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Chemosensors, Volume 10, Issue 5 (May 2022) – 48 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Nanosensors based on localized surface plasmon resonance exhibit optical features that can be exploited to fabricate smart nanomaterials with multiple functionalities. Here, we summarize the most recent design strategies, fabrication approaches, and applications of plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) arranged in colloids, nanoarrays, and nanocomposites. We describe plasmonic NPs operating in solution, nanoarrays assembled or fabricated on rigid substrates, and nanocomposites embedded in flexible substrates. An overview of the strengths and limitations of the available plasmonic nanodevices is investigated within this work with a look at future perspectives. View this paper
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Article
Optofluidic Micromachined Platform for Refractive Index Measurement
Chemosensors 2022, 10(5), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10050197 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 482
Abstract
We present a combination of micromachined optofluidic platforms equipped with a fiber-optic sensing configuration based on a three-path Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI) for simultaneous measurement of the refractive index of liquids and the autocalibration in dynamic regime. The sensing principle is based on the [...] Read more.
We present a combination of micromachined optofluidic platforms equipped with a fiber-optic sensing configuration based on a three-path Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI) for simultaneous measurement of the refractive index of liquids and the autocalibration in dynamic regime. The sensing principle is based on the low-coherence interferometry, characterized by a generation of Gaussian enveloped interferograms, for which the position of its maximum depends on the optical path difference (OPD) between the sensing and reference arm of the MZI. When liquid flows through the central microchannel of the optofluidic platform it crosses the light beam between the two optical fibers in the sensing arm causing the OPD change. An algorithm has been applied for the calculation of the refractive index of liquids out of the raw interference signals. We obtained a very good agreement between the experimental results and literature data of refractive indices of subjected fluids. The accuracy of refractive index measurement is approximately 1%, predominantly determined by the accuracy of reading the position of the mechanical scanner. The proposed sensor is attractive for the label-free biological, biochemical, and chemical sensing owing autocalibration and high sensitivity yet consuming a very small sample volume of 1 µL. It is capable to measure the refractive index of various liquids and/or gases simultaneously in the process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Chemical Sensors and Spectroscopy)
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Article
Adsorption of Aqueous Iodide on Hexadecyl Pyridinium-Modified Bentonite Investigated Using an Iodine–Starch Complex
Chemosensors 2022, 10(5), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10050196 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 547
Abstract
The sorption affinity of iodide on organo-bentonite, modified with hexadecyl pyridinium (HDPy), was investigated with the iodine–starch method coupled with UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy. The iodine–starch complex method was optimized in terms of the reaction time and sample compositions, based on the UV/Vis absorbance. [...] Read more.
The sorption affinity of iodide on organo-bentonite, modified with hexadecyl pyridinium (HDPy), was investigated with the iodine–starch method coupled with UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy. The iodine–starch complex method was optimized in terms of the reaction time and sample compositions, based on the UV/Vis absorbance. The batch sorption experiment for iodide on organo-bentonites, modified using two different loading amounts of HDPy, was conducted to analyze the influence of equilibrium time, liquid-to-solid ratio, and temperature, on the iodide sorption affinity. The experimental results regarding the removal capacity were further employed to derive the distribution coefficients of iodide on the organo-bentonites. The novelty of this work lies in the first application of the iodine–starch method coupled with UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy for analyzing the sorption behavior of iodide on modified bentonites. It is expected that the iodide-starch method can be complementarily employed for future research, with respect to the quantification of iodide. Full article
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Article
Peptide-Conjugated Aggregation-Induced Emission Fluorogenic Probe for Glypican-3 Protein Detection and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells Imaging
Chemosensors 2022, 10(5), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10050195 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 632
Abstract
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a malignant tumor with high morbidity and mortality on a global scale, and the development of accurate detection and imaging methods for HCC cells is urgently needed. Herein, by connecting peptide L5, which can specifically bind to the overexpressed [...] Read more.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a malignant tumor with high morbidity and mortality on a global scale, and the development of accurate detection and imaging methods for HCC cells is urgently needed. Herein, by connecting peptide L5, which can specifically bind to the overexpressed Glypican-3 (GPC-3) protein of HCC cells with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) moiety ammonium cation-functionalized 9,10-distyrylanthracene (NDSA) via the “click” reaction, we synthesized a fluorescent probe NDSA-L5. In an aqueous solution, the probe shows weak emission, whereas, in the presence of the GPC-3 protein, bright fluorescence can be obtained since NDSA-L5 binds to the GPC-3 protein, leading to the restricted intramolecular movement of AIE-active NDSA-L5. The imaging and flow cytometry experiments demonstrate that the NDSA-L5 probe can rapidly accumulate in the subcutaneous HCC cells and liver tumor tissue and shows a potential application in early detection and surgical navigation for HCC cancer. Full article
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Review
Advances in Electrochemical Techniques for the Detection and Analysis of Genetically Modified Organisms: An Analysis Based on Bibliometrics
Chemosensors 2022, 10(5), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10050194 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 534
Abstract
Since the first successful transgenic plants obtained in 1983, dozens of plants have been tested. On the one hand, genetically modified plants solve the problems of agricultural production. However, due to exogenous genes of transgenic plants, such as its seeds or pollen drift, [...] Read more.
Since the first successful transgenic plants obtained in 1983, dozens of plants have been tested. On the one hand, genetically modified plants solve the problems of agricultural production. However, due to exogenous genes of transgenic plants, such as its seeds or pollen drift, diffusion between populations will likely lead to superweeds or affect the original traits. The detection technology of transgenic plants and their products have received considerable attention. Electrochemical sensing technology is a fast, low-cost, and portable analysis technology. This review interprets the application of electrochemical technology in the analysis and detection of transgenic products through bibliometrics. A total of 83 research articles were analyzed, spanning 2001 to 2021. We described the different stages in the development history of the subject and the contributions of countries and institutions to the topic. Although there were more annual publications in some years, there was no explosive growth in any period. The lack of breakthroughs in this technology is a significant factor in the lack of experts from other fields cross-examining the subject. Through keyword co-occurrence analysis, different research directions on this topic were discussed. The use of nanomaterials with excellent electrical conductivity allows for more sensitive detection of GM crops by electrochemical sensors. Furthermore, co-citation analysis was used to interpret the most popular reports on the topic. In the end, we predict the future development of this topic according to the analysis results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Electrochemical Biosensors for Medical Diagnosis)
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Article
Acoustic Vibration Modes of Gold–Silver Core–Shell Nanoparticles
Chemosensors 2022, 10(5), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10050193 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 661
Abstract
Bimetallic Au/Ag core–shell cuboid nanoparticles (NPs) exhibit a complex plasmonic response dominated by a dipolar longitudinal mode and higher-order transverse modes in the near-UV, which may be exploited for a range of applications. In this paper, we take advantage of the strong signature [...] Read more.
Bimetallic Au/Ag core–shell cuboid nanoparticles (NPs) exhibit a complex plasmonic response dominated by a dipolar longitudinal mode and higher-order transverse modes in the near-UV, which may be exploited for a range of applications. In this paper, we take advantage of the strong signature of these modes in the NP ultrafast transient optical response, measured by pump-probe transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy, to explore the NP vibrational landscape. The fast Fourier transform analysis of the TA dynamics reveals specific vibration modes in the frequency range 15–150 GHz, further studied by numerical simulations based on the finite element method. While bare Au nanorods exhibit extensional and breathing modes, the bimetallic NPs undergo more complex motions, involving the displacement of facets, edges and corners. The amplitude and frequency of these modes are shown to depend on the Ag shell thickness, as the silver load modifies the NP aspect ratio and mass. Moreover, the contributions of the vibrational modes to the experimental TA spectra are shown to vary with the probe laser wavelength at which the signal is monitored. Using the combined simulations of the NP elastic and optical properties, we elucidate this influence by analyzing the effect of the mechanisms involved in the acousto-plasmonic coupling. Full article
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Article
Ultrafast and Multiplexed Bacteriophage Susceptibility Testing by Surface Plasmon Resonance and Phase Imaging of Immobilized Phage Microarrays
Chemosensors 2022, 10(5), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10050192 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 613
Abstract
In the context of bacteriophage (phage) therapy, there is an urgent need for a method permitting multiplexed, parallel phage susceptibility testing (PST) prior to the formulation of personalized phage cocktails for administration to patients suffering from antimicrobial-resistant bacterial infections. Methods based on surface [...] Read more.
In the context of bacteriophage (phage) therapy, there is an urgent need for a method permitting multiplexed, parallel phage susceptibility testing (PST) prior to the formulation of personalized phage cocktails for administration to patients suffering from antimicrobial-resistant bacterial infections. Methods based on surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) and phase imaging were demonstrated as candidates for very rapid (<2 h) PST in the broth phase. Biosensing layers composed of arrays of phages 44AHJD, P68, and gh-1 were covalently immobilized on the surface of an SPRi prism and exposed to liquid culture of either Pseudomonas putida or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (i.e., either the phages’ host or non-host bacteria). Monitoring of reflectivity reveals susceptibility of the challenge bacteria to the immobilized phage strains. Investigation of phase imaging of lytic replication of gh-1 demonstrates PST at the single-cell scale, without requiring phage immobilization. SPRi sensorgrams show that on-target regions increase in reflectivity more slowly, stabilizing later and to a lower level compared to off-target regions. Phage susceptibility can be revealed in as little as 30 min in both the SPRi and phase imaging methods. Full article
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Article
Effects of Calcination Temperature on CO-Sensing Mechanism for NiO-Based Gas Sensors
Chemosensors 2022, 10(5), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10050191 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 548
Abstract
NiO-sensitive materials have been synthesized via the hydrothermal synthesis route and calcined in air at 400 °C and, alternatively, at 500 °C. Structural, morphological, and spectroscopic investigations were involved. As such, the XRD patterns showed a higher crystallinity degree for the NiO calcined [...] Read more.
NiO-sensitive materials have been synthesized via the hydrothermal synthesis route and calcined in air at 400 °C and, alternatively, at 500 °C. Structural, morphological, and spectroscopic investigations were involved. As such, the XRD patterns showed a higher crystallinity degree for the NiO calcined at 500 °C. Such an aspect is in line with the XPS data indicating a lower surface hydroxylation relative to NiO calcined at 400 °C. An HRTEM microstructural investigation revealed that the two samples differ essentially at the morphological level, having different sizes of the crystalline nanoparticles, different density of the surface defects, and preferential faceting according to the main crystallographic planes. In order to identify their specific gas-sensing mechanism towards CO exposure under the in-field atmosphere, the simultaneous evaluation of the electrical resistance and contact potential difference was carried out. The results allowed the decoupling of the water physisorption from the chemisorption of the ambient oxygen species. Thus, the specific CO interaction mechanism induced by the calcination temperature of NiO has been highlighted. Full article
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Review
How Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Could Contribute to Medical Diagnoses
Chemosensors 2022, 10(5), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10050190 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 588
Abstract
In the last decade, there has been a rapid increase in the number of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy applications in medical research. In this article we review some recent, and in our opinion, most interesting and promising applications of SERS spectroscopy in [...] Read more.
In the last decade, there has been a rapid increase in the number of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy applications in medical research. In this article we review some recent, and in our opinion, most interesting and promising applications of SERS spectroscopy in medical diagnostics, including those that permit multiplexing within the range important for clinical samples. We focus on the SERS-based detection of markers of various diseases (or those whose presence significantly increases the chance of developing a given disease), and on drug monitoring. We present selected examples of the SERS detection of particular fragments of DNA or RNA, or of bacteria, viruses, and disease-related proteins. We also describe a very promising and elegant ‘lab-on-chip’ approach used to carry out practical SERS measurements via a pad whose action is similar to that of a pregnancy test. The fundamental theoretical background of SERS spectroscopy, which should allow a better understanding of the operation of the sensors described, is also briefly outlined. We hope that this review article will be useful for researchers planning to enter this fascinating field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Bio-Chemical Sensors Based on Plasmonic Nanostructures)
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Article
Carbon Electrodes with Gold Nanoparticles for the Electrochemical Detection of miRNA 21-5p
Chemosensors 2022, 10(5), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10050189 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 645
Abstract
Extracellular vesicles are involved in many physiological and pathological activities. They transport miRNAs to recipient cells during their role in intercellular communication, making them emerging biomarkers of many diseases. Interest in exosomal miRNAs has grown after they have shown numerous advantages as biomarkers [...] Read more.
Extracellular vesicles are involved in many physiological and pathological activities. They transport miRNAs to recipient cells during their role in intercellular communication, making them emerging biomarkers of many diseases. Interest in exosomal miRNAs has grown after they have shown numerous advantages as biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, and evaluation of cancer treatment. This work describes the development of a biosensor for the detection of 21-5p miRNA in human serum using screen-printed carbon electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles fabricated in situ, an innovative approach to avoid the use of more expensive gold substrates that provide better analytical outputs. The several variables involved in the assembly of the biosensor were optimized by univariant mode. Under the best conditions, the biosensor showed a linear response from 0.010 fM to 10 pM, with a limit of detection (LOD) of 4.31 aM. The sensitivity was 0.3718 relative Ω per decade concentration in buffered saline solutions, and the standard deviation of the blank is 2.94 Ω. A linear response was also obtained when human serum samples were tested with miRNA 21-5p. Interference from similar miRNA and miss-match miRNA sequences was evaluated and good selectivity for miRNA 21-5p was observed. Overall, the device proposed is an alternative approach to gold substrates, which typically result in more sensitive systems and lower LODs, which compares favorably to current gold-based biosensors for the targeted miRNA. This design may be further extended to other nucleic acids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State of the Art in Nucleic Acid Detection)
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Article
A New Benzoxazole-Based Fluorescent Macrocyclic Chemosensor for Optical Detection of Zn2+ and Cd2+
Chemosensors 2022, 10(5), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10050188 - 17 May 2022
Viewed by 636
Abstract
Background: Benzoxazole-containing ligands find many applications both in medicinal chemistry, catalysis and fluorescence chemosensing. Benzoxazole-containing macrocycles could be therefore a good strategy to achieve stable and selective fluorescent complexes with suitable metal ions. In this work, the synthesis, binding, and photochemical properties of [...] Read more.
Background: Benzoxazole-containing ligands find many applications both in medicinal chemistry, catalysis and fluorescence chemosensing. Benzoxazole-containing macrocycles could be therefore a good strategy to achieve stable and selective fluorescent complexes with suitable metal ions. In this work, the synthesis, binding, and photochemical properties of a new fluorescent ligand (L) are reported. L is a cyclophane macrocycle containing the 1,3-bis(benzo[d]oxazol-2-yl)phenyl (BBzB) fluorophore and an aliphatic tetra-amine chain to form the macrocyclic skeleton. Methods: Spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric measurements, 1H NMR analysis, and DFT calculations were performed. Results: L behaves as a PET-mediated chemosensor, being emissive at 390 nm at acidic pH and non-emissive at basic pH. The chemosensor is able to detect Zn2+ and Cd2+ in an aqueous medium (acetonitrile–water, 4:1 v/v) at neutral pH through a CHEF effect upon metal ion coordination. Paramagnetic metal ions (Cu2+) and heavy atoms (Pb2+, Hg2+) resulted in a quenching of fluorescence or very low emission. Conclusions: The new cyclophane macrocycle L was revealed to be a selective PET-regulated chemosensor for Zn2+ and Cd2+ in an aqueous medium, being able to bind up to two and one metal cations, respectively. The molecule showed a shifted emission towards the visible region compared to similar systems, suggesting a co-planar conformation of the aromatic fragment upon metal coordination. All these data are supported by both experimental measurements and theoretical calculations. Full article
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Article
Measurement of Pulsating Flow Using a Self-Attachable Flexible Strain Sensor Based on Adhesive PDMS and CNT
Chemosensors 2022, 10(5), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10050187 - 16 May 2022
Viewed by 561
Abstract
Accurate monitoring is needed for pulsating flow in many healthcare and bio applications. Specifically, real-time monitoring of pulsating blood flow provides rich information regarding a patient’s health conditions. This paper proposes a flexible strain sensor capable of detecting the pulsating fluid flow by [...] Read more.
Accurate monitoring is needed for pulsating flow in many healthcare and bio applications. Specifically, real-time monitoring of pulsating blood flow provides rich information regarding a patient’s health conditions. This paper proposes a flexible strain sensor capable of detecting the pulsating fluid flow by directly measuring the circumferential strain induced by a rapid change in the flow rate. The thin and flexible strain sensor consists of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with a Triton-X treatment to enhance the adhesive property and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) as the piezoresistive sensing layer. MWCNT integration implements a simple spray-coating method. The adhesive PDMS/CNT strain sensor exhibits a highly adhesive nature and can be attached to a silicone tube’s curved surface. By analyzing the theoretical modeling based on fluid energy equation and solid mechanics, strains induced on the soft tube by the change in flow rate, viscosity, and fluid density can be predicted. We performed the flow rate measurement at varying fluid-flow rates and liquid viscosities, and the results match our prediction. The sensitivity and limit of detection of the presented strain sensor are about 0.55 %min/L and 0.4 L/min, respectively. Both the calculation and experiment confirm that the sensor resistance is most sensitive to the fluid-flow rate, thus, enabling the accurate tracking of pulsating fluids’ flow rate, regardless of the viscosity or density. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials Based on Bio/Chemical Sensors)
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Article
A New Kind of Chemical Nanosensors for Discrimination of Espresso Coffee
Chemosensors 2022, 10(5), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10050186 - 16 May 2022
Viewed by 637
Abstract
There are different methods to extract and brew coffee, therefore, coffee processing is an important factor and should be studied in detail. Herein, coffee was brewed by means of a new espresso professional coffee machine, using coffee powder or portioned coffee (capsule). Four [...] Read more.
There are different methods to extract and brew coffee, therefore, coffee processing is an important factor and should be studied in detail. Herein, coffee was brewed by means of a new espresso professional coffee machine, using coffee powder or portioned coffee (capsule). Four different kinds of coffees (Biologico, Dolce, Deciso, Guatemala) were investigated with and without capsules and the goal was to classify the volatiloma of each one by Small Sensor System (S3). The response of the semiconductor metal oxide sensors (MOX) of S3 where recorded, for all 288 replicates and after normalization ∆R/R0 was extracted as a feature. PCA analysis was used to compare and differentiate the same kind of coffee sample with and without a capsule. It could be concluded that the coffee capsules affect the quality, changing on the flavor profile of espresso coffee when extracted different methods confirming the use of s3 device as a rapid and user-friendly tool in the food quality control chain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Sensors for Volatile Organic Compound Detection)
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Article
Cyanide Anion Determination Based on Nucleophilic Addition to 6-[(E)-(4-Nitrophenyl)diazenyl]-1′,3,3′,4-tetrahydrospiro[chromene-2,2′-indole] Derivatives
Chemosensors 2022, 10(5), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10050185 - 14 May 2022
Viewed by 578
Abstract
This work provides a novel approach for the instant detection of CN anions based on chromogenic 6-[(E)-(4-nitrophenyl)diazenyl]-1′,3,3′,4-tetrahydrospiro[chromene-2,2′-indole] derivatives. New colorimetric detectors were synthesized and characterized. These compounds exhibited a substantial color change from orange to magenta and blue when treated [...] Read more.
This work provides a novel approach for the instant detection of CN anions based on chromogenic 6-[(E)-(4-nitrophenyl)diazenyl]-1′,3,3′,4-tetrahydrospiro[chromene-2,2′-indole] derivatives. New colorimetric detectors were synthesized and characterized. These compounds exhibited a substantial color change from orange to magenta and blue when treated with cyanide ions in a CH3CN solution buffered with sodium phosphate and demonstrated high selectivity to CN anions. Common anions were tested, and they did not interfere with cyanide detection, except for carbonates and hydrosulfites. The simple preparation of a molecular sensor and the easily noticeable color change makes this a practical system for the monitoring of CN ions. This color change is explained by nucleophilic substitution of the pyrane ring oxygen atom at the indoline C-2 atom by the cyanide anion. This generates the appearance of intensively colored 4-(4-nitrophenylazo)phenolate chromophore and allows for determining very low levels of CN anion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Optical Chemical Sensors)
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Article
Phage Display Affibodies Combined with [email protected](bpy)32+ for Ultra-Sensitive Electrochemiluminescence Detection of Abrin
Chemosensors 2022, 10(5), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10050184 - 13 May 2022
Viewed by 521
Abstract
Abrin is a cytotoxin with strong lethality, which is a serious threat to human health and public safety, and thus, highly sensitive detection methods are urgently needed. The phage display affibody has two major modules, among which, the affibody fragment, with small molecular [...] Read more.
Abrin is a cytotoxin with strong lethality, which is a serious threat to human health and public safety, and thus, highly sensitive detection methods are urgently needed. The phage display affibody has two major modules, among which, the affibody fragment, with small molecular weight, high affinity and easy preparation, can be used for the specific recognition of the target, and the phage shell, with numerous protein copies, can be used as a carrier for the massive enrichment of signal molecules, and thus is particularly suitable as a sensitive probe for signal amplification in high-sensitivity biosensors. In this study, with antibody-coated magnetic microspheres as capture probes, Ru(bpy)32+ and biotin dual-labeled phage display affibodies as the specific signal probes and [email protected](bpy)32+ (Ru(bpy)32+-coated gold nanoparticles) as the signal amplification nanomaterials, a new electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor with a four-level sandwich structure of “magnetic capture probe-abrin-phage display [email protected](bpy)32+” was constructed for abrin detection. In this detection mode, [email protected](bpy)32+, a gold nanocomposite prepared rapidly via electrical interaction, contained an extremely high density of signal molecules, and the phage display affibodies with powerful loading capacity were not only labeled with Ru(bpy)32+, but also enriched with [email protected](bpy)32+ in large amounts. These designs greatly improved the detection capability of the sensor, ultimately achieving the ultra-sensitive detection of abrin. The limit of detection (LOD) was 4.1 fg/mL (3δ/S), and the quantification range was from 5 fg/mL to 5 pg/mL. The sensor had good reproducibility and specificity and performed well in the test of simulated samples. This study expanded the application of affibodies in the field of biosensing and also deeply explored the signal amplification potential of phage display technology, which is of high value for the construction of simple and efficient sensors with high sensitivity. Full article
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Article
Spectroscopic Recognition of Metal Ions and Non-Linear Optical (NLO) Properties of Some Fluorinated Poly(1,3,4-Oxadiazole-Ether)s
Chemosensors 2022, 10(5), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10050183 - 11 May 2022
Viewed by 544
Abstract
In this paper, we examined the sensing ability of some fluorinated 1,3,4-oxadiazole-containing assemblies toward various metal ions and their nonlinear optical (NLO) properties. The changes in the spectral characteristics of these compounds in the existence of Mg2+, Mn2+, Ni [...] Read more.
In this paper, we examined the sensing ability of some fluorinated 1,3,4-oxadiazole-containing assemblies toward various metal ions and their nonlinear optical (NLO) properties. The changes in the spectral characteristics of these compounds in the existence of Mg2+, Mn2+, Ni2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Hg2+, Sn2+, and Ag+ metal ions were performed, and they were found to be selective and more sensitive toward the addition of Ag+, Co2+, and Cu2+ ions (new bands appeared). Instead, spectral changes in the presence of Mg2+, Mn2+, Ni2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, Hg2+, and Sn2+ were not significant, so we did not evaluate the corresponding binding parameters. Therefore, all of these compounds were found to be selective and sensitive to Ag+, Co2+, and Cu2+ ions. Furthermore, the first-order polarizability (αCT), the first-order hyperpolarizability (βCT), and the second-order hyperpolarizability (γCT) were evaluated using the solvatochromic approach, and the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) characteristics were investigated using a generalized Mulliken–Hush (GMH) analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Optical Chemical Sensors)
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Article
Fabrication of Functional Super-Hydrophilic TiO2 Thin Film for pH Detection
Chemosensors 2022, 10(5), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10050182 - 11 May 2022
Viewed by 525
Abstract
A super-hydrophilic pH-sensitive electrode with a porous TiO2 thin film is proposed in this work and fabricated using the chemical etching method. In total, 30 groups of porous TiO2 thin film were obtained by immersing a Ti sheet in NaOH, with [...] Read more.
A super-hydrophilic pH-sensitive electrode with a porous TiO2 thin film is proposed in this work and fabricated using the chemical etching method. In total, 30 groups of porous TiO2 thin film were obtained by immersing a Ti sheet in NaOH, with the solution concentration ranging from 0.5–4 M and the reaction time ranging from 15–240 min. SEM, XRD, XPS, and a contact angle meter were used to investigate the influence of the chemical etching parameters on the morphology, composition, and wettability of the fabricated electrodes. The chemical etching parameters were found to have a significant influence on the specific surface area and the component of the films, which strongly affected the wettability and pH sensing characteristics of the electrodes. The electrode obtained with a solution concentration of 1 M and reaction time of 120 min is the ideal product because of its excellent wettability, with a contact angle of 5.46°, and good pH sensing characteristics in pH buffer solutions. The electrode also showed good stability regarding its wettability and pH sensing properties during storage and utilization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrochemical Devices and Sensors)
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Review
Couplants in Acoustic Biosensing Systems
Chemosensors 2022, 10(5), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10050181 - 09 May 2022
Viewed by 604
Abstract
Acoustic biosensors are widely used in physical, chemical, and biosensing applications. One of the major concerns in acoustic biosensing is the delicacy of the medium through which acoustic waves propagate and reach acoustic sensors. Even a small airgap diminishes acoustic signal strengths due [...] Read more.
Acoustic biosensors are widely used in physical, chemical, and biosensing applications. One of the major concerns in acoustic biosensing is the delicacy of the medium through which acoustic waves propagate and reach acoustic sensors. Even a small airgap diminishes acoustic signal strengths due to high acoustic impedance mismatch. Therefore, the presence of a coupling medium to create a pathway for an efficient propagation of acoustic waves is essential. Here, we have reviewed the chemical, physical, and acoustic characteristics of various coupling material (liquid, gel-based, semi-dry, and dry) and present a guide to determine a suitable application-specific coupling medium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section (Bio)chemical Sensing)
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Article
Determination of Ascorbic Acid in Pharmaceuticals and Food Supplements with the New Potassium Ferrocyanide-Doped Polypyrrole-Modified Platinum Electrode Sensor
Chemosensors 2022, 10(5), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10050180 - 09 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 551
Abstract
This paper reports the results obtained from the determination of ascorbic acid with platinum-based voltammetric sensors modified with potassium hexacyanoferrate-doped polypyrrole. The preparation of the modified electrodes was carried out by electrochemical polymerization of pyrrole from aqueous solutions, using chronoamperometry. Polypyrrole films were [...] Read more.
This paper reports the results obtained from the determination of ascorbic acid with platinum-based voltammetric sensors modified with potassium hexacyanoferrate-doped polypyrrole. The preparation of the modified electrodes was carried out by electrochemical polymerization of pyrrole from aqueous solutions, using chronoamperometry. Polypyrrole films were deposited on the surface of the platinum electrode, by applying a constant potential of 0.8 V for 30 s. The thickness of the polymer film was calculated from the chronoamperometric data, and the value was 0.163 μm. Cyclic voltammetry was the method used for the Pt/PPy-FeCN electrode electrochemical characterization in several types of solution, including KCl, potassium ferrocyanide, and ascorbic acid. The thin doped polymer layer showed excellent sensitivity for ascorbic acid detection. From the voltammetric studies carried out in solutions of different concentrations of ascorbic acid, ranging from 1 to 100 × 10−6 M, a detection limit of 2.5 × 10−7 M was obtained. Validation of the analyses was performed using pharmaceutical products with different concentrations of ascorbic acid, from different manufacturers and presented in various pharmaceutical forms, i.e., intravascular administration ampoules, chewable tablets, and powder for oral suspension. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnology for Sensing, Medical and Environmental Application)
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Article
Wireless Volatile Organic Compound Detection for Restricted Internet of Things Environments Based on Cataluminescence Sensors
Chemosensors 2022, 10(5), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10050179 - 09 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 653
Abstract
Cataluminescence-based sensors do not require external light sources and complex circuitry, which enables them to avoid light scattering with high sensitivity, selectivity, and widely linear range. In this study, a wireless sensor system based on hierarchical CuO microspheres assembled from nano-sheets was constructed [...] Read more.
Cataluminescence-based sensors do not require external light sources and complex circuitry, which enables them to avoid light scattering with high sensitivity, selectivity, and widely linear range. In this study, a wireless sensor system based on hierarchical CuO microspheres assembled from nano-sheets was constructed for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) online detection. Through sensor characteristics and data process analysis, the results showed that the luminous sensor system has good luminous characteristics, including the intensity of visible light, high signal/noise (S/N) values, and very short response and recovery times. Different VOC concentration values can be detected on multiple wavelength channels and different Cataluminescence signal spectra separations can process multiple sets of Cataluminescence data combinations concurrently. This study also briefly studied the mechanism action of the Cataluminescence sensor, which can specifically be used for VOC detecting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Sensors for Volatile Organic Compound Detection)
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Article
Theoretical Study on the Electrochemical Catalytic Activity of Au-Doped Pt Electrode for Nitrogen Monoxide
Chemosensors 2022, 10(5), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10050178 - 07 May 2022
Viewed by 569
Abstract
In order to gradually reduce automobile exhaust pollution and improve fuel quality, the NOx sensor, which can be monitored in real time in an automobile engine’s electronic control system, has become an indispensable part of the automobile lean burn system. In these types [...] Read more.
In order to gradually reduce automobile exhaust pollution and improve fuel quality, the NOx sensor, which can be monitored in real time in an automobile engine’s electronic control system, has become an indispensable part of the automobile lean burn system. In these types of NOx sensors, Au-doped platinum electrodes have received great attention due to their selectivity towards NO. However, the reaction process of NO gas on the Au-doped platinum electrode in the sensor and the possible regulation mechanism is still unclear. In this paper, the density functional theory (DFT) was used to analyze the effect of Au-doped Pt electrodes on the performance of nitrogen oxide sensors in automobiles. Firstly, the adsorption energies of NO molecules on pure Pt and Au/Pt surfaces were compared. The adsorption and dissociation of NO on Pt substrates doped with Au monomers, dimers, and trimers were investigated. These results showed that Au can effectively weaken the adsorption energy of NO molecules on a Pt surface. It was noted that with the increase in the number of Au atoms on the surface of Pt(111), the adsorption capacity of NO molecules on the alloy surface becomes weaker. When observing the transition state of NO decomposition on three different alloy surfaces, the study showed that the activation energy and reaction heat of NO dissociation increased. It further showed that doping with Au increased the activation energy of NO decomposition, thereby effectively inhibiting the decomposition of NO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrochemical Devices and Sensors)
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Article
A Microphysiometric System Based on LAPS for Real-Time Monitoring of Microbial Metabolism
Chemosensors 2022, 10(5), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10050177 - 06 May 2022
Viewed by 578
Abstract
Macronutrients (carbohydrates, fat and protein) are the cornerstones of daily diet, among which carbohydrates provide energy for the muscles and central nervous system during movement and exercise. The breakdown of carbohydrates starts in the oral cavity, where they are primarily hydrolyzed to glucose [...] Read more.
Macronutrients (carbohydrates, fat and protein) are the cornerstones of daily diet, among which carbohydrates provide energy for the muscles and central nervous system during movement and exercise. The breakdown of carbohydrates starts in the oral cavity, where they are primarily hydrolyzed to glucose and then metabolized to organic acids. The end products may have an impact on the oral microenvironment, so it is necessary to monitor the process of microbial metabolism and to measure the pH change. Although a pH meter has been widely used, it is limited by its sensitivity. We then introduce a light addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS), which has been used in extracellular acidification detection of living cells with the advantages of being objective, quantitative and highly sensitive. However, it is difficult to use in monitoring bacterial metabolism because bacteria cannot be immobilization on the LAPS chip as easily as living cells. Therefore, a microphysiometric system integrated with Transwell insert and microfluidic LAPS chip was designed and constructed to solve this problem. The decrease in pH caused by glucose fermentation in Lactobacillus rhamnosus was successfully measured by this device. This proves the feasibility of the system for metabolism detection of non-adhere targets such as microorganisms and even 3D cells and organoids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioinspired Chemical Sensors and Micro-Nano Devices)
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Article
Luminescent Self-Assembled Monolayer on Gold Nanoparticles: Tuning of Emission According to the Surface Curvature
Chemosensors 2022, 10(5), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10050176 - 06 May 2022
Viewed by 666
Abstract
Until now, the ability to form a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on a surface has been investigated according to deposition techniques, which in turn depend on surface-coater interactions. In this paper, we pursued two goals: to form a SAM on a gold nanosurface and [...] Read more.
Until now, the ability to form a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on a surface has been investigated according to deposition techniques, which in turn depend on surface-coater interactions. In this paper, we pursued two goals: to form a SAM on a gold nanosurface and to correlate its formation to the nanosurface curvature. To achieve these objectives, gold nanoparticles of different shapes (spheres, rods, and triangles) were functionalized with a luminescent thiolated bipyridine (Bpy-SH), and the SAM formation was studied by investigating the photo-physics of Bpy-SH. We have shown that emission wavelength and excited-state lifetime of Bpy-SH are strongly correlated to the formation of specific aggregates within SAMs, the nature of these aggregates being in close correlation to the shape of the nanoparticles. Micro-Raman spectroscopy investigation was used to test the SERS effect of gold nanoparticles on thiolated bipyridine forming SAMs. Full article
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Article
Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Schiff Base Metal–Ligand Complexes with Copper and Nickel Centres for Electrochemical In Vitro Sensing of Nitric Oxide in an Aqueous Solution
Chemosensors 2022, 10(5), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10050175 - 06 May 2022
Viewed by 592
Abstract
Nitric oxide (NO), the smallest signalling molecule known in the human body, keeps blood vessels dilated, controls blood pressure, and has numerous other health regulatory effects. The use of Schiff base complexes incorporated onto electrodes to make electrochemical sensors has been explored as [...] Read more.
Nitric oxide (NO), the smallest signalling molecule known in the human body, keeps blood vessels dilated, controls blood pressure, and has numerous other health regulatory effects. The use of Schiff base complexes incorporated onto electrodes to make electrochemical sensors has been explored as an effective method for the determination and quantification of nitric oxide in aqueous solutions. Schiff base ligands were complexed with Cu and Ni metal centres using the microwave synthesis method to produce metal–ligand complexes with enhanced capabilites for NO detection. The electrical current generated at the anode is directly proportional to NO concentrations in the solution through its oxidation to HNO3. Various characterisation techniques were implemented to verify the integrity of each step of metal–ligand synthesis as well as the final product produced, using FT-IR, UV-VIS, and TGA. The as-synthesised Schiff base complexes were electrodeposited on screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCE) and electrochemically evaluated in a 0.1 M PBS. Furthermore, metal complexes were screened for their in vitro activity towards NO detection in an aqueous solution (PBS). The results show that the investigated sensors (SPCE/Ni-BPND and SPCE/Cu-BPND) respond positively toward NO detection. It was, therefore, identified that the two sensors also do not differ significantly in terms of precision, sensitivity, and lowest detection limit. The sensor strategies demonstrate the NO limits of detection of 0.22 µM and 0.09 µM, and they also demonstrate sensitivity values of 16.3 µA/µM and 13.1 µA/µM for SPCE/Cu-BPND and SPCE/Ni-BPND sensors, respectively. Full article
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Article
Development of a Coelenterazine Derivative with Enhanced Superoxide Anion-Triggered Chemiluminescence in Aqueous Solution
Chemosensors 2022, 10(5), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10050174 - 05 May 2022
Viewed by 640
Abstract
Superoxide anion is a reactive oxygen species (ROS) of biological interest. More specifically, it plays a role in intra- and intercellular signaling, besides being associated with conditions such as inflammation and cancer. Given this, efforts have been made by the research community to [...] Read more.
Superoxide anion is a reactive oxygen species (ROS) of biological interest. More specifically, it plays a role in intra- and intercellular signaling, besides being associated with conditions such as inflammation and cancer. Given this, efforts have been made by the research community to devise new sensing strategies for this ROS species. Among them, the chemiluminescent reaction of marine Coelenterazine has been employed as a sensitive and dynamic probing approach. Nevertheless, chemiluminescent reactions are typically associated with lower emissions in aqueous solutions. Herein, here we report the synthesis of a new Coelenterazine derivative with the potential for superoxide anion sensing. Namely, this novel compound is capable of chemiluminescence in a dose-dependent manner when triggered by this ROS species. More importantly, the light-emission intensities provided by this derivative were relevantly enhanced (intensities 2.13 × 101 to 1.11 × 104 times higher) in aqueous solutions at different pH conditions when compared to native Coelenterazine. The half-life of the chemiluminescent signal is also greatly increased for the derivative. Thus, a new chemiluminescence molecule with significant potential for superoxide anion sensing was discovered and reported for the first time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Sensing Technologies in Medical and Pharmaceutical Analysis)
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Article
A Cell Co-Culture Taste Sensor Using Different Proportions of Caco-2 and SH-SY5Y Cells for Bitterness Detection
Chemosensors 2022, 10(5), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10050173 - 05 May 2022
Viewed by 703
Abstract
Bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) are involved in bitter taste perception, which is one of the five basic taste modalities in mammals. In this study, a cell co-culture taste sensor using different proportions of Caco-2 cells and SH-SY5Y cells was proposed. Caco-2 cells, which [...] Read more.
Bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) are involved in bitter taste perception, which is one of the five basic taste modalities in mammals. In this study, a cell co-culture taste sensor using different proportions of Caco-2 cells and SH-SY5Y cells was proposed. Caco-2 cells, which endogenously expressed the human T2R38 receptor, and SH-SY5Y cells, which endogenously expressed the human T2R16 receptor, were co-cultured. Using Caco-2 cells and SH-SY5Y cells at a constant total concentration of 40 K/mL, we designed seven mixtures with [Caco-2]/([Caco-2] + [SH-SY5Y]) ratios of 0, 20, 40, 50, 60, 80, and 100%. These mixtures were then seeded on the 16 E-plates of the electric cell-substrate impedance sensor (ECIS) for bitterness detection. Theoretically, after T2R38 ligands activation, continuous evolution profiles (CEP), with [Caco-2]/([Caco-2] + [SH-SY5Y]) ratios as the x-axis and ΔCI (Max) as the y-axis, would exhibit positive correlation property. After T2R16 ligands activation, the CEP would show negative correlation property. However, when stimulated with compounds that could activate both T2R16 and T2R38, it would show different response patterns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioinspired Chemical Sensors and Micro-Nano Devices)
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Article
Affinity Recognition Based Gravimetric Nanosensor for Equilin Detection
Chemosensors 2022, 10(5), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10050172 - 03 May 2022
Viewed by 596
Abstract
The estrogenic hormones that are widely used in postmenopausal hormone supplements for women contaminate natural water resources. Equilin (Equ) is one of the estrogenic hormones that have a maximum contaminant level of 0.35 µg/L in the chemical pollutants list. In this study, estrogenic [...] Read more.
The estrogenic hormones that are widely used in postmenopausal hormone supplements for women contaminate natural water resources. Equilin (Equ) is one of the estrogenic hormones that have a maximum contaminant level of 0.35 µg/L in the chemical pollutants list. In this study, estrogenic hormones were precisely detected in a short time by affinity-recognition-based interactions in Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) sensors. The QCM sensors were modified with 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid forming a self-assembled monolayer and with amino acids, namely tyrosine, tryptophan and phenylalanine. The affinity interactions between Equ and amino acids were studied using docking tools and confirmed by QCM experiments. The LODs of Equ were obtained as 4.59, 5.05 and 6.30 ng/L for tyrosine-, tryptophan- and phenylalanine-modified QCM nanosensors, respectively, with linear dynamic detection in the range of 25–500 nM. In terms of the LOD, selectivity and sensitivity calculations, the tyrosine-modified QCM nanosensor was found to have the highest performance for Equ detection compared to the tryptophan- and phenylalanine-modified ones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Applied Chemical Sensors)
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Article
Origin of Baseline Drift in Metal Oxide Gas Sensors: Effects of Bulk Equilibration
Chemosensors 2022, 10(5), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10050171 - 02 May 2022
Viewed by 1001
Abstract
Metal oxide (MOX) gas sensors and gas sensor arrays are widely used to detect toxic, combustible, and corrosive gases and gas mixtures inside ambient air. Important but poorly researched effects counteracting reliable detection are the phenomena of sensor baseline drift and changes in [...] Read more.
Metal oxide (MOX) gas sensors and gas sensor arrays are widely used to detect toxic, combustible, and corrosive gases and gas mixtures inside ambient air. Important but poorly researched effects counteracting reliable detection are the phenomena of sensor baseline drift and changes in gas response upon long-term operation of MOX gas sensors. In this paper, it is shown that baseline drift is not limited to materials with poor crystallinity, but that this phenomenon principally also occurs in materials with almost perfect crystalline order. Building on this result, a theoretical framework for the analysis of such phenomena is developed. This analysis indicates that sensor drift is caused by the slow annealing of quenched-in non-equilibrium oxygen-vacancy donors as MOX gas sensors are operated at moderate temperatures for prolonged periods of time. Most interestingly, our analysis predicts that sensor drift in n-type MOX materials can potentially be mitigated or even suppressed by doping with metal impurities with chemical valences higher than those of the core metal constituents of the host crystals. Full article
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Article
Photoluminescence Sensing of Chloride Ions in Sea Sand Using Alcohol-Dispersed CsPbBr3@SiO2 Perovskite Nanocrystal Composites
Chemosensors 2022, 10(5), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10050170 - 02 May 2022
Viewed by 686
Abstract
In this study, CsPbBr3@SiO2 perovskite nanocrystal composites (CsPbBr3@SiO2 PNCCs) were synthesized by a benzyl bromide nucleophilic substitution strategy. Homogeneous halide exchange between CsPbBr3@SiO2 PNCCs and Cl solution (aqueous phase) was applied to the [...] Read more.
In this study, CsPbBr3@SiO2 perovskite nanocrystal composites (CsPbBr3@SiO2 PNCCs) were synthesized by a benzyl bromide nucleophilic substitution strategy. Homogeneous halide exchange between CsPbBr3@SiO2 PNCCs and Cl solution (aqueous phase) was applied to the determination of Cl in sea sand samples. Fast halide exchange with Cl in the aqueous phase without any magnetic stirring or pH regulation resulted in the blue shift of the photoluminescence (PL) wavelength and vivid PL color changes from green to blue. The results show that the PL sensing of Cl in aqueous samples could be implemented by using the halide exchange of CsPbBr3@SiO2 PNCCs. A linear relationship between the PL wavelength shift and the Cl concentration in the range of 0 to 3.0% was found, which was applied to the determination of Cl concentration in sea sand samples. This method greatly simplifies the detection process and provides a new idea for further broadening PL sensing using the CsPbBr3 PNC halide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers on Luminescent Sensing)
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Article
A Laser-Induced Photoelectrochemical Sensor for Natural Sweat Cu2+ Detection
Chemosensors 2022, 10(5), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10050169 - 02 May 2022
Viewed by 702
Abstract
Tracking fluctuations in the Cu2+ level in sweat is meaningful for non-invasive and real-time assessment of Cu2+-abnormality-related diseases and provides important diagnostic information. However, the user-unfriendly ways to obtain sweat and sweat biofouling have limited the development of this field. [...] Read more.
Tracking fluctuations in the Cu2+ level in sweat is meaningful for non-invasive and real-time assessment of Cu2+-abnormality-related diseases and provides important diagnostic information. However, the user-unfriendly ways to obtain sweat and sweat biofouling have limited the development of this field. Herein, we exploit a highly sensitive photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensor as a detection method, a powerful laser engraving technique for the large-scale fabrication of laser-induced graphene and In-doped CdS (LIG-In-CdS) photoelectrodes, and a hydrophilic porous polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel for natural sweat collection for fingertip touch sweat Cu2+ monitoring. The proposed sensor has several very attractive features: (i) the LIG-In-CdS photoelectrode with high photoelectric conversion efficiency can be produced by a cheap 450 nm semiconductor laser system; (ii) the sensor performs Cu2+ detection with a wide linear range of 1.28 ng/mL~5.12 μg/mL and good selectivity; (iii) the PVA hydrogel possesses an excellent antifouling effect ability and a rapid natural sweat collection ability; and (iv) the sensor exhibits feasibility and good reliability for PEC sensing of sweat Cu2+. Thus, these advantages endow the proposed method with a great deal of potential for smart monitoring of heavy metals in sweat in the future. Full article
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Article
Exploring the Adsorption of Pb on Microalgae-Derived Biochar: A Versatile Material for Environmental Remediation and Electroanalytical Applications
Chemosensors 2022, 10(5), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10050168 - 30 Apr 2022
Viewed by 750
Abstract
Biochar, a carbon material obtained by pyrolysis of biomasses, is increasingly applied in environmental remediation and sensing thanks to its functional properties, cost-effectiveness and eco-friendliness. The adsorption capacity of biochar, strictly dependent on its specific surface area, heteroatom doping and surface functional groups, [...] Read more.
Biochar, a carbon material obtained by pyrolysis of biomasses, is increasingly applied in environmental remediation and sensing thanks to its functional properties, cost-effectiveness and eco-friendliness. The adsorption capacity of biochar, strictly dependent on its specific surface area, heteroatom doping and surface functional groups, is crucial for these applications. Here, biochar produced at low temperature (350 °C) from a marine microalga (Nannochloropsis sp.) is proposed as an efficient adsorbent of lead (II) ions in aqueous solution; this production strategy promotes the natural self-doping of biochar without requiring harsh conditions. The kinetics and thermodynamics of the adsorption process, as well as the effect of pH, ionic strength and dissolved organic matter on the adsorption efficiency were systematically assessed. The microalgae-derived biochar shows superior adsorption performances compared to a nutshell-derived one (used as a reference of lignocellulosic feedstocks) under all the tested conditions. The microalgae-derived biochar was finally used to decorate screen-printed carbon electrodes to improve the electroanalytical performances towards the voltammetric detection of lead (II) ions. A two-fold increase in sensitivity was obtained compared to the unmodified electrode thanks to the enhanced electron transfer and adsorption properties provided by biochar. These results highlight the potentialities of microalgae-derived biochar for environmental and sensing applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biochar Based Sustainable Sensing Platforms)
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