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Plants, Volume 12, Issue 24 (December-2 2023) – 121 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The transport of metals such as iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and cadmium (Cd) in rice is highly related. Although Fe and Mn are essential for plant growth, Cd is toxic for plants and humans. OsNRAMP5 is responsible for transporting Mn and Cd from the soil to rice. A knockout of OsNRAMP5 markedly reduces both Cd and Mn absorption, which is indispensable for developing low-Cd rice, but in low-Mn environments, such plants would exhibit Mn deficiency. We generated random mutations in OsNRAMP5 using error-prone PCR and used yeast to screen for the absorption of Mn and Cd. The results showed that alanine 512th is the most important amino acid residue for Cd absorption; its substitution resulted in the absorption of Mn but not Cd, and such a cytoplasmic mutation changed the protein structure. View this paper
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10 pages, 498 KiB  
Article
Three Biannual Rotations Cycles with Residue Incorporation Affect Wheat Production and Chemical Soil Properties
Plants 2023, 12(24), 4194; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12244194 - 18 Dec 2023
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Abstract
Background: There are few reports of crop rotations with high residue incorporation in terms of their effects on indicator crop yields and soil properties, so this study evaluated the effect of two medium-term biannual rotations on wheat yield development and soil chemical properties [...] Read more.
Background: There are few reports of crop rotations with high residue incorporation in terms of their effects on indicator crop yields and soil properties, so this study evaluated the effect of two medium-term biannual rotations on wheat yield development and soil chemical properties after six years of rotation. Methods: The experiment was conducted with two biannual rotations (canola–wheat and bean–wheat) and four residue incorporation levels (0%, 50%, 100%, and 200%) in an Andisol in south central Chile. Wheat grain yield and residue production were evaluated during each biannual cycle during three cycles of crop rotation, and soil chemical properties were evaluated at final evaluation. Results: The use of beans as a wheat preculture partially improved grain yield in 7.3%. The chemical properties of the soil showed an increase in pH (0.08 units), organic matter content (15 g kg−1), and concentrations of P (2.8 mg kg−1), S (7.4 mg kg−1), and Al (0.03 cmol+ kg−1) after canola cultivation, while after bean cultivation there was an increase in the available N concentration (3.7 mg kg−1). The use of increasing doses of residue allowed for an increase in the soil pH and decrease in the exchangeable Al concentration. Conclusion: The continuous incorporation of the residues produced within the biannual rotations evaluated in this volcanic soil did contribute to improving some chemical properties of the soil without affecting wheat crop yield. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Ecology and Nutrients' Cycling in Crops and Fruits)
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19 pages, 2904 KiB  
Article
A Biostimulant Based on Silicon Chelates Enhances Growth and Modulates Physiological Responses of In-Vitro-Derived Strawberry Plants to In Vivo Conditions
Plants 2023, 12(24), 4193; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12244193 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 727
Abstract
The purpose was to assess the effects of a biostimulant based on silicon chelates in terms of alleviation of the impact of in vivo conditions on strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa cv. ‘Solnechnaya polyanka’) in-vitro-derived plants. As a source of silicon chelates, a [...] Read more.
The purpose was to assess the effects of a biostimulant based on silicon chelates in terms of alleviation of the impact of in vivo conditions on strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa cv. ‘Solnechnaya polyanka’) in-vitro-derived plants. As a source of silicon chelates, a mechanocomposite (MC) obtained through mechanochemical processing of rice husks and green tea was used. Root treatment of plants with 0.3 g L−1 of MC dissolved in tap water was performed at 2 weeks after planting. Control plants were watered with tap water. The greatest shoot height, number of roots per plant, root length, number of stolons per plant, daughter ramets per stolon, relative water content, cuticle thickness, and root and shoot biomasses were achieved with the MC supplementation. The improved parameters were associated with a higher silicon content of roots and shoots of the MC-treated plants. Leaf concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and abscisic acid were reduced by the MC. This effect was accompanied by enhanced activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase. The phenolic profile showed upregulation of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, gallic acid, syringic acid, and ellagic acid derivative 2, while kaempferol rutinoside and catechins were downregulated. Thus, silicon chelates improve growth and trigger the physiological processes that enhance free-radical-scavenging activity in strawberry plants in vivo. Full article
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36 pages, 6911 KiB  
Article
Potentiality of Sustainable Maize Production under Rainfed Conditions in the Tropics by Triggering Agro-Physio-Biochemical Traits Ascertained from a Greenhouse
Plants 2023, 12(24), 4192; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12244192 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 789
Abstract
A major portion of maize is produced under rainfed conditions in the tropics with relatively poor yield because of the unpredictable and irregular distribution of seasonal rainfall, as well as a decline in pre-rainy season rainfall due to climate change, so identification of [...] Read more.
A major portion of maize is produced under rainfed conditions in the tropics with relatively poor yield because of the unpredictable and irregular distribution of seasonal rainfall, as well as a decline in pre-rainy season rainfall due to climate change, so identification of sustainable production options is utmost needed. Thus, the present studies were conducted in a greenhouse (GH) to ascertain the water stress-tolerant traits of maize and at the field level in the tropical environment of Thailand to see the stimulating possibility of the ascertained traits in a locally popular cultivar using ethephon. Depending on tolerance level, three maize genotypes (Suwan 2301 > Suwan 4452 > S 7328) were tested under different water conditions—well-watered, short-term, and long-term water stress—in the GH. At the field level, the locally popular maize cultivar Suwan 5819 was examined with six ethephon levels (doses in g a.i. ha−1 of ethephon, i.e., T1, 281 at V6 stage; T2, 281 at V6 + 281 at V10 stage; T3, 281 at V10 stage; T4, 562 at V6 stage; T5, 562 at V6 + 562 at V10 stage; T6, 562 at V10 stage) against no ethephon application (T0) under rainfed conditions. Maize suffered from the scarcity of sufficient rainfall during 26–39 days after planting (DAP) and 43–63 DAP in the field. The yield index (YI) was identified from biplot analysis as one of the suitable standards for drought tolerance checks for maize at GH as well as at field level in the tropics. The YI value of observed agro-physio-biochemical traits of maize in GH showed that relative water content (RWC, 1.23), stem base diameter (SBD, 1.21), total soluble sugar (TSS, 1.15), proline (Pr, 1.13), aboveground plant biomass (APB, 1.13), root weight (RW, 1.13), relative growth rate (RGR, 1.15), specific leaf weight (SLW, 1.12), and net assimilation rate (NAR, 1.08) were the most desirable. Efforts were made to stimulate these traits under water stress at the field level. Ethephon application as T1 helped to gain higher kernel yield (KY) (5.26 t ha−1) with the support of higher RWC (90.38%), proline (24.79 µmol g−1 FW), TSS (1629 mg g−1 FW), SBD (24.49 mm), APB (271.34 g plant−1), SLW (51.71 g m−2), RGR (25.26 mg plant−1 day−1), and NAR (0.91 mg cm−2 day−1) compared to others, especially no ethephon application. Furthermore, the attributes SLW, SBD, Pr, heat utilization efficiency (HUE), 100-kernel weight, TSS, electrolyte leakage, and lodging percentage showed a substantial direct effect and significant correlation with KY. Aside from higher KY, ethephon application as T1 tactics resulted in higher values of energy efficiency (1.66), HUE (2.99 kg ha−1 °C days−1), gross margin (682.02 USD ha−1), MBCR (3.32), and C absorption (6.19 t C ha−1), indicating that this practice may be a good option for maize sustainable production under rainfed conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stress-Resilient Maize for Climate-Vulnerable Environments)
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2 pages, 212 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Maňourová et al. Domestication Potential of Garcinia kola Heckel (Clusiaceae): Searching for Diversity in South Cameroon. Plants 2023, 12, 742
Plants 2023, 12(24), 4191; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12244191 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 422
Abstract
The original version on the publication [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Domestication of Fruit Trees)
14 pages, 821 KiB  
Article
Chemical Composition, Lipid-Soluble Bioactive Compounds and Potential Health Benefits of the Moss Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw
Plants 2023, 12(24), 4190; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12244190 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 889
Abstract
Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw. is the main species for Moss surveys (ICP Vegetation programme) in Southeastern Europe and is widely distributed in the region. In addition to their biomonitoring role, mosses are applied in some countries as a traditional medicine for the treatment of [...] Read more.
Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw. is the main species for Moss surveys (ICP Vegetation programme) in Southeastern Europe and is widely distributed in the region. In addition to their biomonitoring role, mosses are applied in some countries as a traditional medicine for the treatment of eczema, cuts, burns, eye diseases, etc. Therefore, the chemical and lipid composition of the moss H. cupressiforme is of interest to establish their possible application in different fields. The chemical composition of the moss was examined regarding total lipids, proteins, carbohydrates (i.e., fibres), ash, and moisture content. The main lipid-soluble bioactive components were determined as sterols, tocopherols, phospholipids and fatty acids. The major fatty acids were linoleic (14.9%), oleic (13.8%), palmitic (12.5%) and α-linolenic (11.3%) acids. Unsaturated fatty acids (56.4%) prevailed in the glyceride oil, in which the polyunsaturated ones constituted 32.5%. The lipid indices (atherogenicity, thrombogenicity, hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic ratio, peroxidability, and oxidation stability index) were also theoretically calculated based on the fatty acid composition of the moss lipids to establish their health benefits and the rate of oxidation. The primary results of this study revealed H. cupressiforme to be a promising alternative source of bioactive compounds that could be implemented in supplements with health-promoting effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bryophyte Biology)
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20 pages, 9023 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Quercetin Antiemetic Properties: In Vivo and In Silico Investigations on Receptor Binding Affinity and Synergistic Effects
Plants 2023, 12(24), 4189; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12244189 - 18 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 709
Abstract
Quercetin (QUA), a flavonoid compound, is ubiquitously found in plants and has demonstrated a diverse range of biological activities. The primary objective of the current study is to assess the potential antiemetic properties of QUA using an in vivo and in silico approach. [...] Read more.
Quercetin (QUA), a flavonoid compound, is ubiquitously found in plants and has demonstrated a diverse range of biological activities. The primary objective of the current study is to assess the potential antiemetic properties of QUA using an in vivo and in silico approach. In this experiment, 4-day-old chicks were purchased to induce emesis by orally administering copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4·5H2O) at a dose of 50 mg/kg (orally). Domperidone (DOM) (6 mg/kg), Hyoscine (HYS) (21 mg/kg), and Ondansetron (OND) (5 mg/kg) were treated as positive controls (PCs), and distilled water and a trace amount of Tween 80 mixture was employed as a negative control (NC). QUA was given orally at two distinct doses (25 and 50 mg/kg). Additionally, QUA (50 mg/kg) and PCs were administered separately or in combination to assess their antagonistic or synergistic effects on the chicks. The binding affinity of QUA and referral ligands towards the serotonin receptor (5HT3), dopamine receptors (D2 and D3), and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (M1–M5) were estimated, and ligand–receptor interactions were visualized through various computational tools. In vivo findings indicate that QUA (25 and 50 mg/kg) has a significant effect on reducing the number of retches (16.50 ± 4.65 and 10.00 ± 4.19 times) and increasing the chick latency period (59.25 ± 4.75 and 94.25 ± 4.01 s), respectively. Additionally, QUA (50 mg/kg) in combination with Domperidone and Ondansetron exhibited superior antiemetic effects, reducing the number of retches and increasing the onset of emesis-inducing time. Furthermore, it is worth noting that QUA exhibited the strongest binding affinity against the D2 receptor with a value of −9.7 kcal/mol through the formation of hydrogen and hydrophobic bonds. In summary, the study found that QUA exhibited antiemetic activity in chicks, potentially by interacting with the D2 receptor pathway. Full article
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12 pages, 3793 KiB  
Article
Effects of Vegetation Restoration on Soil Nitrogen Fractions and Enzyme Activities in Arable Land on Purple Soil Slopes
Plants 2023, 12(24), 4188; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12244188 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 577
Abstract
Purple soils are greatly representative of ecologically fragile soils in southern China, yet the impact of vegetation restoration processes on the nitrogen (N) availability in purple soil ecosystems is still unclear. In this study, the soil nutrient content, available N fractions (including microbial [...] Read more.
Purple soils are greatly representative of ecologically fragile soils in southern China, yet the impact of vegetation restoration processes on the nitrogen (N) availability in purple soil ecosystems is still unclear. In this study, the soil nutrient content, available N fractions (including microbial biomass N (MBN), ammonium N (NH4+-N), nitrate N (NO3-N), and total dissolved N (TDN)), and enzyme activities (including urease (URE), nitrate reductase (NR), and nitrite reductase (NIR)) involved in N mineralization and immobilization were investigated across the three vegetation-restoration measures: Camellia oleifera monoculture, Camellia oleifera ryegrass intercropping, and Camellia oleifera intercropping with weeds. The results showed that the Camellia oleifera monoculture mode considerably enhanced the accumulation and availability of soil N and modified the proportion of available N fractions in arable land situated on purple soil slopes, compared to the intercropping mode, the physical, chemical, and microbiological properties of soil demonstrated more pronounced effects due to the Camellia oleifera monoculture vegetation-restoration measures. However, soil nutrient loss is faster on set-aside land and in crop monocultures, and intercropping restoration measures are more beneficial for soil and water conservation under timely fertilization conditions. The soil URE, NR, and NIR activities and MBN content in the Camellia oleifera monoculture model were significantly higher than in the control check sample. Soil N transformation occurs through the combined influence of chemical and biological processes. The relationships between the activities of the three soil enzymes studied and the contents of various components of soil nutrients and effective N displayed significant differences. Notably, URE had a highly significant positive correlation with TOC. There is a strong positive correlation between NR and TN, NIR and TDN, NO3-N, and NH4+-N. Our findings suggest that vegetation restoration improved the soil N availability and its enzyme activities in purple soils, making an essential contribution to the restoration and sustainability of purple soil ecosystem functions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Ecology)
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16 pages, 2895 KiB  
Article
Salicylic Acid Modulates the Osmotic System and Photosynthesis Rate to Enhance the Drought Tolerance of Toona ciliata
Plants 2023, 12(24), 4187; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12244187 - 18 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 566
Abstract
Toona ciliata M. Roem. is a valuable and fast-growing timber species which is found in subtropical regions; however, drought severely affects its growth and physiology. Although the exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) has been proven to enhance plant drought tolerance by regulating [...] Read more.
Toona ciliata M. Roem. is a valuable and fast-growing timber species which is found in subtropical regions; however, drought severely affects its growth and physiology. Although the exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) has been proven to enhance plant drought tolerance by regulating the osmotic system and photosynthesis rate, the physiological processes involved in the regulation of drought tolerance by SA in various plants differ. Therefore, drought mitigation techniques tailored for T. ciliata should be explored or developed for the sustainable development of the timber industry. We selected 2-year-old T. ciliata seedlings for a potting experiment, set the soil moisture at 45%, and subjected some of the T. ciliata seedlings to a moderate drought (MD) treatment; to others, 0.5 mmol/L exogenous SA (MD + SA) was applied as a mitigation test, and we also conducted a control using a normal water supply at 70% soil moisture (CK). Our aim was to investigate the mitigating effects of exogenous SA on the growth condition, osmotic system, and photosynthesis rate of T. ciliata under drought stress conditions. OPLS–VIP was used to analyze the main physiological factors that enable exogenous SA to alleviate drought-induced injury in T. ciliata. The results indicated that exogenous SA application increased the growth of the ground diameter, plant height, and leaf blades and enhanced the drought tolerance of the T. ciliata seedlings by maintaining the balance of their osmotic systems, improving their gas exchange parameters, and restoring the activity of their PSII reaction centers. The seven major physiological factors that enabled exogenous SA to mitigate drought-induced injury in the T. ciliata seedlings were the soluble proteins (Sp), net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal conductance (Gs), stomatal opening window (Sow), activity of the photosystem II reaction center (ΦPSII), and electron transfer rate (ETR). Of these, Sp was the most dominant factor. There was a synergistic effect between the osmotic system and the photosynthetic regulation of drought injury in the T. ciliata seedlings. Overall, our study confirms that exogenous SA enhances the drought tolerance of T. ciliata by modulating the osmotic system and photosynthesis rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Physiology and Metabolism)
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10 pages, 1684 KiB  
Communication
Evidence That Field Muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. var. agrestis Naud.) Fruits Are Solids of Revolution
Plants 2023, 12(24), 4186; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12244186 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 523
Abstract
In nature, the fruit shapes of many plants resemble avian eggs, a form extensively studied as solids of revolution. Despite this, the hypothesis that egg-shaped fruits are themselves solids of revolution remains unvalidated. To address this, 751 Cucumis melo L. var. agrestis Naud. [...] Read more.
In nature, the fruit shapes of many plants resemble avian eggs, a form extensively studied as solids of revolution. Despite this, the hypothesis that egg-shaped fruits are themselves solids of revolution remains unvalidated. To address this, 751 Cucumis melo L. var. agrestis Naud. fruits were photographed, and the two-dimensional (2D) boundary coordinates of each fruit profile were digitized. Then, the explicit Preston equation (EPE), a universal egg-shape model, was used to fit the 2D boundary coordinates to obtain the estimates of the EPE’s parameters of each fruit. Under the hypothesis that egg-shaped fruits are solids of revolution, the fruit volumes were estimated using the solid of revolution formula based on the estimated EPE’s parameters. To test whether the fruits are solids of revolution, the fruit volumes were measured by using a graduated cylinder and compared with the estimated volumes using the solid of revolution formula. The EPE was demonstrated to be valid in describing the 2D profiles of C. melo var. agrestis fruits. There was a significant correlation between the measured fruit volumes using the graduated cylinder and the estimated fruit volumes using the solid of revolution formula based on the estimated EPE’s parameters. Acknowledging potential measurement errors, particularly fruit fuzz causing air bubbles during volume measurements, we recognize slight deviations between measured volumes and estimated values. Despite this, our findings strongly suggest that C. melo var. agrestis fruits are solids of revolution. This study contributes insights into the evolutionary aspects of fruit geometries in plants with egg-shaped fruits and introduces a practical tool for non-destructively calculating fruit volume and surface area based on photographed 2D fruit profiles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multiple Response Mechanisms of Plants to Drought Stress)
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14 pages, 8342 KiB  
Article
A High-Resolution Linkage Map Construction and QTL Analysis for Morphological Traits in Anthurium (Anthurium andraeanum Linden)
Plants 2023, 12(24), 4185; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12244185 - 17 Dec 2023
Viewed by 627
Abstract
Anthurium andraeanum Linden is a prominent ornamental plant belonging to the family Araceae and is cultivated worldwide. The morphology characteristics are crucial because they significantly impact ornamental values, commercial properties, and the efficiency of space utilization in production. However, only a few related [...] Read more.
Anthurium andraeanum Linden is a prominent ornamental plant belonging to the family Araceae and is cultivated worldwide. The morphology characteristics are crucial because they significantly impact ornamental values, commercial properties, and the efficiency of space utilization in production. However, only a few related investigations have been conducted in anthurium to date. In this study, an F1 genetic segregation population containing 160 progenies was generated through hybridization between potted and cut anthurium varieties. Fifteen morphological traits were assessed and revealed substantial levels of genetic variation and widespread positive correlation. Based on specific length amplified fragment (SLAF) sequencing technology, 8171 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were developed, and the high-density linkage map of 2202.27 cM in length distributed on 15 linkage groups was constructed successfully, with an average distance of 0.30 cM. Using the inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM) method, 59 QTLs related to 15 key morphological traits were successfully identified, which explained phenotypic variance (PVE) ranging from 6.21% to 17.74%. Thirty-three of those associated with 13 traits were designated as major QTLs with PVE > 10%. These findings offer valuable insights into the genetic basis of quantitative traits and are beneficial for molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS) in anthurium breeding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Horticultural Science and Ornamental Plants)
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22 pages, 77751 KiB  
Article
Genomic and Cytogenetic Analysis of Synthetic Polyploids between Diploid and Tetraploid Cotton (Gossypium) Species
Plants 2023, 12(24), 4184; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12244184 - 17 Dec 2023
Viewed by 876
Abstract
Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the most important natural fiber source in the world. The genetic potential of cotton can be successfully and efficiently exploited by identifying and solving the complex fundamental problems of systematics, evolution, and phylogeny, based on interspecific hybridization of [...] Read more.
Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the most important natural fiber source in the world. The genetic potential of cotton can be successfully and efficiently exploited by identifying and solving the complex fundamental problems of systematics, evolution, and phylogeny, based on interspecific hybridization of cotton. This study describes the results of interspecific hybridization of G. herbaceum L. (A1-genome) and G. mustelinum Miers ex Watt (AD4-genome) species, obtaining fertile hybrids through synthetic polyploidization of otherwise sterile triploid forms with colchicine (C22H25NO6) treatment. The fertile F1C hybrids were produced from five different cross combinations: (1) G. herbaceum subsp. frutescens × G. mustelinum; (2) G. herbaceum subsp. pseudoarboreum × G. mustelinum; (3) G. herbaceum subsp. pseudoarboreum f. harga × G. mustelinum; (4) G. herbaceum subsp. africanum × G. mustelinum; (5) G. herbaceum subsp. euherbaceum (variety A-833) × G. mustelinum. Cytogenetic analysis discovered normal conjugation of bivalent chromosomes in addition to univalent, open, and closed ring-shaped quadrivalent chromosomes at the stage of metaphase I in the F1C and F2C hybrids. The setting of hybrid bolls obtained as a result of these crosses ranged from 13.8–92.2%, the fertility of seeds in hybrid bolls from 9.7–16.3%, and the pollen viability rates from 36.6–63.8%. Two transgressive plants with long fiber of 35.1–37.0 mm and one plant with extra-long fiber of 39.1–41.0 mm were identified in the F2C progeny of G. herbaceum subsp. frutescens × G. mustelinum cross. Phylogenetic analysis with 72 SSR markers that detect genomic changes showed that tetraploid hybrids derived from the G. herbaceum × G. mustelinum were closer to the species G. mustelinum. The G. herbaceum subsp. frutescens was closer to the cultivated form, and its subsp. africanum was closer to the wild form. New knowledge of the interspecific hybridization and synthetic polyploidization was developed for understanding the genetic mechanisms of the evolution of tetraploid cotton during speciation. The synthetic polyploids of cotton obtained in this study would provide beneficial genes for developing new cotton varieties of the G. hirsutum species, with high-quality cotton fiber and strong tolerance to biotic or abiotic stress. In particular, the introduction of these polyploids to conventional and molecular breeding can serve as a bridge of transferring valuable genes related to high-quality fiber and stress tolerance from different cotton species to the new cultivars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances in Plant Breeding)
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17 pages, 3910 KiB  
Article
Physiochemical Responses and Ecological Adaptations of Peach to Low-Temperature Stress: Assessing the Cold Resistance of Local Peach Varieties from Gansu, China
Plants 2023, 12(24), 4183; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12244183 - 16 Dec 2023
Viewed by 670
Abstract
In recent years, extreme weather events have become increasingly frequent, and low winter temperatures have had a significant impact on peach cultivation. The selection of cold-resistant peach varieties is an effective solution to mitigate freezing damage. To comprehensively and accurately evaluate the cold [...] Read more.
In recent years, extreme weather events have become increasingly frequent, and low winter temperatures have had a significant impact on peach cultivation. The selection of cold-resistant peach varieties is an effective solution to mitigate freezing damage. To comprehensively and accurately evaluate the cold resistance of peaches and screen for high cold resistance among Gansu local resources, nine different types of peach were selected as test resources to assess physiological, biochemical, and anatomical indices. Subsequently, 28 peach germplasms were evaluated using relevant indices. The semi-lethal temperature (LT50) was calculated by fitting the change curve of the electrolyte leakage index (ELI) with the Logistic equation; this can be used as an important index for identifying and evaluating the cold resistance of peach trees. The LT50 values ranged from −28.22 °C to −17.22 °C among the 28 tested resources; Dingjiaba Liguang Tao exhibited the lowest LT50 value at −28.22 °C, indicating its high level of cold resistance. The LT50 was positively correlated with the ELI and malondialdehyde (MDA) content with correlation coefficients of 0.894 and 0.863, respectively, while it was negatively correlated with the soluble sugar (SS), soluble protein (SP), and free proline (Pro) contents with correlation coefficients of −0.894, −0.721, and −0.863, respectively. The thicknesses of the xylem, cork layer, cork layer ratio (CLR) and thickness/cortex thickness (X/C) showed negative correlations (−0.694, −0.741, −0.822, −0.814, respectively). Finally, the membership function method was used to evaluate cold resistance based on the ELI, MDA, Pro, SP, SS, CLR, and xylem thickness/cortex thickness (X/C) indices. The average membership degree among all tested resources ranged from 0.17 to 0.61. Dingjiaba Liguang Tao emerged prominently in terms of high-cold-resistance (HR) membership value (0.61). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Stress Physiology and Molecular Biology—2nd Edition)
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14 pages, 3461 KiB  
Article
Amino Acid Residues of the Metal Transporter OsNRAMP5 Responsible for Cadmium Absorption in Rice
Plants 2023, 12(24), 4182; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12244182 - 16 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 629
Abstract
The transport of metals such as iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and cadmium (Cd) in rice is highly related. Although Fe and Mn are essential elements for plant growth, Cd is a toxic element for both plants and humans. OsNRAMP5—a member of the same [...] Read more.
The transport of metals such as iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and cadmium (Cd) in rice is highly related. Although Fe and Mn are essential elements for plant growth, Cd is a toxic element for both plants and humans. OsNRAMP5—a member of the same family as the Fe, Mn, and Cd transporter OsNRAMP1—is responsible for the transport of Mn and Cd from soil in rice. Knockout of OsNRAMP5 markedly reduces both Cd and Mn absorption, and this OsNRAMP5 knockout is indispensable for the development of low-Cd rice. However, in low-Mn environments, such plants would exhibit Mn deficiency and suppressed growth. We generated random mutations in OsNRAMP5 via error-prone PCR, and used yeast to screen for the retention of Mn absorption and the inhibition of Cd absorption. The results showed that alanine 512th is the most important amino acid residue for Cd absorption and that its substitution resulted in the absorption of Mn but not Cd. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biochemical Interactions of Iron Nutrition in Plants)
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22 pages, 1482 KiB  
Article
LC-ESI QToF MS Non-Targeted Screening of Latex Extracts of Euphorbia seguieriana ssp. seguieriana Necker and Euphorbia cyparissias and Determination of Their Potential Anticancer Activity
Plants 2023, 12(24), 4181; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12244181 - 16 Dec 2023
Viewed by 843
Abstract
Euphorbia seguieriana ssp. seguieriana Necker (ES) and Euphorbia cyparissias (EC) with a habitat in the Deliblato Sands were the subject of this examination. The latexes of these so far insufficiently investigated species of the Euphorbia genus are used in traditional medicine for the [...] Read more.
Euphorbia seguieriana ssp. seguieriana Necker (ES) and Euphorbia cyparissias (EC) with a habitat in the Deliblato Sands were the subject of this examination. The latexes of these so far insufficiently investigated species of the Euphorbia genus are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of wounds and warts on the skin. To determine their chemical composition, non-targeted screening of the latexes’ chloroform extracts was performed using liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry employing an electrospray ionization source (LC-ESI QTOF MS). The analysis of the obtained results showed that the latexes of ES and EC represent rich sources of diterpenes, tentatively identified as jatrophanes, ingenanes, tiglianes, myrsinanes, premyrsinanes, and others. Examination of the anticancer activity of the ES and EC latex extracts showed that both extracts significantly inhibited the growth of the non-small cell lung carcinoma NCI-H460 and glioblastoma U87 cell lines as well as of their corresponding multi-drug resistant (MDR) cell lines, NCI-H460/R and U87-TxR. The obtained results also revealed that the ES and EC extracts inhibited the function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in MDR cancer cells, whose overexpression is one of the main mechanisms underlying MDR. Full article
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16 pages, 2638 KiB  
Article
Transcriptome-Based Identification of the Optimal Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Analyses of Lingonberry Fruits throughout the Growth Cycle
Plants 2023, 12(24), 4180; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12244180 - 16 Dec 2023
Viewed by 558
Abstract
(1) Background: Vaccinium vitis-idaea is a nutritionally and economically valuable natural wild plant species that produces berries useful for treating various diseases. There is growing interest in lingonberry, but there is limited information regarding lingonberry reference genes suitable for gene expression analyses of [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Vaccinium vitis-idaea is a nutritionally and economically valuable natural wild plant species that produces berries useful for treating various diseases. There is growing interest in lingonberry, but there is limited information regarding lingonberry reference genes suitable for gene expression analyses of different tissues under various abiotic stress conditions. The objective of this study was to identify stable reference genes suitable for different lingonberry tissues in response to abiotic stress. (2) Methods: The delta Ct method and the GeNorm v3.5 and NormFinder v20 programs were used to comprehensively analyze gene expression stability. (3) Results: Actin Unigene23839 was the best reference gene for analyzing different cultivars, whereas Actin CL5740.Contig2 was the most suitable reference gene for analyzing different tissues and alkali stress. In contrast, 18S rRNA CL5051.Contig1 was the most stable reference gene under drought conditions. (4) Conclusions: These suitable reference genes may be used in future qRT-PCR analyses of different lingonberry tissues and the effects of abiotic stresses. Furthermore, the study data may be useful for functional genomics studies and the molecular breeding of lingonberry. In summary, internal reference genes or internal reference gene combinations should be carefully selected according to the experimental conditions to ensure that the generated gene expression data are accurate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fruit Trees Biotechnology)
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26 pages, 7729 KiB  
Article
Phytochemical Statistical Mapping of Red Grape Varieties Cultivated in Romanian Organic and Conventional Vineyards
Plants 2023, 12(24), 4179; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12244179 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 783
Abstract
Red grapes are rich in phytochemicals such as phenolics and flavonoids, which are strongly correlated with their antioxidant activity. Thus, grapes as-harvested and grape extracts, especially those obtained from their seeds and pulp, have been reported to have health benefits, and accordingly, grapes [...] Read more.
Red grapes are rich in phytochemicals such as phenolics and flavonoids, which are strongly correlated with their antioxidant activity. Thus, grapes as-harvested and grape extracts, especially those obtained from their seeds and pulp, have been reported to have health benefits, and accordingly, grapes and their derivatives are considered potential functional food ingredients. The total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity of skin, pulp, and seeds of four grape varieties grown both in conventional and organic vineyards were examined in this study. Phytochemical characteristics of one native Romanian variety, Feteasca Neagra, were compared with data measured for three red grape varieties more commonly cultivated worldwide (Merlot, Pinot Noir, and Muscat Hamburg). It was found that the seeds of the Pinot Noir variety grown in an organic system contained the highest total phenolics of 169.53 ± 7.32 mg gallic acid equivalents/g and the highest total flavonoid content of 388.25 ± 10.72 mg quercetin equivalents/g, values corresponding to high antioxidant activity (312.84 ± 12.81 mg ascorbic acid equivalents/g). The total flavonoid content in the hydroalcoholic extracts obtained from seeds of Pinot Noir (organic vineyard) was around 24.5-fold higher than that of the skin of Pinot Noir (conventional vineyard). Experiments showed that seeds of all four tested grape varieties are good sources of total flavonoids, not only of total phenolics. When referring to the organic vineyard, the skin and pulp grapes showed good results for the total phenolic content. The antioxidant activities of the hydroalcoholic extracts were well-correlated with the total phenolic content and total flavonoid content. Lower values of these parameters were found for extracts obtained from skin and pulp than for those obtained from seeds of the same grape variety regardless of the culture management system (organic/conventional). Data mining techniques such as regression analysis, principal component analysis, and clustering analysis were applied to establish the potential correlation between the phytochemical content and the antioxidant activities of the red grapes on the one hand, and grape variety, anatomical parts, and vineyard type (organic/conventional) on the other hand. Full article
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15 pages, 2807 KiB  
Article
A Prototype Method for the Detection and Recognition of Pigments in the Environment Based on Optical Property Simulation
Plants 2023, 12(24), 4178; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12244178 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 600
Abstract
The possibility of pigment detection and recognition in different environments such as solvents or proteins is a challenging, and at the same time demanding, task. It may be needed in very different situations: from the nondestructive in situ identification of pigments in paintings [...] Read more.
The possibility of pigment detection and recognition in different environments such as solvents or proteins is a challenging, and at the same time demanding, task. It may be needed in very different situations: from the nondestructive in situ identification of pigments in paintings to the early detection of fungal infection in major agro-industrial crops and products. So, we propose a prototype method, the key feature of which is a procedure analyzing the lineshape of a spectrum. The shape of the absorption spectrum corresponding to this transition strongly depends on the immediate environment of a pigment and can serve as a marker to detect the presence of a particular pigment molecule in a sample. Considering carotenoids as an object of study, we demonstrate that the combined operation of the differential evolution algorithm and semiclassical quantum modeling of the optical response based on a generalized spectral density (the number of vibronic modes is arbitrary) allows us to distinguish quantum models of the pigment for different solvents. Moreover, it is determined that to predict the optical properties of monomeric pigments in protein, it is necessary to create a database containing, for each pigment, in addition to the absorption spectra measured in a predefined set of solvents, the parameters of the quantum model found using differential evolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling for Prediction of Horticultural Plant Growth and Defense)
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16 pages, 3081 KiB  
Article
Unraveling Epigenetic Changes in A. thaliana Calli: Impact of HDAC Inhibitors
Plants 2023, 12(24), 4177; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12244177 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 826
Abstract
The ability for plant regeneration from dedifferentiated cells opens up the possibility for molecular bioengineering to produce crops with desirable traits. Developmental and environmental signals that control cell totipotency are regulated by gene expression via dynamic chromatin remodeling. Using a mass spectrometry-based approach, [...] Read more.
The ability for plant regeneration from dedifferentiated cells opens up the possibility for molecular bioengineering to produce crops with desirable traits. Developmental and environmental signals that control cell totipotency are regulated by gene expression via dynamic chromatin remodeling. Using a mass spectrometry-based approach, we investigated epigenetic changes to the histone proteins during callus formation from roots and shoots of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Increased levels of the histone H3.3 variant were found to be the major and most prominent feature of 20-day calli, associated with chromatin relaxation. The methylation status in root- and shoot-derived calli reached the same level during long-term propagation, whereas differences in acetylation levels provided a long-lasting imprint of root and shoot origin. On the other hand, epigenetic signs of origin completely disappeared during 20 days of calli propagation in the presence of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), sodium butyrate, and trichostatin A. Each HDACi affected the state of post-translational histone modifications in a specific manner; NaB-treated calli were epigenetically more similar to root-derived calli, and TSA-treated calli resembled shoot-derived calli. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends and Prospects of Genetic and Molecular Research in Plant)
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22 pages, 3555 KiB  
Article
Species Delimitation in a Polyploid Group of Iberian Jasione (Campanulaceae) Unveils Coherence between Cryptic Speciation and Biogeographical Regionalization
Plants 2023, 12(24), 4176; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12244176 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 894
Abstract
Groups with morphological stasis are an interesting framework to address putative cryptic species that may be hidden behind traditional taxonomic treatments, particularly when distribution ranges suggest disjunct and environmentally heterogeneous biogeographic patterns. New hypotheses of delimitation of evolutionary independent units can lead to [...] Read more.
Groups with morphological stasis are an interesting framework to address putative cryptic species that may be hidden behind traditional taxonomic treatments, particularly when distribution ranges suggest disjunct and environmentally heterogeneous biogeographic patterns. New hypotheses of delimitation of evolutionary independent units can lead to the identification of different biogeographic processes, laying the foundation to investigate their historical and ecological significance. Jasione is a plant genus with a distribution centered in the Mediterranean basin, characterized by significant morphological stasis. Within the western Mediterranean J. gr. crispa species complex, J. sessiliflora s.l. and allied taxa form a distinct group, occupying environmentally diverse regions. At least two ploidy levels, diploid and tetraploid, are known to occur in the group. The internal variability is assessed with phylogenetic tools, viz. GMYC and ASAP, for species delimitation. The results are compared with other lines of evidence, including morphology and cytology. The fitting of distribution patterns of the inferred entities to chorological subprovinces is also used as a biogeographical and environmental framework to test the species hypothesis. Despite the scarcity of diagnostic morphological characters in the group, phylogenetic delimitation supports the description of at least one cryptic species, a narrow endemic in the NE Iberian Peninsula. Moreover, the results support the segregation of a thermophilic group of populations in eastern Iberia from J. sessiliflora. Ploidy variation from a wide geographical survey supports the systematic rearrangement suggested by species delimitation. Taxonomic reorganization in J. sessiliflora s.l. would allow ecological interpretations of distribution patterns in great accordance with biogeographical regionalization at the subprovince level, supporting geobotanical boundaries as a framework to interpret species ecological coherence of cryptic lineages. These results suggest that species differentiation, together with geographic isolation and polyploidization, is associated with adaptation to different environments, shifting from more to less thermophilic conditions. Thus, the recognition of concealed evolutionary entities is essential to correctly interpret biogeographical patterns in regions with a complex geologic and evolutionary history, such as the Mediterranean basin, and biogeographical units emerge as biologically sound frameworks to test the species hypothesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Systematics, Taxonomy, Nomenclature and Classification)
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30 pages, 6944 KiB  
Article
Effects of Different Forms and Proportions of Nitrogen on the Growth, Photosynthetic Characteristics, and Carbon and Nitrogen Metabolism in Tomato
Plants 2023, 12(24), 4175; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12244175 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 876
Abstract
Optimal plant growth in many species is achieved when the two major forms of N are supplied at a particular ratio. This study investigated optimal nitrogen forms and ratios for tomato growth using the ‘Jingfan 502’ tomato variety. Thirteen treatments were applied with [...] Read more.
Optimal plant growth in many species is achieved when the two major forms of N are supplied at a particular ratio. This study investigated optimal nitrogen forms and ratios for tomato growth using the ‘Jingfan 502’ tomato variety. Thirteen treatments were applied with varying proportions of nitrate nitrogen (NN), ammonium nitrogen (AN), and urea nitrogen (UN). Results revealed that the combination of AN and UN inhibited tomato growth and photosynthetic capacity. Conversely, the joint application of NN and UN or NN and AN led to a significant enhancement in tomato plant growth. Notably, the T12 (75%UN:25%NN) and T4 (75%NN:25%AN) treatments significantly increased the gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, thereby promoting the accumulation of photosynthetic products. The contents of fructose, glucose, and sucrose were significantly increased by 121.07%, 206.26%, and 94.64% and by 104.39%, 156.42%, and 61.40%, respectively, compared with those in the control. Additionally, AN favored starch accumulation, while NN and UN favored fructose, sucrose, and glucose accumulation. Gene expression related to nitrogen and sugar metabolism increased significantly in T12 and T4, with T12 showing greater upregulation. Key enzyme activity in metabolism also increased notably. In summary, T12 enhanced tomato growth by upregulating gene expression, increasing enzyme activity, and boosting photosynthesis and sugar accumulation. Growers should consider using NN and UN to reduce AN application in tomato fertilization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Crop Physiology and Crop Production)
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12 pages, 5849 KiB  
Article
SmRAV1, an AP2 and B3 Transcription Factor, Positively Regulates Eggplant’s Response to Salt Stress
Plants 2023, 12(24), 4174; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12244174 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 708
Abstract
Salt stress is a lethal abiotic stress threatening global food security on a consistent basis. In this study, we identified an AP2 and B3 domain-containing transcription factor (TF) named SmRAV1, and its expression levels were significantly up-regulated by NaCl, abscisic acid (ABA), and [...] Read more.
Salt stress is a lethal abiotic stress threatening global food security on a consistent basis. In this study, we identified an AP2 and B3 domain-containing transcription factor (TF) named SmRAV1, and its expression levels were significantly up-regulated by NaCl, abscisic acid (ABA), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment. High expression of SmRAV1 was observed in the roots and sepal of mature plants. The transient expression assay in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves revealed that SmRAV1 was localized in the nucleus. Silencing of SmRAV1 via virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) decreased the tolerance of eggplant to salt stress. Significant down-regulation of salt stress marker genes, including SmGSTU10 and SmNCED1, was observed. Additionally, increased H2O2 content and decreased catalase (CAT) enzyme activity were recorded in the SmRAV1-silenced plants compared to the TRV:00 plants. Our findings elucidate the functions of SmRAV1 and provide opportunities for generating salt-tolerant lines of eggplant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Growth, Development, and Stress Response of Horticulture Plants)
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38 pages, 13758 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances in the Phytochemistry of Bryophytes: Distribution, Structures and Biological Activity of Bibenzyl and Bisbibenzyl Compounds
Plants 2023, 12(24), 4173; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12244173 (registering DOI) - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 815
Abstract
Research on bryophyte phytochemistry has revealed the presence of different phytochemicals like fatty acids, terpenoids, small phenolic molecules, etc. Small phenolic molecules, i.e., bibenzyls (of two aromatic rings) and bisbibenzyls (four aromatic rings), are unique signature molecules of liverworts. The first bisbibenzyls marchantin [...] Read more.
Research on bryophyte phytochemistry has revealed the presence of different phytochemicals like fatty acids, terpenoids, small phenolic molecules, etc. Small phenolic molecules, i.e., bibenzyls (of two aromatic rings) and bisbibenzyls (four aromatic rings), are unique signature molecules of liverworts. The first bisbibenzyls marchantin A and riccardin A were discovered in two consecutive years, i.e., 1982 and 1983, respectively, by Asakawa and coworkers. Since then, about 70 bisbibenzyls have been reported. These molecules are characterized and identified using different spectroscopic techniques and surveyed for different bioactivity and structure–activity relations. Biochemistry is determined by the season, geography, and environment. In this review, quantitative and qualitative information on bibenzyls and bisbibenzyl compounds and their distribution in different liverworts across, geographies along withtraditional to advanced extraction methods, and characterization techniques are summarized. Also, a comprehensive account of characteristic spectra of different bisbibenzyl compounds, their subtypes, and their basic skeleton patterns are compared. A comprehensive table is provided here for the first time presenting the quantity of bibenzyls, bisbenzyls, and their derivatives found in bryophytes, mentioning the spectroscopic data and mass profiles of the compounds. The significance of these compounds in different bioactivities like antibiotic, antioxidative, antitumor, antivenomous, anti-influenza, insect antifeedant, cytotoxic, and anticancerous activities are surveyed and critically enumerated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Characteristics and Bioactivity of Plant Natural Products)
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18 pages, 2416 KiB  
Article
Growth Stimulation of Durum Wheat and Common Buckwheat by Non-Thermal Atmospheric Pressure Plasma
Plants 2023, 12(24), 4172; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12244172 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 586
Abstract
The grains of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) and achenes of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) were tested after treatment with two sources of non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma (DCSBD, MSDBD) with different treatment times (0, 3, 5, 10, 20, 30, and [...] Read more.
The grains of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) and achenes of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) were tested after treatment with two sources of non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma (DCSBD, MSDBD) with different treatment times (0, 3, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 s). The effect of these treatments was monitored with regard to the seed surface diagnostics (water contact angle—WCA, chemical changes by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy—FTIR); twenty parameters associated with germination and initial seed growth were monitored. A study of the wettability confirmed a decrease in WCA values indicating an increase in surface energy and hydrophilicity depending on the type of seed, plasma source, and treatment time. Surface analysis by attenuated total reflectance FTIR (ATR-FTIR) showed no obvious changes in the chemical bonds on the surface of the plasma-treated seeds, which confirms the non-destructive effect of the plasma on the chemical composition of the seed shell. A multivariate analysis of the data showed many positive trends (not statistically significant) in germination and initial growth parameters. The repeated results for germination rate and root/shoot dry matter ratio indicate the tendency of plants to invest in underground organs. Durum wheat required longer treatment times with non-thermal plasma (10 s, 20 s) for germination and early growth, whereas buckwheat required shorter times (5 s, 10 s). The responses of durum wheat grains to the two non-thermal plasma sources used were equal. In contrast, the responses of buckwheat achenes were more favorable to MSDBD treatment than to DCSBD. Full article
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15 pages, 1842 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant Response, Phenolic Compounds and Yield of Solanum tuberosum Tubers Inoculated with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Growing under Water Stress
Plants 2023, 12(24), 4171; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12244171 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 632
Abstract
Solanum tuberosum (potato) is one of the most common crops worldwide; however, it is sensitive to water stress, which necessitates the identification of alternative tools to improve their production. Here, we evaluated the inoculation of two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) strains, Claroideoglomus claroideum [...] Read more.
Solanum tuberosum (potato) is one of the most common crops worldwide; however, it is sensitive to water stress, which necessitates the identification of alternative tools to improve their production. Here, we evaluated the inoculation of two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) strains, Claroideoglomus claroideum (CC), Claroideoglomus lamellosum (HMC26), and the MIX (CC + HMC26) in yield and phenolic and antioxidant response using chromatographic and spectroscopic methods in potato crops, at increasing levels of water stress, namely, with 100% (0), 70% (S1), and 40% (S2) soil humidity. Two caffeoylquinic acid isomers were detected and their levels showed a tendency to increase under stress together with the AMF inoculation, reaching up to 19.2 mg kg−1 of 5-caffeoylquinic acid and 7.4 mg kg−1 of caffeoylquinic acid isomer when CC was inoculated, and potato plants grew at the highest water starvation condition (S2). Regarding antioxidant activities, a differentiated response was detected depending on the AMF strain, highlighting the effect of HMC26 on Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) method and CC in cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) method, reaching up to 1.5 μmol g−1 of TEAC in plants inoculated with HMC26 and 0.9 μmol g−1 of CUPRAC in plants inoculated with CC, both in potato tubers of plants growing under the S2 stress condition. Meanwhile, the use of AMF did not influence the number and biomass of the tubers, but significant changes in the biochemical properties of tubers were observed. The results suggest that specific AMF adaptations to water stress must be considered when inoculation procedures are planned to improve the yield and quality of tubers in potato crops. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Ecology and Microbe-Plant Interactions in Agricultural Systems)
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15 pages, 3877 KiB  
Article
The Role of the Ascorbic Acid–Glutathione Cycle in Young Wheat Ears’ Response to Spring Freezing Stress
Plants 2023, 12(24), 4170; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12244170 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 613
Abstract
Freezing stress in spring often causes the death and abnormal development of young ears of wheat, leading to a significant reduction in grain production. However, the mechanisms of young wheat ears responding to freezing are largely unclear. In this study, the role of [...] Read more.
Freezing stress in spring often causes the death and abnormal development of young ears of wheat, leading to a significant reduction in grain production. However, the mechanisms of young wheat ears responding to freezing are largely unclear. In this study, the role of the ascorbic acid–glutathione cycle (AsA–GSH cycle) in alleviating freezing-caused oxidative damage in young wheat ears at the anther connective tissue formation phase (ACFP) was investigated. The results showed that the release rate of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the relative electrolyte conductivity in young ears of Jimai22 (JM22, freezing-tolerant) were significantly lower than those in young ears of Xumai33 (XM33, freezing-sensitive) under freezing. The level of the GSH pool (231.8~392.3 μg/g FW) was strikingly higher than that of the AsA pool (98.86~123.4 μg/g FW) in young wheat ears at the ACFP. Freezing significantly increased the level of the AsA pool and the activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) in the young ears of both varieties. The level of the GSH pool increased in the young ears of XM33 under freezing but decreased in the young ears of JM22. The young ears of JM22 showed higher activities of glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) than the young ears of XM33 under freezing. Collectively, these results suggest that the AsA–GSH cycle plays a positive role in alleviating freezing-induced oxidative damage in young wheat ears. Furthermore, the ability of utilizing GSH as a substrate to scavenge ROS is an important factor affecting the freezing tolerance of young wheat ears. In addition, abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA), 3-indolebutyric acid (IBA) and cis-zeatin (cZ) may be involved in regulating the AsA–GSH cycle metabolism in young wheat ears under freezing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strategies and Mechanisms for Enhancing Stress Tolerance in Wheat)
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15 pages, 938 KiB  
Article
Comparative Characterization of Pseudoroegneria libanotica and Pseudoroegneria tauri Based on Their Repeatome Peculiarities
Plants 2023, 12(24), 4169; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12244169 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 570
Abstract
Pseudoroegneria species play an important role among Triticeae grasses, as they are the putative donors of the St genome in many polyploid species. Satellite repeats are widely used as a reliable tool for tracking evolutionary changes because they are distributed throughout the genomes [...] Read more.
Pseudoroegneria species play an important role among Triticeae grasses, as they are the putative donors of the St genome in many polyploid species. Satellite repeats are widely used as a reliable tool for tracking evolutionary changes because they are distributed throughout the genomes of plants. The aim of our work is to perform a comparative characterization of the repeatomes of the closely related species Ps. libanotica and Ps. tauri, and Ps. spicata was also included in the analysis. The overall repeatome structures of Ps. libanotica, Ps. tauri, and Ps. spicata were similar, with some individual peculiarities observed in the abundance of the SIRE (Ty1/Copia) retrotransposons, Mutator and Harbinger transposons, and satellites. Nine new satellite repeats that have been identified from the whole-genome sequences of Ps. spicata and Ps. tauri, as well as the CL244 repeat that was previously found in Aegilops crassa, were localized to the chromosomes of Ps. libanotica and Ps. tauri. Four satellite repeats (CL69, CL101, CL119, CL244) demonstrated terminal and/or distal localization, while six repeats (CL82, CL89, CL168, CL185, CL192, CL207) were pericentromeric. Based on the obtained results, it can be assumed that Ps. libanotica and Ps. tauri are closely related species, although they have individual peculiarities in their repeatome structures and patterns of satellite repeat localization on chromosomes. The evolutionary fate of the identified satellite repeats and their related sequences, as well as their distribution on the chromosomes of Triticeae species, are discussed. The newly developed St genome chromosome markers developed in the present research can be useful in population studies of Ps. libanotica and Ps. tauri; auto- and allopolyploids that contain the St genome, such as Thinopyrum, Elymus, Kengyilia, and Roegneria; and wide hybrids between wheat and related wild species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Molecular Cytogenetics)
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14 pages, 2647 KiB  
Article
Ferrous Sulfate-Mediated Control of Phytophthora capsici Pathogenesis and Its Impact on Pepper Plant
Plants 2023, 12(24), 4168; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12244168 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 586
Abstract
Phytophthora capsici, a destructive fungal pathogen, poses a severe threat to pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) crops worldwide, causing blights that can result in substantial yield losses. Traditional control methods often come with environmental concerns or entail substantial time investments. In this [...] Read more.
Phytophthora capsici, a destructive fungal pathogen, poses a severe threat to pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) crops worldwide, causing blights that can result in substantial yield losses. Traditional control methods often come with environmental concerns or entail substantial time investments. In this research, we investigate an alternative approach involving ferrous sulfate (FeSO4) application to combat P. capsici and promote pepper growth. We found that FeSO4 effectively inhibits the growth of P. capsici in a dose-dependent manner, disrupting mycelial development and diminishing pathogenicity. Importantly, FeSO4 treatment enhances the biomass and resistance of pepper plants, mitigating P. capsici-induced damage. Microbiome analysis demonstrates that FeSO4 significantly influences soil microbial communities, particularly fungi, within the pepper root. Metabolomics data reveal extensive alterations in the redox metabolic processes of P. capsici under FeSO4 treatment, leading to compromised cell membrane permeability and oxidative stress in the pathogen. Our study presents FeSO4 as a promising and cost-effective solution for controlling P. capsici in pepper cultivation while simultaneously promoting plant growth. These findings contribute to a deeper understanding of the intricate interactions between iron, pathogen control, and plant health, offering a potential tool for sustainable pepper production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil-Beneficial Microorganisms and Plant Growth)
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6 pages, 219 KiB  
Editorial
Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Crop and Medicinal Plants
Plants 2023, 12(24), 4167; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12244167 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 687
Abstract
Climate change and the increased need for crop production highlight the urgent importance of introducing crops with increased tolerance to adverse environmental conditions [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Crop and Medical Plants Volume II)
15 pages, 1603 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Almond Scion/Rootstock Communication in Cultivar and Rootstock Tissues through an RNA-Seq Approach
Plants 2023, 12(24), 4166; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12244166 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 756
Abstract
The rootstock genotype plays a crucial role in determining various aspects of scion development, including the scion three-dimensional structure, or tree architecture. Consequently, rootstock choice is a pivotal factor in the establishment of new almond (Prunus amygdalus (L.) Batsch, syn P. [...] Read more.
The rootstock genotype plays a crucial role in determining various aspects of scion development, including the scion three-dimensional structure, or tree architecture. Consequently, rootstock choice is a pivotal factor in the establishment of new almond (Prunus amygdalus (L.) Batsch, syn P. dulcis (Mill.)) intensive planting systems, demanding cultivars that can adapt to distinct requirements of vigor and shape. Nevertheless, considering the capacity of the rootstock genotype to influence scion development, it is likely that the scion genotype reciprocally affects rootstock performance. In the context of this study, we conducted a transcriptomic analysis of the scion/rootstock interaction in young almond trees, with a specific focus on elucidating the scion impact on the rootstock molecular response. Two commercial almond cultivars were grafted onto two hybrid rootstocks, thereby generating four distinct combinations. Through RNA-Seq analysis, we discerned that indeed, the scion genotype exerts an influence on the rootstock expression profile. This influence manifests through the modulation of genes associated with hormonal regulation, cell division, root development, and light signaling. This intricate interplay between scion and rootstock communication plays a pivotal role in the development of both scion and rootstock, underscoring the critical importance of a correct choice when establishing new almond orchards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Rosaceae Fruit Genomics and Breeding)
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15 pages, 4866 KiB  
Article
Occurrence and Characterization of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Causing Fruit Rot on Sweet Cherry in Southern China
Plants 2023, 12(24), 4165; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12244165 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 699
Abstract
Sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) is widely planted in northern China due to its high economic value, and its cultivation has gradually spread south to warm regions. However, fruit rot, observed on the young fruits, poses a considerable threat to the development [...] Read more.
Sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) is widely planted in northern China due to its high economic value, and its cultivation has gradually spread south to warm regions. However, fruit rot, observed on the young fruits, poses a considerable threat to the development of sweet cherry. To determine the causal agent, morphological observation, molecular identification, and pathogenicity tests were performed on isolates obtained from diseased fruits. As a result, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was identified as the pathogen. Pathogenicity tests on different sweet cherry cultivars indicated that ‘Summit’ was highly sensitive to S. sclerotiorum, whereas ‘Hongmi’ showed significant resistance. Besides sweet cherry, S. sclerotiorum could also infect other vegetable crops we tested, such as cowpea, soybean, tomato, and chili. Fungicide sensitivity and efficacy assays showed that both fludioxonil and pyraclostrobin can effectively inhibit the mycelial growth of S. sclerotiorum and decrease disease incidences on the young fruits of sweet cherry. Furthermore, genome sequencing resulted in a 37.8 Mb assembly of S. sclerotiorum strain ScSs1, showing abundant SNPs, InDels, and SVs with the genome of S. sclerotiorum reference strain 1980 UF-70. The above results provide an important basis for controlling the fruit rot of sweet cherry caused by S. sclerotiorum in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Protection and Biotic Interactions)
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