve fitting method, and the rationality of its search for the optimal solution is better than that of BSIM, a new method combining BSIM and the maximum likelihood estimation is proposed. In addition to the BSIM advantage of expanding the sample information, the IMLM also has the advantage of more reasonable optimal solution search criteria, which improves the disadvantage of BSIM in parameter search. Finally, through the simulation tests and the fatigue test, the P-S-N curve fitting was carried out by using the traditional group method (GM), BSIM, and IMLM, respectively. The results show that the IMLM has the highest fitting accuracy. A test arrangement method is proposed accordingly. Full article
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12 pages, 4314 KiB  
Article
Mannitol-Based Media and Static pH Are Efficient Conditions for Red Pigment Production from Monascus purpureus ATCC 36928 in Submerged Culture
by Alan Gomes Lima, Luciana Arantes Dantas and Mariana Buranelo Egea
Processes 2023, 11(2), 633; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11020633 - 19 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1872
Abstract
Fungi of the Monascus species are used in Asia for the production of fermented foods, mainly due to the ability of these fungi to produce secondary metabolites such as pigments. Due to the growing discussion about the use of synthetic dyes and the [...] Read more.
Fungi of the Monascus species are used in Asia for the production of fermented foods, mainly due to the ability of these fungi to produce secondary metabolites such as pigments. Due to the growing discussion about the use of synthetic dyes and the fact that their ingestion is associated with harm to human health, studies have sought to replace these dyes using natural pigments, and new alternatives for the production of these natural pigments have been presented. In this context, Monascus pigments are a viable alternative for application in the food industry. This study aimed to evaluate different main carbon sources and pH conditions in the red pigment production of Monascus sp. We found that mannitol, when used as the only carbon source, stimulated the production of extracellular red pigment, reaching a concentration of 8.36 AU in 48 h, while glucose and sucrose reached concentrations of 1.08 and 1.34 AU, respectively. Cultivation in a bioreactor using mannitol showed great potential for optimizing pigment production and obtaining a high concentration of extracellular pigment in a short time, reaching a concentration of 25 AU in 60 h of cultivation. The change in pH altered the production of extracellular red pigment in a culture medium containing mannitol as a carbon source, demonstrating less potential than the use of static pH during cultivation in a bioreactor. Mannitol proved to be an efficient carbon source for M. pupureus under static pH conditions for both flask and benchtop bioreactor cultivation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Industrial Biotechnology: Bioprocess and Bioseparation)
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12 pages, 3942 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Effect of Deep Compost Application in the Areas around Vineyard Tree Trunks on Selected Soil Chemical Properties and the Vegetative Growth of the Vine
by Patrik Burg, Barbora Badalíková, Vladimír Mašán, Štefan Csáki, Jana Burgová, Jan Turan and Arkadiusz Matwijczuk
Processes 2023, 11(2), 632; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11020632 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1569
Abstract
In the context of sustainability, viticulture will address issues related to soil fertility in the coming period. Greater attention will therefore be paid to replacing traditional manure-based fertilisers, such as farmyard manure, with new types of fertiliser in the form of composts, digestate, [...] Read more.
In the context of sustainability, viticulture will address issues related to soil fertility in the coming period. Greater attention will therefore be paid to replacing traditional manure-based fertilisers, such as farmyard manure, with new types of fertiliser in the form of composts, digestate, etc. Experience to date suggests that good-quality composts are not only a source of nutrients that the vines take from the soil each year, but also a source of organic matter. The application of compost and its subsequent decomposition in the soil profile can have a positive effect on the growth of the roots and above-ground parts of the vine. However, optimising the effects and action of compost is linked to determining the necessary doses and methods of application. The aim of this three-year study was to provide an overview of the results aimed at evaluating the effects of the application of compost (CO) and compost enriched with the addition of lignohumate (CO+L20), at a rate of 30 t·ha−1, in the areas around vineyard tree trunks on selected soil chemical properties and the vegetative growth of the vine (Vitis vinifera L.). The unfertilised variant (CWC) was used as a control. Each variant was established in three replicates that were 20 m long. Experimental measurements and evaluation were carried out in the period of 2018–2020 on two sites with different soil conditions (Lednice and Velké Bílovice) and two different grape varieties (Sauvignon Blanc and Pinot Gris). Meteorological data were continuously monitored during the period under review. Chemical properties of the soil samples of the three experimental variants were determined (e.g., content of organic carbon, humic acids, humic substances, humification rate, etc.). The evaluations that were carried out confirmed that the addition of organic matter in the form of composts to the soil in the CO and CO+L20 variants positively influenced the quality of organic matter. The organic carbon content increased by 56–139% in variants with deep compost application (CO, CO+L20) during the monitored period compared to the CWC, depending on the location. Similarly, the degree of humification increased by 70–84%, and the soil microbial biomass increased by 38–136% in the treated variants compared to the CWC. In addition to the dynamics of the changes in the chemical properties, the aim of the performed measurements was to evaluate the rate of the growth shoots, which was linked to the fertilizing effects of the applied compost in the experimental vineyard. At the site in Velké Bílovice, the total difference in the length of the shoots was higher in the CO by 2.6–4.6% and in the CO+L20 by 7.5–12.5% compared to the CWC. At the site in Lednice, the situation was similar, and the total difference in the length of the shoots was higher in the CO by 4.6–7.2% and in the CO+L20 by 5.3–13.2%. The results that were obtained may constitute an important basis for the management of organic fertilization on plots with different soil conditions and cultivated varieties in order to optimize the vegetative growth of the vine. Full article
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15 pages, 3093 KiB  
Article
Prediction of Temperature and Viscosity Profiles in Heavy-Oil Producer Wells Implementing a Downhole Induction Heater
by Javier Ramírez, Alexander Zambrano and Nicolás Ratkovich
Processes 2023, 11(2), 631; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11020631 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2578
Abstract
Very high viscosity significantly impacts the mobility of heavy crude oil representing difficulties in production and a decrease in the well’s efficiency. Downhole electric heating delivers a uniform injection of heat to the fluid and reservoir, resulting in a substantial decrease in dynamic [...] Read more.
Very high viscosity significantly impacts the mobility of heavy crude oil representing difficulties in production and a decrease in the well’s efficiency. Downhole electric heating delivers a uniform injection of heat to the fluid and reservoir, resulting in a substantial decrease in dynamic viscosity due to its exponential relationship with temperature and a drop in frictional losses between the production zone and the pump intake. Therefore, this study predicts temperature and viscosity profiles in heavy oil-production wells implementing a downhole induction heater employing a simplified CFD model. For the development of the research, the geometry model was generated in CAD software based on the geometry provided by the BCPGroup and simulated in specialized CFD software. The model confirmed a 46.1% effective decrease of mean 12° API heavy-oil dynamic viscosity compared with simulation results without heating. The developed model was validated with experimental data provided by the BCPGroup, obtaining an excellent agreement with 0.8% and 15.69% mean error percentages for temperature and viscosity, respectively. Furthermore, CFD results confirmed that downhole electrical induction heating is an effective method for reducing heavy-oil dynamic viscosity; however, thermal effects in the reservoir due to heat penetration were insignificant. For this study, the well will remain stimulated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Enhanced Oil Recovery Technologies, 2nd Volume)
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14 pages, 2796 KiB  
Article
Sunflower Residues-Based Biorefinery: Circular Economy Indicators
by Valerii Havrysh, Antonina Kalinichenko, Pavlo Pysarenko and Maryna Samojlik
Processes 2023, 11(2), 630; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11020630 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2547
Abstract
Fossil fuel price increases, their uneven distribution, environmental issues from their incineration, and lack of guarantees of their energy security are the main drivers for the development of green energy. Agricultural waste is an abundant resource for energy bioprocessing, which improves the functioning [...] Read more.
Fossil fuel price increases, their uneven distribution, environmental issues from their incineration, and lack of guarantees of their energy security are the main drivers for the development of green energy. Agricultural waste is an abundant resource for energy bioprocessing, which improves the functioning of the circular economy. In this study, the following were used as the main indicators: the share of renewable energy and the benefit from it, the coefficient of cyclical use of biomass, and the reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. The ways in which sunflower waste is applied for energy purposes are emphasized. The highest comprehensive ecological and economic effects are shown to be achieved in the production of biogas from sunflower residues with the incineration of this biogas in cogeneration plants. The residues from the biogas plant that are left after fermentation should be used as a biofertilizer. Such a cyclic system allows not only the full processing of all biomass waste that significantly reduces carbon dioxide emissions during the cultivation and processing of sunflower, but also an increase in the share of renewable energy used in technological processes up to 70%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecologically Burdensome Technologies and Processes)
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16 pages, 2487 KiB  
Article
Modeling Vehicle Insurance Adoption by Automobile Owners: A Hybrid Random Forest Classifier Approach
by Moin Uddin, Mohd Faizan Ansari, Mohd Adil, Ripon K. Chakrabortty and Michael J. Ryan
Processes 2023, 11(2), 629; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11020629 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2145
Abstract
This study presents a novel hybrid framework combining feature selection, oversampling, and machine learning (ML) to improve the prediction performance of vehicle insurance. The framework addresses the class imbalance problem in binary classification tasks by employing principal component analysis for feature selection, the [...] Read more.
This study presents a novel hybrid framework combining feature selection, oversampling, and machine learning (ML) to improve the prediction performance of vehicle insurance. The framework addresses the class imbalance problem in binary classification tasks by employing principal component analysis for feature selection, the synthetic minority oversampling technique for oversampling, and the random forest ML classifier for prediction. The results demonstrate that the proposed hybrid framework outperforms the conventional approach and achieves better accuracy. The purpose of this study is to provide insurance managers and practitioners with novel insights into how to improve prediction accuracy and decrease financial risks for the insurance industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Intelligent Manufacturing Systems and Process Control)
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13 pages, 3734 KiB  
Article
A Study on Activity of Coexistent CO Gas during the CO2 Methanation Reaction in Ni-Based Catalyst
by Jeongyoon Ahn and Woojin Chung
Processes 2023, 11(2), 628; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11020628 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1524
Abstract
Greenhouse gases, the main cause of global warming, are generated largely in the energy sector. As the need for technology that has reduced greenhouse gas emissions while producing energy is on an increase, CCU technology, which uses CO2 to produce CH4 [...] Read more.
Greenhouse gases, the main cause of global warming, are generated largely in the energy sector. As the need for technology that has reduced greenhouse gas emissions while producing energy is on an increase, CCU technology, which uses CO2 to produce CH4 (SNG energy, synthetic natural gas), is drawing attention. Thus, the reaction for converting CO2 to CH4 at a specific temperature using a catalyst is CO2 methanation. The field of CO2 methanation has been actively studied, and many studies have been conducted to enhance the activity of the catalysts. However, there is a lack of research on the variables that may appear when CO2 methanation is attempted using emissions containing CO2 generated from industrial fields and bio-plants. According to previous studies, it is reported that realistic feed gases from gasification or biomass plants contain a significant amount of CO. this study is a follow-up study focused on the application of CO2 methanation in various real processes. In the CO2 methanation reaction, a study was conducted on the catalyst efficiency and durability of CO gas that can coexist in the inlet gas rather than CO2 and H2 gas. The CO2 methanation activity was observed at 200–350 °C when 0–15% CO coexisted using the Ni-Ce-Zr catalyst, and the operating variables were set for optimal SNG production. As a result of adjusting the ratio of inlet gas to increase the yield of CH4 in the produced gas, the final CO2 conversion of 83% and CO conversion of 97% (with 15% CO gas at 280 °C) were obtained. In addition, catalytic efficiency and catalyst surface analysis were performed by exposing CO gas during the CO2 methanation reaction for 24 h. It showed high activity and excellent stability. The results of this study can be used as the basic data when applying an actual process. Full article
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13 pages, 3905 KiB  
Review
Bonding Processing and 3D Integration of High-Performance Silicon PIN Detector for ΔE-E telescope
by Zhiyuan Zhu, Maoqiu Pu, Min Jiang, Sixiang Zhang and Min Yu
Processes 2023, 11(2), 627; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11020627 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1733
Abstract
Currently, the integration method of silicon PIN radiation detectors faces challenges such as complex processes, poor reliability and thick dead layers. Novel integration methods based on metal bonding technology for realizing the integration of thick and thin PIN detectors are needed with the [...] Read more.
Currently, the integration method of silicon PIN radiation detectors faces challenges such as complex processes, poor reliability and thick dead layers. Novel integration methods based on metal bonding technology for realizing the integration of thick and thin PIN detectors are needed with the requirement of reducing signal crosstalk, package volume and weight. Combined with the current research on metal bonding technology, this paper presents an extensive review of metal bonding technology, especially metal Al bonding technology, to provide a certain reference to future research on the bonding processing of high-performance silicon PIN detector devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Automation Control Systems)
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16 pages, 7672 KiB  
Article
Case Study on the Effect of Acidizing on the Rock Properties of the Mahu Conglomerate Reservoir
by Lifeng Wang, Wenting Jia, Yajun Xu, Jianye Mou, Ze Liao and Shicheng Zhang
Processes 2023, 11(2), 626; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11020626 - 18 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1363
Abstract
The development of the Mahu tight reservoir has adopted horizontal wells with staged fracturing. In the fracturing, there is a problem of a high fracturing pressure. Acid treatment is often used to lower the fracturing pressure on site. At present, the impact of [...] Read more.
The development of the Mahu tight reservoir has adopted horizontal wells with staged fracturing. In the fracturing, there is a problem of a high fracturing pressure. Acid treatment is often used to lower the fracturing pressure on site. At present, the impact of this acid treatment on the physical parameters of the rocks of the reservoir in the Mahu region has not been systematically studied. Aiming to solve this problem, this paper conducted an experimental study on how acid dissolution affects the physical properties of the Mahu conglomerate, including its porosity, permeability, triaxial rock mechanical parameters, tensile strength, and mineral composition. First, the experimental scheme was designed. Next, a series of experiments were conducted. Finally, the experiment results were analyzed comparatively before and after acidizing. The acid composition, concentration, and contact time were the main factors for the analysis, based on which the acid system and related parameters were recommended. This study showed that the Mahu conglomerate exhibited brittle plasticity characteristics under stress. The carbonate content in this region was low, while the feldspar content was high, so it was necessary to use mud acid to effectively dissolve feldspar, clay, and other silicates. After acidizing, the porosity was 200% of the original value. The permeability increased by up to 14 times. The tensile strength decreased significantly by up to 84%. The value of Young’s modulus of the rock decreased by up to 63.6%. The value of Poisson’s ratio was reduced by up to 40.7%. A combination of 6% HF + 15% HCl is recommended, with an effective acid treatment time of over 60 min for the Mahu conglomerate. Acidizing could significantly change the mechanical properties and permeability of the rock of the Mahu conglomerate reservoir, thus effectively reducing the formation fracturing pressure. This research provides technical support for Mahu acid dipping in horizontal well fracturing. Full article
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16 pages, 5477 KiB  
Article
Lithofacies Characteristics and Pore Controlling Factors of New Type of Permian Unconventional Reservoir in Sichuan Basin
by Rong Li, Zhifu Xiong, Zecheng Wang, Wuren Xie, Wenzheng Li and Jiuzhen Hu
Processes 2023, 11(2), 625; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11020625 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1492
Abstract
Alongside volcanic eruptions in the middle and late Permian, the sedimentary environment and process changed, and the lithofacies characteristics varied conspicuously in the marine deposits of the Sichuan Basin (China). The tuffaceous rocks, as a new type of unconventional reservoir, provide strong evidence [...] Read more.
Alongside volcanic eruptions in the middle and late Permian, the sedimentary environment and process changed, and the lithofacies characteristics varied conspicuously in the marine deposits of the Sichuan Basin (China). The tuffaceous rocks, as a new type of unconventional reservoir, provide strong evidence for marine and volcanic influences on the lithology and reservoir potential of the rocks. With experimental studies relying on field outcrops, thin sections, scanning electron microscopy and whole-rock X-ray diffraction (XRD), the researchers analyzed the lithofacies characteristics, pore types and controlling factors on the various types of pores in the tuffaceous rocks. We identified three lithofacies types in this new type of Permian reservoir in the Sichuan Basin, namely tuff, sedimentary tuff, and tuffaceous mudstone. The mineral composition of the three lithofacies includes quartz, feldspar, carbonate minerals, pyrite, and clay, among which feldspar is mainly potassium feldspar. Tuff has high tuff content, and the lowest clay and TOC content; tuffaceous mudstones have the highest clay and TOC content, and the lowest tuff content. The pore types of the tuffaceous rocks are mainly nano-scale shrinkage pores, with a small number of intergranular pores including intragranular pores, intergranular pores, and organic pores. The shrinkage pores account for 81.9% of the total pores, and organic pores account for 11.2% of the total pores. In the tuffaceous rocks, the tuff content, quartz and feldspar content, and pyrite content are inversely correlated with porosity, while the clay content and TOC content are positively correlated with porosity. The porosity of tuff is the lowest, followed by sedimentary tuff, and the porosity of tuffaceous mudstone is the highest. Tuffaceous rocks form many micropores in the process of devitrification. Organic matter pyrolysis and organic acid dissolution also increase the reservoir space and porosity of the reservoir. This new type of reservoir has the ability of hydrocarbon accumulation along with the reservoir performance, and thus it has greater exploration prospects. Full article
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27 pages, 4605 KiB  
Article
Development of a Software Tool for Visualizing a Mine (Wellbore) in the Industrial Drilling of Oil Wells
by Fares Abu-Abed, Kirill Pivovarov, Vitaly Zhironkin and Sergey Zhironkin
Processes 2023, 11(2), 624; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11020624 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2827
Abstract
The purpose of the software development presented in the article is to obtain detailed information about the surface of the walls in wells necessary for more efficient and safe drilling and casing of the wellbore. The developed software of the automated system “LogPWin” [...] Read more.
The purpose of the software development presented in the article is to obtain detailed information about the surface of the walls in wells necessary for more efficient and safe drilling and casing of the wellbore. The developed software of the automated system “LogPWin” allows obtaining a clear idea of the mine itself, as well as reducing the time spent on processing and analyzing the model obtained during the logging process. A software product developed as a result of the work provides visualization of data coming from an acoustic profiler, giving a visual and informative idea of the object of study. The program gives detailed information about the surface of the mine’s walls through 3D modeling. It possesses the possibility of rotating and scaling the object; there is also a color palette that can be changed depending on the incoming data. The program can be applied in the oil and gas industry and mining, as well as when drilling wells for other purposes. The program interface is quite clear and simple. The structure of the program is made in such a way that it allows obtaining data for building an object not only in real time, but also through interaction with a ready-made .txt file. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Development Processes for Renewable Energy Technology II)
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17 pages, 4545 KiB  
Article
From Pollution to Green and Low-Carbon Island Revitalization: Implications of Exhibition-Driven Sustainable Tourism (Triennale) for SDG 8.9 in Setouchi
by Gangwei Cai, Jie Wang, Anyi Lue, Shiwen Xu, Qian Wu, Kang Liu, Tianyu Gao, Pengcheng Du and Bin Lei
Processes 2023, 11(2), 623; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11020623 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1644
Abstract
After the severe industrial pollution from World War II, the Setouchi Sea areas and its islands (the Triennale hosting areas) experienced severe economic and population shrinkage. The target of SDG 8.9 is to promote “direct tourism GDP” and “tourism-related jobs” by devising and [...] Read more.
After the severe industrial pollution from World War II, the Setouchi Sea areas and its islands (the Triennale hosting areas) experienced severe economic and population shrinkage. The target of SDG 8.9 is to promote “direct tourism GDP” and “tourism-related jobs” by devising and implementing policies (e.g., some Triennale and Biennale) for sustainable tourism. Triennale-driven tourism is an essential component of sustainable tourism and city revitalization, lasting almost 20 years in Japan. The current paper attempts an empirical analysis into the positive impacts of exhibition-driven sustainable tourism for SDG 8.9 in these rural islands (from pollution to green and low-carbon islands revitalization). The panel data of “pollution load of living environment items” by cities in Japan and “tourists, income, and population” from 14 areas in Kagawa were monitored using multiple methods, such as descriptive and inferential statistics (the one-way ANOVA test and Simple Linear Regression (SLR)). It is a new attempt to devise and implement policies and theories for a sustainable tourism-related industry and its SDGs. Therefore, the present findings offer meaningful implications in academia and industry, not only in Setouchi Sea areas but also for similar areas in and out of Japan. Full article
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11 pages, 1275 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Evaluation of Commercial Probiotic Products Containing Streptococcus salivarius K12 by Assessment of Probiotic Viability and Inhibitory Potency against Respiratory Pathogens
by Medana Zamfir, Iulia-Roxana Angelescu and Silvia-Simona Grosu-Tudor
Processes 2023, 11(2), 622; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11020622 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2141
Abstract
Upper respiratory infections (URI) are the most frequent illnesses, especially in children. The majority of those infections are prescribed broad-spectrum antibiotics, which are associated with various side effects and with the increase in multi-drug-resistant strains. A promising alternative approach is the administration of [...] Read more.
Upper respiratory infections (URI) are the most frequent illnesses, especially in children. The majority of those infections are prescribed broad-spectrum antibiotics, which are associated with various side effects and with the increase in multi-drug-resistant strains. A promising alternative approach is the administration of the probiotic strain Streptococcus salivarius K12 (SSK12) that colonizes the upper respiratory tract (URT) and produces the salivaricins A2 and B, which strongly antagonize the growth of key respiratory pathogens. However, since for food supplements no quality controls of the active probiotic ingredient are mandatory, the efficacy of commercial products containing SSK12 may vary. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro efficacy of several commercial SSK12-containing probiotics, positioned for the prevention of respiratory infections. The parameters evaluated to determine the in vitro efficacy included the viability of the probiotic bacterial strain and the minimum inhibitory dilution (MID) of the probiotic, determined by the agar spot method, against the pathogenic/potential pathogenic bacterial strains Streptococcus pyogenes FF22 and Micrococcus luteus T18. All tests were carried out both 12 and 24 months after manufacturing (AM) for each commercial product. The viability ranged from 9 × 108 to 4.4 × 109 CFU/serving at 12 months AM and from 8.5 × 107 to 2.8 × 109 CFU/serving at 24 months AM. The MID was, in general, positively correlated with the probiotic bacterium viability and varied between the commercial products, ranging from 10−5 to 10−7 at 12 months AM and from 10−4 to 10−7 at 24 months AM. Moreover, the inhibition zones related to the two indicator strains were variable in diameter for different products. The high variation of the in vitro efficacy of commercial products containing SSK12 may explain the different results reported in the literature regarding the clinical benefits of these preparations, and the determination of this parameter may be useful to evaluate the quality of probiotic products containing this bacterial strain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiotechnology in Cosmetics, Pharmaceuticals and Food)
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12 pages, 324 KiB  
Article
Using Quantile Mediation Analysis to Explore Relationships among Hydropower Energy Consumption, Economic Growth, and Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Taiwan
by Tzu-Kuang Hsu, Yuan-Sheng Yeh and Anders Granmo
Processes 2023, 11(2), 621; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11020621 - 17 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1262
Abstract
In this study, we employ the novel method of quantile mediation analysis to explore dynamic relationships among hydropower energy consumption, economic growth, and carbon dioxide emissions in Taiwan during the period between 1990 and 2020. The empirical results show that hydropower energy consumption [...] Read more.
In this study, we employ the novel method of quantile mediation analysis to explore dynamic relationships among hydropower energy consumption, economic growth, and carbon dioxide emissions in Taiwan during the period between 1990 and 2020. The empirical results show that hydropower energy consumption only has a direct effect on reducing carbon dioxide emissions at a 0.2 distribution of carbon dioxide emissions. Moreover, results indicate that economic growth does not have a mediating effect between hydropower energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions at any distribution of carbon dioxide emissions. Lastly, evidence produced by this study supports the existence of an environmental Kuznets curve in the context of Taiwan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Systems)
16 pages, 636 KiB  
Review
Ligand-Enhanced Zero-Valent Iron for Organic Contaminants Degradation: A Mini Review
by Qi Chen, Minghua Zhou, Yuwei Pan and Ying Zhang
Processes 2023, 11(2), 620; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11020620 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2101
Abstract
For nearly three decades, zero-valent iron (ZVI) has been used in wastewater treatment and groundwater and soil remediation. ZVI can degrade contaminants by reactions of adsorption, redox, and co-precipitation. It can also react with oxidants like hydrogen peroxide, persulfate, and ozone to produce [...] Read more.
For nearly three decades, zero-valent iron (ZVI) has been used in wastewater treatment and groundwater and soil remediation. ZVI can degrade contaminants by reactions of adsorption, redox, and co-precipitation. It can also react with oxidants like hydrogen peroxide, persulfate, and ozone to produce highly reactive radicals that can rapidly remove and even mineralize organic contaminants. However, the application of ZVI is also limited by factors such as the narrow pH range and surface passivation. The addition of chelating agents such as nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), or citrate to the ZVI-based processes has been identified to greatly increase the iron stability and improve the efficiency of contaminant degradation. From the perspective of commonly used organic and inorganic chelating agents in ZVI applications, the review addresses the current status of ligand-enhanced ZVI degradation of organic contaminants, illustrates the possible reaction mechanism, and provides perspectives for further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State of the Art of Waste Utilization and Resource Recovery)
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12 pages, 2974 KiB  
Article
Density Functional Theory Study of the Electronic Structures of Galena
by Jianxiong Kang, Yanni An, Jiwei Xue, Xiao Ma, Jiuzhou Li, Fanfan Chen, Sen Wang, He Wan, Chonghui Zhang and Xianzhong Bu
Processes 2023, 11(2), 619; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11020619 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1498
Abstract
In this study, the electronic structure of the galena surface was investigated using the first-principle calculation. The results of band structure, density of states, Mulliken population distribution, and frontier orbital analysis showed that galena was the p-type semiconductor of the direct band gap. [...] Read more.
In this study, the electronic structure of the galena surface was investigated using the first-principle calculation. The results of band structure, density of states, Mulliken population distribution, and frontier orbital analysis showed that galena was the p-type semiconductor of the direct band gap. During the formation of galena crystals, the 3p orbital of the S and the 6p orbital of the Pb played a primary role. Additionally, S atoms in galena quickly lose electrons and are oxidized, while Pb readily reacts with anions. The results of surface structure and electronic properties, such as surface relaxation, surface state energy levels, electronic density of states, and atomic charge distribution showed that the electronics in the 6p orbital of the Pb are transferred to the 3p orbital of the S in galena crystal. They caused the change of atomic valence states in lattice surfaces. The total electron number of the outermost surface layer was also higher than the bulk, giving the galena surface the properties of electron enrichment. This research is of great significance for developing new galena flotation reagents and for further in-depth exploration of the adsorption of reagents on the galena surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Assessment and Reliability Engineering of Process Operations)
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18 pages, 7994 KiB  
Article
Study on the Influence of Surface Texture Parameters of Oil Production Screw Motor Rotor on the Tribological Properties of Its Friction Pair
by Shijin Peng, Zhiqiang Huang, Meiling Wang, Chen Xiong and Ke Chen
Processes 2023, 11(2), 618; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11020618 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1170
Abstract
By researching the influence of micro-groove texture on the surface tribological properties of the stator and rotor pair of oil production hydraulic motors, this paper aims to reduce the frictional resistance moment of the spiral pair of hydraulic motors, and further solve the [...] Read more.
By researching the influence of micro-groove texture on the surface tribological properties of the stator and rotor pair of oil production hydraulic motors, this paper aims to reduce the frictional resistance moment of the spiral pair of hydraulic motors, and further solve the problem of the difficult restart of the pump of a certain type of hydraulic-driven screw pump. According to the spiral pair of screw motors, a metal-rubber flat plate reciprocating friction model is established, and rectangular micro-grooves with different texture angles and depths are machined on the surface of the metal specimen. A combination of finite element simulation and tribological tests is used to carry out a study on the influence of different texture parameters on the friction performance of the hydraulic motor spiral pair. The results showed that at a certain texture angle, the friction coefficient of each specimen basically increases with the texture depth. When the texture depth is constant, the friction coefficient increases first and then decreases with the increase of the texture angle. The texture angle is the main factor affecting the friction coefficient. Under the same test conditions, the friction coefficient of the textured specimen can be reduced by 20.2% compared with the untextured specimen. In the metal-rubber contact pair of the stator and rotor of the hydraulic motor, the friction reduction mechanism of the texture mainly transport the lubricating medium through the micro-grooves to improve the lubricating conditions. Samples with a reasonable design of texture parameters can effectively reduce the friction coefficient of the friction pair without reducing the service life of the hydraulic motor, which is conducive to the smooth restart of the oil production system of the hydraulically driven screw pump. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research on Oil and Gas Equipment and Technology)
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16 pages, 4516 KiB  
Article
Boiling Heat Transfer Characteristics of Porous Microchannel with Pore-Forming Agent
by Qinhui Lei, Donghui Zhang, Lei Feng, Jijin Mao and Daifen Chen
Processes 2023, 11(2), 617; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11020617 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1235
Abstract
Traditional microchannel needs to face the flow-reversal difficulty in high heat fluxes due to limited space. It results in large pressure and temperature fluctuation. Porous microchannels arouse more interest to provide a new solution to this problem. Flow boiling experiments in porous microchannels [...] Read more.
Traditional microchannel needs to face the flow-reversal difficulty in high heat fluxes due to limited space. It results in large pressure and temperature fluctuation. Porous microchannels arouse more interest to provide a new solution to this problem. Flow boiling experiments in porous microchannels with PFA were investigated. Porous microchannels were sintered by 10 μm (or 30 μm) spherical copper particles with pore-forming agent (Na2CO3, 60–90 μm). Porous microchannels were composed of 23 parallel porous microchannels with 600 μm in width and 1200 μm in depth.The addition of PFA (pore-forming agent) could increase the sample porosity. For Q10 series, sample porosities increase from 20.4% to 52.9% with the PFA percentage change from 0% to 40%, while for the Q30 series they increase from 26.6% to 47.5%. Experimental results showed the boiling heat transfer coefficient (HTC) reached the maximum at the moderate porosity for both Q10 and Q30 series. Too large or too small porosity would degrade boiling heat transfer performance. It demonstrated that there existed an optimal range of PFA content for sintered microchannels. PFA content has a minor effect on the average pressure drop and would not cause the rapid increase in flow resistance. Visual observation disclosed that the sample porosity would affect the pressure instability significantly. The sample with moderate porosity showed periodic pressure fluctuation and could establish rhythmical boiling. Particle size also exerted a certain influence on the boiling heat transfer performance. Q30 series could achieve higher HTC and CHF (Critical heat flux) than Q10 series. This is attributed to the larger ratio of layer-thickness-to-particle-size (δ/d) for Q10-series samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow)
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16 pages, 2511 KiB  
Article
Terminal Integral Synergetic Control for Wind Turbine at Region II Using a Two-Mass Model
by Saravanakumar Rajendran, Debashisha Jena, Matias Diaz and José Rodríguez
Processes 2023, 11(2), 616; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11020616 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1612
Abstract
Mechanical loads considerably impact wind turbine lifetime, and a reduction in this load is crucial while designing a controller for maximum power extraction at below-rated speed (region II). A trade-off between maximum energy extraction and minimum load on the drive train shaft is [...] Read more.
Mechanical loads considerably impact wind turbine lifetime, and a reduction in this load is crucial while designing a controller for maximum power extraction at below-rated speed (region II). A trade-off between maximum energy extraction and minimum load on the drive train shaft is a big challenge. Some conventional controllers extract the maximum power with a cost of high fluctuations in the generator torque and transient load. Therefore, to overcome the above issues, this work proposes four different integral synergetic control schemes for a wind turbine at region II using a two-mass model with a wind speed estimator. In addition, the proposed controllers have been developed to enhance the maximum power extraction from the wind whilst reducing the control input and drive train oscillations. Moreover, a terminal manifold has been considered to improve the finite time convergence rate. The effectiveness of the proposed controllers is validated through a 600 kW Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence simulator. Further, the proposed controllers were tested by different wind spectrums, such as Kaimal, Von Karman, Smooth-Terrain, and NWTCUP, with different turbulent intensities (10% and 20%). The overall performance of the proposed and conventional controller was examined with 24 different wind speed profiles. A detailed comparative analysis was carried out based on power extraction and reduction in mechanical loads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Wind Turbine Energy Conversion Systems)
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