Selected Papers from the 8th International Conference on Trends in Agricultural Engineering (TAE 2022)

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Advanced Digital and Other Processes".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2023) | Viewed by 24616

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Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamycka 129, 16500 Prague, Czech Republic
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Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue comprises selected extended papers from the Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Trends in Agricultural Engineering (TAE 2022) (www.tae2022.cz), organized on the occasion of the 70th anniversary of the Faculty of Engineering, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, held on 20 - 23 September 2022 in Prague, Czech Republic. 

TAE 2022 presented research in engineering and physical sciences that advances our understanding or ability to model the performance of biological and physical systems, bioproduction processes and the food chain, logistics systems in agriculture, manufacturing, and material systems in the design of agriculture engineering. 

All researchers are welcome to join this event and share their findings around the following general and related themes including, but not limited to:

  • Agricultural engineering
  • Automation technology
  • Biosystem engineering
  • Energy and renewable energy
  • Engineering technology
  • Mechanics and material science
  • Production engineering
  • Vehicles and logistics
  • Related topic

Prof. Dr. David Herak
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • engineering
  • agriculture
  • mechanization
  • energy
  • technology
  • farming

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 1989 KiB  
Article
Response Surface Methodology (RSM) Optimization of Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) Pasteurization Process of Milk-Date Beverage
by Mahmoud Younis, Khaled A. Ahmed, Isam A. Mohamed Ahmed, Hany M. Yehia, Diaeldin O. Abdelkarim, Abdulla Alhamdan, Ahmed Elfeky and Mansour N. Ibrahim
Processes 2023, 11(9), 2688; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11092688 - 7 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1032
Abstract
Milk beverage with added natural sweetener is well appreciated by consumers as a nutritious and healthy product with unique sensorial quality attributes. However, this product requires a suitable pasteurization method without significant impact on the sensorial and physicochemical quality characteristics of the product. [...] Read more.
Milk beverage with added natural sweetener is well appreciated by consumers as a nutritious and healthy product with unique sensorial quality attributes. However, this product requires a suitable pasteurization method without significant impact on the sensorial and physicochemical quality characteristics of the product. This study optimizes the pulsed electric filed (PEF) conditions for the pasteurization of a milk-date beverage with conserved physicochemical quality properties. The effect of process variables, such as pulse off time (20, 30, and 40 μs), number of pulses (20, 50, and 80), powder ratio (10, 15, 20, and 25% w/w), storage time (2, 4, and 6 days), and storage temperature (5, 15, and 25 °C) on the responses of total viable count (TVC), color difference (∆E), pH, and total soluble solids (TSS) was evaluated using the RSM central composite design (CCD). Pulse off time, number of pulses, date powder/milk ratio (w/w), storage time, and storage temperature greatly impacted the microbial and physical properties of the beverage. The optimal conditions for decreasing the microbiological load and physical change of beverages were a pulse off time of 40 μs, number of pulses of 80, and storage temperature of 5 °C for all powder ratios. These variables gave a safe beverage for up to six days. At optimal conditions, the values of pH, TSS, ∆E, and TVC were 7.51, 15.44 °Brix, 18.01, and 0.138 Log 10 CFU/mL, respectively, for the powder ratio of 10% (w/w); 7.66, 18.6 °Brix, 21.46, and 0.284 Log 10 CFU/mL, respectively, for the powder ratio of 15% (w/w); 7.56, 21.52 °Brix, 25.24, and 0.577 Log 10 CFU/mL, respectively, for the powder ratio of 20% (w/w); and 7.2, 24.2 °Brix, 29.34, and 0.741 Log 10 CFU/mL, respectively, for the powder ratio of 25% (w/w). Full article
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11 pages, 1621 KiB  
Article
Effects of Temperature and Pressure on Hemp Oil Filtration Parameters and Peroxide Number
by Jiří Souček, Petr Jevič, Martin Dědina, Veronika Tománková, Vladimír Mašán, Patrik Burg, Kornél Szalay and Algirdas Jasinskas
Processes 2023, 11(8), 2281; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11082281 - 28 Jul 2023
Viewed by 892
Abstract
This article focuses on the quality of hemp oil processing, specifically the filtration that is an important part of the technological procedure of processing vegetable oils. The aim of the research was to determine the effects of pressure and temperature on the filtration [...] Read more.
This article focuses on the quality of hemp oil processing, specifically the filtration that is an important part of the technological procedure of processing vegetable oils. The aim of the research was to determine the effects of pressure and temperature on the filtration parameters when using plate filters. The research was carried out on an experimental measuring device with adjustable static pressure. The qualitative properties of the oil were observed in terms of analytical composition, microbial content, and changes in peroxide value as the indicator of oxidation stability. The change in pressure affected the oil flow rate, especially at lower pressure values. The increase in temperature of the filtered oil had a negative impact on the oxidation stability. Full article
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18 pages, 8418 KiB  
Article
Monitoring of Paddy and Maize Fields Using Sentinel-1 SAR Data and NGB Images: A Case Study in Papua, Indonesia
by Sri Murniani Angelina Letsoin, Ratna Chrismiari Purwestri, Mayang Christy Perdana, Petr Hnizdil and David Herak
Processes 2023, 11(3), 647; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11030647 - 21 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2163
Abstract
This study addresses the question of how to evaluate the growth stage of food crops, for instance, paddy (Oryza sativa) and maize (Zea mays), from two different sensors in selected developed areas of Papua Province of Indonesia. Level-1 Ground [...] Read more.
This study addresses the question of how to evaluate the growth stage of food crops, for instance, paddy (Oryza sativa) and maize (Zea mays), from two different sensors in selected developed areas of Papua Province of Indonesia. Level-1 Ground Range Detected (L1 GRD) images from Sentinel-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data were used to investigate the growth of paddy and maize crops. An NGB camera was then used to obtain the Green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (GNDVI), and the Enhanced Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (ENDVI) as in situ measurement. Afterwards, the results were analyzed based on the Radar Vegetation Index (RVI) and the Vertical-Vertical (VV) and Vertical Horizontal (VH) band backscatters at incidence angles of 30.55°–45.88°, and 30.59°–46.16° in 2021 and 2022, respectively. The findings showed that Sigma0_VV_db and sigma0_VH_db had a strong correlation (R2 above 0.900); however, polarization modification is required, specifically in the maize field. The RVI calculated and backscatter changes in this study were comparable to the in situ measurements, specifically those of paddy fields, in 2022. Even though the results of this study were not able to prove the RVI values from the two relative orbits (orbit31 and orbit155) due to the different angle incidences and the availability of the Sentinel-1 SAR data set over the study area, the division of SAR image data based on each relative orbit adequately represents the development of crops in our study areas. The significance of this study is expected to support food crop security and the implementation of development plans that contribute to the local government’s goals and settings. Full article
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12 pages, 3942 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Effect of Deep Compost Application in the Areas around Vineyard Tree Trunks on Selected Soil Chemical Properties and the Vegetative Growth of the Vine
by Patrik Burg, Barbora Badalíková, Vladimír Mašán, Štefan Csáki, Jana Burgová, Jan Turan and Arkadiusz Matwijczuk
Processes 2023, 11(2), 632; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11020632 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1642
Abstract
In the context of sustainability, viticulture will address issues related to soil fertility in the coming period. Greater attention will therefore be paid to replacing traditional manure-based fertilisers, such as farmyard manure, with new types of fertiliser in the form of composts, digestate, [...] Read more.
In the context of sustainability, viticulture will address issues related to soil fertility in the coming period. Greater attention will therefore be paid to replacing traditional manure-based fertilisers, such as farmyard manure, with new types of fertiliser in the form of composts, digestate, etc. Experience to date suggests that good-quality composts are not only a source of nutrients that the vines take from the soil each year, but also a source of organic matter. The application of compost and its subsequent decomposition in the soil profile can have a positive effect on the growth of the roots and above-ground parts of the vine. However, optimising the effects and action of compost is linked to determining the necessary doses and methods of application. The aim of this three-year study was to provide an overview of the results aimed at evaluating the effects of the application of compost (CO) and compost enriched with the addition of lignohumate (CO+L20), at a rate of 30 t·ha−1, in the areas around vineyard tree trunks on selected soil chemical properties and the vegetative growth of the vine (Vitis vinifera L.). The unfertilised variant (CWC) was used as a control. Each variant was established in three replicates that were 20 m long. Experimental measurements and evaluation were carried out in the period of 2018–2020 on two sites with different soil conditions (Lednice and Velké Bílovice) and two different grape varieties (Sauvignon Blanc and Pinot Gris). Meteorological data were continuously monitored during the period under review. Chemical properties of the soil samples of the three experimental variants were determined (e.g., content of organic carbon, humic acids, humic substances, humification rate, etc.). The evaluations that were carried out confirmed that the addition of organic matter in the form of composts to the soil in the CO and CO+L20 variants positively influenced the quality of organic matter. The organic carbon content increased by 56–139% in variants with deep compost application (CO, CO+L20) during the monitored period compared to the CWC, depending on the location. Similarly, the degree of humification increased by 70–84%, and the soil microbial biomass increased by 38–136% in the treated variants compared to the CWC. In addition to the dynamics of the changes in the chemical properties, the aim of the performed measurements was to evaluate the rate of the growth shoots, which was linked to the fertilizing effects of the applied compost in the experimental vineyard. At the site in Velké Bílovice, the total difference in the length of the shoots was higher in the CO by 2.6–4.6% and in the CO+L20 by 7.5–12.5% compared to the CWC. At the site in Lednice, the situation was similar, and the total difference in the length of the shoots was higher in the CO by 4.6–7.2% and in the CO+L20 by 5.3–13.2%. The results that were obtained may constitute an important basis for the management of organic fertilization on plots with different soil conditions and cultivated varieties in order to optimize the vegetative growth of the vine. Full article
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17 pages, 6200 KiB  
Article
Kiwifruit Harvesting Damage Analysis and Verification
by Zixu Li, Zhi He, Wei Hao, Kai Li, Xinting Ding and Yongjie Cui
Processes 2023, 11(2), 598; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11020598 - 16 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1804
Abstract
In order to reduce the mechanical damage during the kiwifruit picking process, the fruit rate of the picked fruit should be improved. The mechanical properties of the epidermis and interior of the fruit during the harvesting process were studied, so as to analyze [...] Read more.
In order to reduce the mechanical damage during the kiwifruit picking process, the fruit rate of the picked fruit should be improved. The mechanical properties of the epidermis and interior of the fruit during the harvesting process were studied, so as to analyze the damage principle of the fruit. Firstly, a three-dimensional model of kiwifruit was constructed by point cloud scanning, and the flesh and placenta were filled in order to become a complete kiwifruit model. The elastic modulus, failure stress, and density of the kiwifruit skin, flesh, and placenta were obtained experimentally, and the material properties of the kiwifruit model were endowed with properties. Secondly, the finite element method was used to analyze the epidermis and internal stress of the kiwifruit by simulating the two processes of grabbing kiwifruit and picking to fruit boxes. The results show that the relative error of the simulation and test of the simulated grasping of kiwifruit was 6.42%, and the simulation and test of picking to fruit box confirmed the existence of damage, and the reflectivity of the damaged point in the detection was 6.18% on average, and the hardness value decreased to 8.30 kg/cm2 on average. The results from this study can provide a reference for control strategies and damage avoidance during grasping. Full article
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11 pages, 12944 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Fluid Flow in a Radial Centrifugal Pump
by Jan Černý and Martin Polák
Processes 2023, 11(2), 448; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11020448 - 2 Feb 2023
Viewed by 2475
Abstract
The paper presents a validation of the results of a numerical model of radial centrifugal pump flow using a PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) experimental method. For this purpose, a 3D model of the pump was created in Inventor, which was then used to [...] Read more.
The paper presents a validation of the results of a numerical model of radial centrifugal pump flow using a PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) experimental method. For this purpose, a 3D model of the pump was created in Inventor, which was then used to design a numerical flow model in Ansys in the CFX module. The performance characteristics of the same pump were measured on an experimental test circuit, and vector maps of the flow in the suction pipe were obtained using the PIV method. The results of the experiment—vector fields of fluid velocity distribution in a suction pipe—were then compared with the outputs of the numerical Ansys model, namely the streamlines and pressure distributions. This comparison demonstrated that the numerical model is most consistent with reality if the input variables are the pressure in front of the pump and the mass flow behind the pump. In this case, the model can determine the pressure at the pump inlet with a deviation of 1% to 10% and create streamlines in the suction pipe corresponding to the results of PIV measurements. Full article
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17 pages, 2876 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Processing of Multi-Crop Plants into Pelletized Biofuel and Its Use for Energy Conversion
by Rita Petlickaitė, Algirdas Jasinskas, Rolandas Domeika, Nerijus Pedišius, Egidijus Lemanas, Marius Praspaliauskas and Savelii Kukharets
Processes 2023, 11(2), 421; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11020421 - 31 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1624
Abstract
Multi-crop plants (fibrous hemp, maize, and faba bean) can potentially be an alternative to wood biomass pellets, but there is no detailed knowledge to support the suitability of this biomass for solid biofuel production. The aim of this study is to analyze and [...] Read more.
Multi-crop plants (fibrous hemp, maize, and faba bean) can potentially be an alternative to wood biomass pellets, but there is no detailed knowledge to support the suitability of this biomass for solid biofuel production. The aim of this study is to analyze and justify the suitability of multi-crop plant biomass for the production of biofuel pellets and to assess the environmental impact of burning them. This paper presents studies of physical-mechanical, thermal, and chemical characteristics of biofuel pellets from multi-crop plants and emissions during their combustion under laboratory conditions. The main parameters of the produced pellets were determined according to international standards, which are detailed in the methodology part. The length of the produced pellets ranged from 17.6 to 26.6 mm, and the diameter was about 6 mm. The density of wet pellets varied from 1077.67 to 1249.78 kg m−3. The amount of ash in the pellets varied from 5.75% to 8.02%. Determined lower calorific value of all pellets was close to 17.1 MJ kg−1. The lowest CO and CxHy emissions were determined when burning MIX2-1 pellets (biomass of the binary crop); their values were 572 and 29 ppm, respectively. The lowest content of CO2 was determined when burning S-Mz pellets (mono crop biomass), and it was 3.5%. The lowest NOx emissions were also determined when burning the pellets of this sample, with a value of 124 ppm. Research results show that multi-crop plants are a suitable raw material for the production of solid biofuel, the burning of which does not cause negative consequences for the environment. Full article
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13 pages, 1855 KiB  
Article
The Comparison Analysis of Uniform-and Variable-Rate Fertilizations on Winter Wheat Yield Parameters Using Site-Specific Seeding
by Marius Kazlauskas, Egidijus Šarauskis, Kristina Lekavičienė, Vilma Naujokienė, Kęstutis Romaneckas, Indrė Bručienė, Sidona Buragienė and Dainius Steponavičius
Processes 2022, 10(12), 2717; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10122717 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2033
Abstract
Wheat is among the world’s most important agricultural crops, with winter wheat accounting for approximately 25.5% of the total agricultural crop in Lithuania. The unchangeable goal of crop production is to achieve good and economically beneficial crop yield, but such efforts are often [...] Read more.
Wheat is among the world’s most important agricultural crops, with winter wheat accounting for approximately 25.5% of the total agricultural crop in Lithuania. The unchangeable goal of crop production is to achieve good and economically beneficial crop yield, but such efforts are often based on conventional agrotechnological solutions, and excessive fertilization, which is uneconomical and negatively affects the soil, the environment, and human health. In order to produce a rich and high-quality cereal crop, scientists and farmers are increasingly focusing on managing the sowing and fertilization processes. Precision technologies based on spectrometric methods of soil and plant characterization can be used to influence the optimization of sowing and fertilizer application rates without compromising crop yield and quality. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of site-specific seeding and variable-rate precision fertilization technologies on the growth, yield, and quality indicators of winter wheat. Experimental studies were carried out on a 22.4 ha field in two treatments: first (control)—SSS (site-specific seeding) + URF (uniform-rate fertilization); second—SSS + VRF (variable-rate precision fertilization) and 4 repetitions. Before the start of this study, the variability of the soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) was determined and the field was divided into five soil fertility zones (FZ-1, FZ-2, FZ-3, FZ-4, and FZ-5). Digital maps of potassium and phosphorus precision fertilization were created based on the soil samples. Optical nitrogen sensors were used for variable-rate supplementary nitrogen fertilization. The variable-rate precision fertilization method in individual soil fertility zones showed a higher (up to 6.74%) tillering coefficient, (up to 14.55%) grain yield, number of ears per square meter (up to 27.6%), grain number in the ear (up to 6.2%), and grain protein content (up to 12.56%), and a lower (up to 8.61%) 1000-grain weight on average than the conventional flat-rate fertilization. In addition, the use of the SSS + VRF method saved approximately 14 kg N ha−1 of fertilizer compared to the conventional SSS + URF method. Full article
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9 pages, 1252 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Ultrasound Signal on Reflection from a Sharp Corner Surface: Study of Selected Characteristics Deriving from Regression by Transfer Function
by Vladimír Madola, Vladimír Cviklovič and Stanislav Paulovič
Processes 2022, 10(12), 2644; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10122644 - 8 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1147
Abstract
This article deals with the regression analysis of the ultrasonic signal amplitude when the character of the reflection surface has been changed from a planar case to a sharp corner case. The experiment was performed at a measurement distance within the interval from [...] Read more.
This article deals with the regression analysis of the ultrasonic signal amplitude when the character of the reflection surface has been changed from a planar case to a sharp corner case. The experiment was performed at a measurement distance within the interval from 100 mm to 215 mm. A nonlinear correlation between the amplitude of the ultrasound signal and the measured distance was demonstrated. By analyzing the frequency spectra, a poor nonlinear correlation between the maximum frequency component and the distance vector was found for the sharp corner case versus the planar case, which proved similar nonlinear characteristics as the signal amplitude marker. The strong linear correlation in the distance difference vectors in the amplitude analysis of the ultrasound signal confirmed the hypothesis of a direct relationship between the reflection surface geometric characteristic and the polarity of the difference. The ultrasound signal was identified as a 3rd-order dynamic system. The nonlinear correlation of the steady-state values of the modelled transfer functions versus distance likewise shows the characteristic of the polarity difference or character derivative as a quantification marker of the characteristics of the reflection surface from the geometric point of view. Full article
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10 pages, 5122 KiB  
Article
Effect of Dynamic Biaxial Loading of Car Seats
by Petr Lepsik, Vitezslav Fliegel and Ales Lufinka
Processes 2022, 10(12), 2483; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10122483 - 23 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1307
Abstract
The aim of this article is to determine the effect of the biaxial loading of a car seat, in vertical and horizontal directions, on seating comfort. We measured the transfer characteristic in the vertical direction with a free load. The method of laboratory [...] Read more.
The aim of this article is to determine the effect of the biaxial loading of a car seat, in vertical and horizontal directions, on seating comfort. We measured the transfer characteristic in the vertical direction with a free load. The method of laboratory testing of the car seat was chosen due to the simple repetition of the tests, ensuring the same test conditions, with high accuracy of their reproduction. To determine the effect, tests with uniaxial loading were compared with tests with biaxial loading. The resulting characteristic was the transfer characteristic in the vertical direction. The effect of horizontal loading on the transfer characteristic of a car seat was determined. Full article
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14 pages, 1599 KiB  
Article
Using Artificial Neural Network Application in Modeling the Mechanical Properties of Loading Position and Storage Duration of Pear Fruit
by Elçin Yeşiloğlu Cevher and Demet Yıldırım
Processes 2022, 10(11), 2245; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10112245 - 1 Nov 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1466
Abstract
In the study, rupture energy values of Deveci and Abate Fetel pear fruits were predicted using artificial neural network (ANN). This research aimed to develop a simple, accurate, rapid, and economic model for harvest/post-harvest loss of efficiently predicting rupture energy values of Deveci [...] Read more.
In the study, rupture energy values of Deveci and Abate Fetel pear fruits were predicted using artificial neural network (ANN). This research aimed to develop a simple, accurate, rapid, and economic model for harvest/post-harvest loss of efficiently predicting rupture energy values of Deveci and Abate Fetel pear fruits. The breaking energy of the pears was examined in terms of storage time and loading position. The experiments were carried out in two stages, with samples kept in cold storage immediately after harvest and 30 days later. Rupture energy values were estimated using four different single and multi-layer ANN models. Four different model results obtained using Levenberg–Marquardt, Scaled Conjugate Gradient, and resilient backpropagation training algorithms were compared with the calculated values. Statistical parameters such as R2, RMSE, MAE, and MSE were used to evaluate the performance of the methods. The best-performing model was obtained in network structure 5-1 that used three inputs: the highest R2 value (0.90) and the lowest square of the root error (0.018), and the MAE (0.093). Full article
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16 pages, 1347 KiB  
Article
Application of Artificial Neural Network for Predicting the Drying Kinetics and Chemical Attributes of Linden (Tilia platyphyllos Scop.) during the Infrared Drying Process
by Kemal Çağatay Selvi, Alfadhl Yahya Alkhaled and Taner Yıldız
Processes 2022, 10(10), 2069; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10102069 - 13 Oct 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1892
Abstract
This study analyzes the possibility of utilizing artificial neural networks (ANNs) to characterize the drying kinetics of linden leaf samples during infrared drying (IRD) at different temperatures (50, 60, and 70 °C) with sample thicknesses between 0.210 mm and 0.230 mm. The statistical [...] Read more.
This study analyzes the possibility of utilizing artificial neural networks (ANNs) to characterize the drying kinetics of linden leaf samples during infrared drying (IRD) at different temperatures (50, 60, and 70 °C) with sample thicknesses between 0.210 mm and 0.230 mm. The statistical parameters were constructed using several thin-layer models and ANN techniques. The coefficient of determination (R2) and root mean square error (RMSE) were utilized to evaluate the appropriateness of the models. The effective moisture diffusivity ranged from 4.13 × 10−12 m2/s to 5.89 × 10−12 m2/s, and the activation energy was 16.339 kJ/mol. The applied Page, Midilli et al., Henderson and Pabis, logarithmic, and Newton models could sufficiently describe the kinetics of linden leaf samples, with R2 values of >0.9900 and RMSE values of <0.0025. The ANN model displayed R2 and RMSE values of 0.9986 and 0.0210, respectively. In addition, the ANN model made significantly accurate predictions of the chemical properties of linden of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), DPPH, and FRAP, with values of R2 of 0.9975, 0.9891, 0.9980, and 0.9854, respectively. The validation of the findings showed a high degree of agreement between the anticipated values generated using the ANN model and the experimental moisture ratio data. The results of this study suggested that ANNs could potentially be applied to characterize the drying process of linden leaves and make predictions of their chemical contents. Full article
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6 pages, 1711 KiB  
Communication
Characteristics of Ecological Energy Carriers Used in Agricultural Technology
by Ľubomír Hujo, Romana Janoušková, Mirko Simikić, Marcin Zastempowski, Matej Michalides and Monika Hajdáková
Processes 2022, 10(9), 1895; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10091895 - 19 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1385
Abstract
This article focuses on the properties of ecological energy carriers, which are used in agricultural and forestry technology. The aim of the article is to describe the degradation of the working fluid from the point of view of the atomic emission spectrometer, which [...] Read more.
This article focuses on the properties of ecological energy carriers, which are used in agricultural and forestry technology. The aim of the article is to describe the degradation of the working fluid from the point of view of the atomic emission spectrometer, which is used for the purpose of monitoring contaminants and additive elements. The working fluid examined was Shell Naturelle HF-E 46, a universal ecological transmission–hydraulic fluid, which was tested on laboratory test equipment. The laboratory measurement was performed for 200 h, during which the gear hydraulic pump with external gearing was cyclically loaded according to the Vickers standard. The analysis of the transmission–hydraulic fluid was performed after every 50 working hours, where the analysis of the working fluid showed that there were no significant changes in the properties of the working fluid and fluid is suitable for work in agricultural and forestry machines operating in environmentally sensitive environments. Full article
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12 pages, 1226 KiB  
Article
Design and Experiment of a Helicoidal Seed Tube to Improve Seed Distribution Uniformity of Seed Drills
by Davut Karayel, Egidijus Šarauskis and Ali Aktaş
Processes 2022, 10(7), 1271; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10071271 - 28 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1976
Abstract
In a conventional seed drill, the flow of seeds into the planting bed is usually disrupted and irregular, which contributes to poor seed spacing uniformity. The seed tube of the seed drill may be one of the reasons for disrupted and irregular seed [...] Read more.
In a conventional seed drill, the flow of seeds into the planting bed is usually disrupted and irregular, which contributes to poor seed spacing uniformity. The seed tube of the seed drill may be one of the reasons for disrupted and irregular seed flow. A seed drill, in principle, has to deposit seeds into the ground at a uniform spacing to avoid nutrient competition for optimum yield. This study was inspired to develop a novel helicoidal seed tube that regulates the flow of seeds in a seed tube while being dispensed by the seed drill into the ground. The helicoidal tube was designed to fit the end of a conventional delivery tube of a seed drill. It works by allowing the falling seeds to move through the helix causing a frictional reaction, thereby regulating the velocity of the falling seeds. The developed helicoidal seed tube was tested under laboratory conditions at three heights of the helix (100, 150, and 200 mm) and four pitch sizes (28, 32, 36, and 40 mm). As a result of the laboratory tests, the optimum values for the helix height and pitch size were determined as 200 mm and 36 mm, respectively. The performance of the helicoidal seed tube (helix height of 200 mm and pitch size of 36 mm) was compared with the conventional (hollow) seed tube under laboratory and field conditions. Trials were carried out at a seeding rate of 200 kg/ha and a forward speed of 1 m/s for both wheat and barley seeds. Field trials showed that the coefficients of variation of seed spacing of the conventional seed tube decreased from 118.4% and 139.5% to 77.2% and 70.6% for wheat and barley sowing, respectively, when the helicoidal seed tube was used. Overall, the use of helicoidal seed tube provided a more equal growing area for each plant due to its lower coefficient of variation. Full article
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