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Informatics, Volume 9, Issue 3 (September 2022) – 10 articles

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Article
The Impact of Mobile Phone Reminders on Perceived Self-Care Levels of Informal Caregivers
Informatics 2022, 9(3), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/informatics9030059 (registering DOI) - 12 Aug 2022
Viewed by 94
Abstract
Informal caregivers play a fundamental role in caring for people that need assistance and provide an effective service in managing their loved ones’ health. Because of this, they have little time to attend to themselves and perform self-care practices. Some of these practices [...] Read more.
Informal caregivers play a fundamental role in caring for people that need assistance and provide an effective service in managing their loved ones’ health. Because of this, they have little time to attend to themselves and perform self-care practices. Some of these practices can improve mental health. By snowball sampling, we recruited 15 informal caregivers, 12 females and three males. Using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, we analyzed the impact of the reminders on a self-care scale. We used the Mindful Self-Care Scale, comparing the same population without reminders and with reminders. Results indicated that total self-care scores with reminders increased statistically significantly, T = 13, Z = −2.481, p ≤ 0.013, with a large effect size (r = 0.64). This study shows a significant self-care increase in informal caregivers after using reminders. Future development of a reminders-based approach could focus on increasing self-care and the time caregivers take for themselves, empowering them to take a more active role in meeting their own needs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Human-Computer Interaction)
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Article
Development of Ontology for Knowledge of Traditions Common Culture of Countries in the Greater Mekong Subregion
Informatics 2022, 9(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/informatics9030058 - 10 Aug 2022
Viewed by 169
Abstract
The development of ontology is one important research area in the digital humanities. This study aims at creating a semantic search system for traditions common culture in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) to solve problems in semantic gaps. This paper presents the second [...] Read more.
The development of ontology is one important research area in the digital humanities. This study aims at creating a semantic search system for traditions common culture in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) to solve problems in semantic gaps. This paper presents the second phase of the main research. It will present how to develop ontologies for the traditions and common culture in the GMS to gain a perspicuous understanding of the traditions and common culture of those countries in the region. A theoretical concept of seven steps for ontology development was applied by using an ontology editor called Hozo Ontology Editor. The main ontology found in this study included 15 main classes: common culture, history, belief, purpose, location, ritual, activity, literature, values, place, time, principle, person, equipment, and ethnic group. Traditions common culture is a subclass of common culture classes that were found to be related to all classes in ontology. This ontology will be useful for developing a semantic search system of the traditions common culture of the GMS in the next steps of the main study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Digital Humanities)
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Review
Intelligent Remote Photoplethysmography-Based Methods for Heart Rate Estimation from Face Videos: A Survey
Informatics 2022, 9(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/informatics9030057 - 07 Aug 2022
Viewed by 246
Abstract
Over the last few years, a rich amount of research has been conducted on remote vital sign monitoring of the human body. Remote photoplethysmography (rPPG) is a camera-based, unobtrusive technology that allows continuous monitoring of changes in vital signs and thereby helps to [...] Read more.
Over the last few years, a rich amount of research has been conducted on remote vital sign monitoring of the human body. Remote photoplethysmography (rPPG) is a camera-based, unobtrusive technology that allows continuous monitoring of changes in vital signs and thereby helps to diagnose and treat diseases earlier in an effective manner. Recent advances in computer vision and its extensive applications have led to rPPG being in high demand. This paper specifically presents a survey on different remote photoplethysmography methods and investigates all facets of heart rate analysis. We explore the investigation of the challenges of the video-based rPPG method and extend it to the recent advancements in the literature. We discuss the gap within the literature and suggestions for future directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Medical and Clinical Informatics)
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Article
Wearable Sensor-Based Human Activity Recognition with Hybrid Deep Learning Model
Informatics 2022, 9(3), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/informatics9030056 - 31 Jul 2022
Viewed by 321
Abstract
It is undeniable that mobile devices have become an inseparable part of human’s daily routines due to the persistent growth of high-quality sensor devices, powerful computational resources and massive storage capacity nowadays. Similarly, the fast development of Internet of Things technology has motivated [...] Read more.
It is undeniable that mobile devices have become an inseparable part of human’s daily routines due to the persistent growth of high-quality sensor devices, powerful computational resources and massive storage capacity nowadays. Similarly, the fast development of Internet of Things technology has motivated people into the research and wide applications of sensors, such as the human activity recognition system. This results in substantial existing works that have utilized wearable sensors to identify human activities with a variety of techniques. In this paper, a hybrid deep learning model that amalgamates a one-dimensional Convolutional Neural Network with a bidirectional long short-term memory (1D-CNN-BiLSTM) model is proposed for wearable sensor-based human activity recognition. The one-dimensional Convolutional Neural Network transforms the prominent information in the sensor time series data into high level representative features. Thereafter, the bidirectional long short-term memory encodes the long-range dependencies in the features by gating mechanisms. The performance evaluation reveals that the proposed 1D-CNN-BiLSTM outshines the existing methods with a recognition rate of 95.48% on the UCI-HAR dataset, 94.17% on the Motion Sense dataset and 100% on the Single Accelerometer dataset. Full article
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Article
AgroAId: A Mobile App System for Visual Classification of Plant Species and Diseases Using Deep Learning and TensorFlow Lite
Informatics 2022, 9(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/informatics9030055 - 26 Jul 2022
Viewed by 276
Abstract
This paper aims to assist novice gardeners in identifying plant diseases to circumvent misdiagnosing their plants and to increase general horticultural knowledge for better plant growth. In this paper, we develop a mobile plant care support system (“AgroAId”), which incorporates computer [...] Read more.
This paper aims to assist novice gardeners in identifying plant diseases to circumvent misdiagnosing their plants and to increase general horticultural knowledge for better plant growth. In this paper, we develop a mobile plant care support system (“AgroAId”), which incorporates computer vision technology to classify a plant’s [species–disease] combination from an input plant leaf image, recognizing 39 [species-and-disease] classes. Our method comprises a comparative analysis to maximize our multi-label classification model’s performance and determine the effects of varying the convolutional neural network (CNN) architectures, transfer learning approach, and hyperparameter optimizations. We tested four lightweight, mobile-optimized CNNs—MobileNet, MobileNetV2, NasNetMobile, and EfficientNetB0—and tested four transfer learning scenarios (percentage of frozen-vs.-retrained base layers): (1) freezing all convolutional layers; (2) freezing 80% of layers; (3) freezing 50% only; and (4) retraining all layers. A total of 32 model variations are built and assessed using standard metrics (accuracy, F1-score, confusion matrices). The most lightweight, high-accuracy model is concluded to be an EfficientNetB0 model using a fully retrained base network with optimized hyperparameters, achieving 99% accuracy and demonstrating the efficacy of the proposed approach; it is integrated into our plant care support system in a TensorFlow Lite format alongside the front-end mobile application and centralized cloud database. Finally, our system also uses the collective user classification data to generate spatiotemporal analytics about regional and seasonal disease trends, making these analytics accessible to all system users to increase awareness of global agricultural trends. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Machine Learning and Deep Learning in Agriculture)
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Article
Harnessing Soft Logic to Represent the Privacy Paradox
Informatics 2022, 9(3), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/informatics9030054 - 18 Jul 2022
Viewed by 342
Abstract
The digital era introduces a significant issue concerning the preservation of individuals’ privacy. Each individual has two autonomous traits, privacy concern which indicates how anxious that person is about preserving privacy, and privacy behavior which refers to the actual actions the individual takes [...] Read more.
The digital era introduces a significant issue concerning the preservation of individuals’ privacy. Each individual has two autonomous traits, privacy concern which indicates how anxious that person is about preserving privacy, and privacy behavior which refers to the actual actions the individual takes to preserve privacy. The significant gap between these two traits is called the privacy paradox. While the existence and the extensive distribution of the privacy paradox is widely-considered in both academic and public discussion, no convincing explanation of the phenomenon has been provided. In this study we harness a new mathematical approach, “soft logic,” to better represent the reality of the privacy paradox. Soft numbers extend zero from a singularity to an infinite one-dimensional axis, thus enabling the representation of contradictory situations that exist simultaneously, i.e., a paradox. We develop a mathematical model for representing the privacy paradox with soft numbers, and demonstrate its application empirically. This new theory has the potential to address domains that mix soft human reality with robust technological reality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Uncertainty in Digital Humanities)
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Article
C19MOOC: A Remote Learning Reference Framework for Science and Technology Education
Informatics 2022, 9(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/informatics9030053 - 15 Jul 2022
Viewed by 308
Abstract
With the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, education and learning have been compelled to go entirely online rather than using conventional offline media. As a result, remote learning adoption has exploded, neither planned nor anticipated. The challenges and benefits of such widespread adoption [...] Read more.
With the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, education and learning have been compelled to go entirely online rather than using conventional offline media. As a result, remote learning adoption has exploded, neither planned nor anticipated. The challenges and benefits of such widespread adoption have gradually unfolded in front of our own eyes. Unlike other courses, science and technology (S&T) courses are more technical, involve practical lessons, and require careful planning for effective delivery via remote learning platforms. Thus, existing remote learning frameworks are too general and are not designed for S&T courses. In addition, the evolving requirements of learners’ demand revision of prior frameworks to be relevant today. In this paper, we propose a remote learning reference framework called C19MOOC for S&T courses offered at higher learning institutions. The framework will provide the essential components to be considered in the development of remote learning systems for these courses. A focus group discussion was conducted to elicit learners’ requirements and preferences for remote learning systems that offer S&T courses. The existing Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) framework was adapted to match learners’ current needs and expectations. The MOOC framework’s existing dimensions and components were redefined, and three new dimensions (Engagement, Governance, and Self-determination) and components were added. An expert review was administered to validate the C19MOOC framework. Based on our findings, it was determined that remote learning has excellent potential as an effective platform for education at higher learning institutions. Shortcomings that emerged during its immense use in the period of the COVID-19 pandemic can be addressed by leveraging the proposed framework. The C19MOOC framework will be useful for S&T education stakeholders, institutions, and system developers to identify suitable dimensions, components, and features to consider when designing remote learning systems for S&T education. Full article
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Article
How Age and Gender Affect the Opinions of Computing Students Regarding Computer Usage and Design Needs
Informatics 2022, 9(3), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/informatics9030052 - 14 Jul 2022
Viewed by 280
Abstract
This study aimed to understand the perceptions of young computing science students about women and older people with regard to their computer literacy and how this may affect the design of computer-based systems. Based on photos, participants were asked how likely they thought [...] Read more.
This study aimed to understand the perceptions of young computing science students about women and older people with regard to their computer literacy and how this may affect the design of computer-based systems. Based on photos, participants were asked how likely they thought the person depicted would be to use desktop computers, laptops and smartphones, and how much expertise they thought they would have with each technology. Furthermore, in order to see what impact this could have on systems being developed, we asked what design aspects would be important for the depicted person and whether they thought an adapted technology would be required. This study is based on an existing questionnaire, which was translated into German and extended to explore what impact this may have on system design. The results draw on 200 questionnaires from students in the first year of their Information and Communications Technology (ICT) studies at an Austrian university of applied sciences. Quantitative methods were used to determine if the perceptions varied significantly based on the age and gender of the people depicted. Qualitative analysis was used to evaluate the design aspects mentioned. The results show that there are biases against both older people and women with respect to their perceived expertise with computers. This is also reflected in the design aspects thought to be important for the different cohorts. This is crucial as future systems will be designed by the participants, and these biases may influence whether future systems meet the needs and wishes of all groups or increase the digital divide. Full article
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Review
Analyzing the Use of Heuristics in a Virtual Reality Learning Context: A Literature Review
Informatics 2022, 9(3), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/informatics9030051 - 29 Jun 2022
Viewed by 424
Abstract
With concepts such as immersion and presence, known as hedonistic qualities of importance in the virtual reality (VR) experience, the question arises whether the more pragmatic heuristics are effective in the evaluation of an artifact. However, despite the importance of the heuristics for [...] Read more.
With concepts such as immersion and presence, known as hedonistic qualities of importance in the virtual reality (VR) experience, the question arises whether the more pragmatic heuristics are effective in the evaluation of an artifact. However, despite the importance of the heuristics for artifact evaluations, the available studies do not provide a rigorous review of these heuristics and their efficiency. Thus, this review aims to look at how heuristics have been applied in various virtual learning environments (VLEs) that involve virtual reality learning activities, either for use in heuristic evaluations or as design principles. In addition, it examines how these heuristics support the evaluation of a more hedonistic quality, such as presence, and lastly, the aim is to gauge the estimated efficiency of heuristics as an evaluation method. This article is a systematic review of research investigating using heuristics in a virtual reality learning context. The review includes articles published from January 2017 to February 2022, and from the screened records, twelve articles were analyzed in full-text form. This review shows the versatility of heuristics and their applications as well as the key concepts that are vital to the user’s experience in a virtual reality learning context. This review indicates that heuristic evaluation is a valuable tool, as it provides a clear summary of what needs to be handled in the next iteration of the application. Full article
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Review
A Review of Social Media Website Users’ Interaction Paths with Governmental Accounts during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Informatics 2022, 9(3), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/informatics9030050 - 29 Jun 2022
Viewed by 353
Abstract
This study aims to describe and analyze the paths of social media website users’ interaction with the content of government accounts during the COVID-19 pandemic. The objectives of the study are to describe the roles of government accounts as a tool to support [...] Read more.
This study aims to describe and analyze the paths of social media website users’ interaction with the content of government accounts during the COVID-19 pandemic. The objectives of the study are to describe the roles of government accounts as a tool to support the concept of health communication among users of social media websites and analyze the targeted and untargeted roles that have emerged in this context, describe the roles of government accounts as a tool of government communication and analyze how government institutions employed them during the COVID-19 pandemic, and describe the roles of social media websites as a tool to address the problems and challenges created by the social spacing procedures and solutions provided by these websites to deal with these challenges. This study surveys a sample of previous studies conducted on the roles of government accounts on social media websites during the COVID-19 pandemic. The tools of this study are both analytical and comparative as they analyze and compare the results of previous studies on the interaction paths of internet users. The results indicate that social media websites have been considered a pivotal tool for building a renewable and interactive system. This coincides with developments in the communication environment in which the individual is present within the social pattern, and its depth of impact has been demonstrated, particularly after the repercussions of the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digitalisation, Green Deal and Sustainability)
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