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Educ. Sci., Volume 6, Issue 1 (March 2016) – 12 articles

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Article
Remix as Professional Learning: Educators’ Iterative Literacy Practice in CLMOOC
Educ. Sci. 2016, 6(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci6010012 - 18 Mar 2016
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 5390
Abstract
The Connected Learning Massive Open Online Collaboration (CLMOOC) is an online professional development experience designed as an openly networked, production-centered, participatory learning collaboration for educators. Addressing the paucity of research that investigates learning processes in MOOC experiences, this paper examines the situated literacy [...] Read more.
The Connected Learning Massive Open Online Collaboration (CLMOOC) is an online professional development experience designed as an openly networked, production-centered, participatory learning collaboration for educators. Addressing the paucity of research that investigates learning processes in MOOC experiences, this paper examines the situated literacy practices that emerged as educators in CLMOOC composed, collaborated, and distributed multimediated artifacts. Using a collaborative, interactive visual mapping tool as participant-researchers, we analyzed relationships between publically available artifacts and posts generated in one week through a transliteracies framework. Culled data included posts on Twitter (n = 678), a Google+ Community (n = 105), a Facebook Group (n = 19), a blog feed (n = 5), and a “make” repository (n = 21). Remix was found to be a primary form of interaction and mediator of learning. Participants not only iterated on each others’ artifacts, but on social processes and shared practices as well. Our analysis illuminated four distinct remix mobilities and relational tendencies—bursting, drifting, leveraging, and turning. Bursting and drifting characterize the paces and proximities of remixing while leveraging and turning are activities more obviously disruptive of social processes and power hierarchies. These mobilities and tendencies revealed remix as an emergent, iterative, collaborative, critical practice with transformative possibilities for openly networked web-mediated professional learning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Web-Mediated Approaches to Teachers’ Professional Development)
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Article
Mapping the Complexities of Effective Leadership for Social Justice Praxis in Urban Auckland Primary Schools
Educ. Sci. 2016, 6(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci6010011 - 17 Mar 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4441
Abstract
This empirical research is about strengths-based leadership practices that seek to explore leadership for social justice and equity in New Zealand’s culturally and linguistically diverse educational and social landscape. Similar to the diversity in other countries, where leaders demonstrate culturally responsive leadership practices [...] Read more.
This empirical research is about strengths-based leadership practices that seek to explore leadership for social justice and equity in New Zealand’s culturally and linguistically diverse educational and social landscape. Similar to the diversity in other countries, where leaders demonstrate culturally responsive leadership practices in their quest to educate diverse democracies. This inquiry examines the characteristics and behaviours of effective leadership for social justice and equity for student academic achievement in urban Auckland primary schools. A qualitative, comparative case study, combined with the theoretical framework of applied critical leadership from theories of transformational leadership, critical pedagogy and critical race theory (perspective lens) guided the research methods. The research findings presented several applied critical leadership characteristics that highlighted the complexities of leading for social justice in urban Auckland primary schools. A distinct phenomenon was leader’s axiological philosophy (values, beliefs and morals) underpinning their leadership that was culturally responsive to the diversity in their educational contexts. These findings suggest the need for research and scholarship yet to be done in this largely unexplored educational leadership academic space. Full article
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Article
Knowledge for a Common World? On the Place of Feminist Epistemology in Philosophy of Education
Educ. Sci. 2016, 6(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci6010010 - 09 Mar 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2656
Abstract
The paper discusses the place of feminist epistemology in philosophy of education. Against frequently raised criticisms, the paper argues that the issues raised by feminist standpoint theory lead neither to a reduction of questions of knowledge to questions of power or politics nor [...] Read more.
The paper discusses the place of feminist epistemology in philosophy of education. Against frequently raised criticisms, the paper argues that the issues raised by feminist standpoint theory lead neither to a reduction of questions of knowledge to questions of power or politics nor to the endorsement of relativism. Within the on-going discussion in feminist epistemology, we can find lines of argument which provide the grounds for a far more radical critique of the traditional, narrow notion of objectivity, revealing it as inherently flawed and inconsistent and allowing for the defense of a re-worked, broader, more accurate understanding of objectivity. This is also in the interest of developing a strong basis for a feminist critique of problematically biased and repressive epistemological practices which can further be extended to shed light on the way in which knowledge has become distorted through the repression of other non-dominant epistemic standpoints. Thus, requiring a thorough re-thinking of our conceptions of objectivity and rationality, feminist epistemologies need to be carefully considered in order to improve our understanding of what knowledge for a common world implies in the pluralistic and diverse societies of post-traditional modernity in the 21st century. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epistemology and Education)
Article
Aspects Concerning “Play” for the Promotion of Preschool Children with Severe Speech- and Language Impairment
Educ. Sci. 2016, 6(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci6010009 - 04 Mar 2016
Viewed by 2280
Abstract
Speech and language abilities are of great importance for later participation in economical and social life. In Lower Saxony/Germany, severely speech-/language (SL) impaired children may obtain special treatment during preschool in a so-called “Sprachheilkindergarten” (STK), a kindergarten focusing on early SL therapy. Purpose: [...] Read more.
Speech and language abilities are of great importance for later participation in economical and social life. In Lower Saxony/Germany, severely speech-/language (SL) impaired children may obtain special treatment during preschool in a so-called “Sprachheilkindergarten” (STK), a kindergarten focusing on early SL therapy. Purpose: This work analyzes the role of play during SL-therapy at the STK and monitors the long-term development and success of SL-impaired children. Methods: Long-term development (up to 19 years) of 71 children, who were dismissed from a STK during 1993 and 2006, was investigated. Playing habits were observed in 21 children (male: n = 14, female: n = 7), who were treated at STK in the years 2011/2013. The study was designed as a register study. Results: Approximately 75% of the children attend a regular school or complete a standard professional training after being treated at the STK. Upon admittance, 100% of the children had severe SL impairment, in addition 75% of the children exhibit deranged, not age-appropriate playing behavior. Additionally, children often show indication of social-emotional problems. At dismissal from the STK, the children show measurable improvement of SL and playing abilities due to SL therapy and educational measures. But according to the present study there were no close statistical relations between play- and SL development. Conclusion: Due to active promotion and therapy, many children achieve to improve their SL and playing abilities. The apparent independent improvement of these skills allows them to catch up with other children in their age group. Potentially, this is the crucial aspect for a child’s long-term development as it profits from its peer group. Full article
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Article
“Way-Centered” versus “Truth-Centered” Epistemologies
Educ. Sci. 2016, 6(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci6010008 - 04 Mar 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2129
Abstract
In recent years, a criticism of “indigenous knowledge” has been that this idea makes sense only in terms of acquaintance (or familiarity) type and practical (or skills-type) knowledge (knowledge-how). Understood in terms of theoretical knowledge (or knowledge-that), however, it faces the arguably insurmountable [...] Read more.
In recent years, a criticism of “indigenous knowledge” has been that this idea makes sense only in terms of acquaintance (or familiarity) type and practical (or skills-type) knowledge (knowledge-how). Understood in terms of theoretical knowledge (or knowledge-that), however, it faces the arguably insurmountable problems of relativism and superstition. The educational implications of this would be that mere beliefs or opinions unanchored by reason(s), such as bald assertions, superstitions, prejudice and bias, should not be included in the curriculum, at least not under the guise of “knowledge”. Worthy of inclusion are skills and practical knowledge, as are traditional music, art, dance and folklore (qua folklore). Moreover, anything that meets the essential requirements for knowledge-that could in principle be included. Against this understanding of knowledge, and its educational implications, it has been contended that indigenous knowledge places no special emphasis on “belief”, “evidence” or “truth”, but that, according to indigenous practitioners, it is rather “the way” that constitutes knowledge, harmonious interaction and appropriate models of conduct. It has been argued, further, that cognitive states are (to be) seen as “maps”, as useful and practical action-guides. This is why (so the argument for “polycentric epistemologies” or “polycentric global epistemology” goes) divination, rain-making, rain-discarding, shamanism, sorcery, ceremony, ritual, mysticism, etc., must be acknowledged as ways of knowing (and as educationally valuable) alongside animal husbandry, botany, medicine, mathematics, tool-making, and the like. The present paper investigates whether the “way-based” epistemological response is a plausible reply to the “truth-based” critique of indigenous knowledge (systems). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epistemology and Education)
Article
Project-Based Curriculum for Teaching Analytical Design to Freshman Engineering Students via Reconfigurable Trebuchets
Educ. Sci. 2016, 6(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci6010007 - 25 Feb 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 5225
Abstract
This paper presents an effort to revitalize a large introductory engineering course for incoming freshman students that teaches them analytical design through a project-based curriculum. This course was completely transformed from a seminar-based to a project-based course that integrates hands-on experimentation with analytical [...] Read more.
This paper presents an effort to revitalize a large introductory engineering course for incoming freshman students that teaches them analytical design through a project-based curriculum. This course was completely transformed from a seminar-based to a project-based course that integrates hands-on experimentation with analytical work. The project is centered on a reconfigurable trebuchet kit that student groups assemble and work to identify design decisions that will maximize projectile launch distance. Challenges include streamlining the project experience for the large enrollment (up to 148 students) with limited contact hours, and helping students fuse hands-on experiences with quantitative engineering analysis. A mixed-methods approach supported the claim that the curriculum improved the students’ engineering judgment and demonstrated to students the value of engineering analysis and mathematical models in practical engineering design. A rigorous statistical analysis of student trebuchet launch performance at different course stages is included. A qualitative assessment of student learning is derived through students’ reflection of their course experience. Comprehensive results comparing students’ design iterations versus algorithmic design optimization iterations provide important insights into student design intuition, paving the way for hybrid design education models that teach students how to combine human design intuition with quantitative design tools to design superior systems. Full article
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Article
Counterstories about Leadership: A Latina School Principal’s Experience from a Less Documented View in an Urban School Context
Educ. Sci. 2016, 6(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci6010006 - 25 Feb 2016
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2337
Abstract
Latina/o school leaders are receiving increasing visibility in research based on their representation in K-12 administrative ranks. However, even though they bring cultural knowledge in providing social and academic support to teachers, families, and especially students of color, their own experiences still reflect [...] Read more.
Latina/o school leaders are receiving increasing visibility in research based on their representation in K-12 administrative ranks. However, even though they bring cultural knowledge in providing social and academic support to teachers, families, and especially students of color, their own experiences still reflect less documented histories and contributions because of challenges related to racial identity, racism, sexism, and other historically marginalizing emblems of identity, often invisible in the school leadership research and practice. This study highlights one Latina school leader in the National Latina/o Leadership Study and her experiences developing a professional and racial identity within urban school contexts. Employing Critical Race Theory and LatCrit Theory, this includes the following questions: (a) In what ways Latina/o school principals develop their professional and racial identity? and (b) How do Latina/o school principals negotiate these identities in the context of their schools? Findings reveal the development of a professional and racial identity amidst challenges related to White teachers’ resistance in preparing students of color for successful experiences in schools. Full article
Article
Deserving Poor: Are Higher Education Bursaries Going to the Right Students?
Educ. Sci. 2016, 6(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci6010005 - 24 Feb 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2560
Abstract
After the abolition of student maintenance grants in 2016, higher education bursaries will be the major source of non-repayable aid for poor students in England, with £300 m spent per year. The aims of the bursary system were never explicitly laid out by [...] Read more.
After the abolition of student maintenance grants in 2016, higher education bursaries will be the major source of non-repayable aid for poor students in England, with £300 m spent per year. The aims of the bursary system were never explicitly laid out by government, making it challenging to evaluate this unique form of aid. In this paper, I examine the bursary system on the grounds of equity and efficiency, using a unique dataset collected from 22 universities. I show that the bursary system is inequitable; as a direct consequence of the decentralized nature of the system, there are vast inequalities in aid receipt among poor students. Nevertheless, I find that the poorest, most able students tend to receive the most bursary aid, suggesting the system could be seen as efficient. Clearer guidance from government on the purpose of bursaries is required in order to understand whether the system is meeting its aims, and how it could be improved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Widening Participation in Higher Education)
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Essay
Culturally Sustaining Leadership: A Pacific Islander’s Perspective
Educ. Sci. 2016, 6(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci6010004 - 18 Feb 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2649
Abstract
Social justice in educational settings can be advanced through culturally sustaining leadership development programs for indigenous students, faculty, and administrators. The state of Hawai‘i has been a fertile ground for culture-based development experiences for emerging leaders from islands throughout the Pacific. These opportunities [...] Read more.
Social justice in educational settings can be advanced through culturally sustaining leadership development programs for indigenous students, faculty, and administrators. The state of Hawai‘i has been a fertile ground for culture-based development experiences for emerging leaders from islands throughout the Pacific. These opportunities arise from the recognition of dissonance created by customary leadership programs which often give little or no attention to native cultures of the Pacific islands and prioritize other models. This essay highlights elements of my Chamoru culture that form the foundation of a culturally responsive leadership praxis within the context of American educational institutions. I offer this as an example that may help others develop their own culturally sustaining practices and inspire creation of leadership development programs which honor native cultures while facilitating effective professional practices in mainstream settings. Full article
Editorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Education Sciences in 2015
Educ. Sci. 2016, 6(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci6010003 - 25 Jan 2016
Viewed by 1575
Abstract
The editors of Education Sciences would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2015. [...] Full article
Article
Terminology Standardization in Education and the Construction of Resources: The Welsh Experience
Educ. Sci. 2016, 6(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci6010002 - 25 Jan 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2606
Abstract
This paper describes developments in Welsh-language terminology within the education system in Wales. Following an outline of historical terminology work, it concentrates on the consolidation of terminology standardization at the Language Technologies Unit, Bangor University, with particular reference to two projects, one concerned [...] Read more.
This paper describes developments in Welsh-language terminology within the education system in Wales. Following an outline of historical terminology work, it concentrates on the consolidation of terminology standardization at the Language Technologies Unit, Bangor University, with particular reference to two projects, one concerned with terminology for school-age and further education, the second concerned with higher education. The developments described include the adoption of international standards in terminology standardization and their incorporation in an online terminology standardization environment and dissemination platform that enable access to the centralized terminological dictionaries via a number of sophisticated websites, portals and mobile apps featuring rich dictionary entries. Some of the issues in managing large term collections are explored, and usage statistics are presented for the resources described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue e-Vocabularies and e-Learning)
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Article
The ‘Lifeblood’ of Science and Its Politics: Interrogating Epistemic Curiosity as an Educational Aim
Educ. Sci. 2016, 6(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci6010001 - 30 Dec 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2157
Abstract
Social- and virtue-epistemologies connect intellectual and moral concerns in ways significant for education and its theory. For most educationists, epistemic and ethical virtues are no longer dissociated. However, many political framings or operations of epistemic virtues and vices remain neglected in educational discourses. [...] Read more.
Social- and virtue-epistemologies connect intellectual and moral concerns in ways significant for education and its theory. For most educationists, epistemic and ethical virtues are no longer dissociated. However, many political framings or operations of epistemic virtues and vices remain neglected in educational discourses. This article illustrates why a politicization of epistemic issues is relevant to education through reference to political performances of a curiosity typically considered educationally valuable. Curiosity bore political connotations from antiquity to late modernity whose exploration may add critical nuance to educational-philosophical conceptions of epistemic desire. This leads us to the main argument of the article, which is that such politicization helps us interrogate unqualified, uniform, and glorifying treatments of curiosity as an educational aim. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epistemology and Education)
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