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Plants, Volume 11, Issue 19 (October-1 2022) – 222 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): DEFECTIVE EMBRYO AND MERISTERMS (DEM) genes are known to be required for cell division in plants. Consistent with a role in cell division, stable null mutations in the DEM1 gene of tomato are lethal and fail to develop beyond the seedling stage. Transposon mutagenesis with a maize Ds element in transgenic tomato has revealed additional roles of DEM1 during leaf development. The dem1 mutant sectors lacked differentiated adaxial cell types, including the photosynthetic palisade cells and upper epidermal cells. Somatic mutagenesis of DEM1 also caused defects in leaf blade development. Thus, DEM genes are not only required for cell division but also terminal differentiation of cell types during plant development. View this paper
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27 pages, 2597 KiB  
Article
Ethnobotanical Survey of Medicinal Plants Used in the Treatment of COVID-19 and Related Respiratory Infections in Ogbomosho South and North Local Government Areas, Oyo State, Nigeria
by Christiana Adeyinka Odebunmi, Tomi Lois Adetunji, Ademola Emmanuel Adetunji, Ahmed Olatunde, Oluwatosin Esther Oluwole, Idowu Ayodeji Adewale, Abdulrasak Opeyemi Ejiwumi, Chinwenwa Esther Iheme and Taiwo Opeyemi Aremu
Plants 2022, 11(19), 2667; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11192667 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4650
Abstract
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has extensively spread worldwide with high mortality. Besides vaccination, the United States Food and Drug Administration approved only one oral medication as a treatment. Medicinal plants with antiviral and immunomodulatory properties could be explored as complementary treatments for COVID-19. [...] Read more.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has extensively spread worldwide with high mortality. Besides vaccination, the United States Food and Drug Administration approved only one oral medication as a treatment. Medicinal plants with antiviral and immunomodulatory properties could be explored as complementary treatments for COVID-19. Ogbomosho is home to such plants traditionally used to treat infectious diseases in Nigeria, making it relevant in complementary medicine. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used to treat COVID-19 and related ailments, including cough and flu in Ogbomosho South and North Local Government Areas, Nigeria, was conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire. Information was obtained from 56 participants, consisting of different groups of individuals with native knowledge of medicinal plants, and ethnobotanical indices, including the frequency of citation (FC), relative frequency of citation (RFC), and fidelity level (FL) were computed. Twenty-six medicinal plants (17 families) were used to treat COVID-19, 31 (20 families) for cough, and 29 (19 families) for flu. The most cited plant was Zingiber officinale (FC = 10; RFC = 0.18; FL = 18%) for treating COVID-19, Citrus limon (FC = 13; RFC = 0.23; FL = 23%) for cough, and Zingiber officinale (FC = 9; RFC = 0.16; FL = 16%) for flu. Leaves were the most used plant part for treating COVID-19 and flu, while the bark was the most used for cough. Trees and herbs were the most cited plant growth forms. The herbal remedies were mostly prepared by decoction and infusion and were mainly administered orally. Further research should be conducted on the identified species for the scientific validation of their antiviral and immunomodulatory efficacies and safety for use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plants: Advances in Phytochemistry and Ethnobotany)
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27 pages, 6550 KiB  
Review
Improving Yield and Yield Stability in Winter Rye by Hybrid Breeding
by Bernd Hackauf, Dörthe Siekmann and Franz Joachim Fromme
Plants 2022, 11(19), 2666; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11192666 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 9925
Abstract
Rye is the only cross-pollinating small-grain cereal. The unique reproduction biology results in an exceptional complexity concerning genetic improvement of rye by breeding. Rye is a close relative of wheat and has a strong adaptation potential that refers to its mating system, making [...] Read more.
Rye is the only cross-pollinating small-grain cereal. The unique reproduction biology results in an exceptional complexity concerning genetic improvement of rye by breeding. Rye is a close relative of wheat and has a strong adaptation potential that refers to its mating system, making this overlooked cereal readily adjustable to a changing environment. Rye breeding addresses the emerging challenges of food security associated with climate change. The systematic identification, management, and use of its valuable natural diversity became a feasible option in outbreeding rye only following the establishment of hybrid breeding late in the 20th century. In this article, we review the most recent technological advances to improve yield and yield stability in winter rye. Based on recently released reference genome sequences, SMART breeding approaches are described to counterbalance undesired linkage drag effects of major restorer genes on grain yield. We present the development of gibberellin-sensitive semidwarf hybrids as a novel plant breeding innovation based on an approach that is different from current methods of increasing productivity in rye and wheat. Breeding of new rye cultivars with improved performance and resilience is indispensable for a renaissance of this healthy minor cereal as a homogeneous commodity with cultural relevance in Europe that allows for comparatively smooth but substantial complementation of wheat with rye-based diets, supporting the necessary restoration of the balance between human action and nature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic Basis of Yield and Yield Stability in Major Crops)
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4 pages, 1889 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Gajurel et al. Production and Secretion of Isowighteone in Hairy Root Cultures of Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan) Co-Treated with Multiple Elicitors. Plants 2022, 11, 834
by Gaurav Gajurel, Luis Nopo-Olazabal, Emily Hendrix and Fabricio Medina-Bolivar
Plants 2022, 11(19), 2665; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11192665 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1051
Abstract
In the original publication [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Specialized Metabolites in Root cultures)
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34 pages, 22790 KiB  
Review
Pea Breeding for Resistance to Rhizospheric Pathogens
by Osman Z. Wohor, Nicolas Rispail, Chris O. Ojiewo and Diego Rubiales
Plants 2022, 11(19), 2664; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11192664 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4070
Abstract
Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is a grain legume widely cultivated in temperate climates. It is important in the race for food security owing to its multipurpose low-input requirement and environmental promoting traits. Pea is key in nitrogen fixation, biodiversity preservation, and nutritional [...] Read more.
Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is a grain legume widely cultivated in temperate climates. It is important in the race for food security owing to its multipurpose low-input requirement and environmental promoting traits. Pea is key in nitrogen fixation, biodiversity preservation, and nutritional functions as food and feed. Unfortunately, like most crops, pea production is constrained by several pests and diseases, of which rhizosphere disease dwellers are the most critical due to their long-term persistence in the soil and difficulty to manage. Understanding the rhizosphere environment can improve host plant root microbial association to increase yield stability and facilitate improved crop performance through breeding. Thus, the use of various germplasm and genomic resources combined with scientific collaborative efforts has contributed to improving pea resistance/cultivation against rhizospheric diseases. This improvement has been achieved through robust phenotyping, genotyping, agronomic practices, and resistance breeding. Nonetheless, resistance to rhizospheric diseases is still limited, while biological and chemical-based control strategies are unrealistic and unfavourable to the environment, respectively. Hence, there is a need to consistently scout for host plant resistance to resolve these bottlenecks. Herein, in view of these challenges, we reflect on pea breeding for resistance to diseases caused by rhizospheric pathogens, including fusarium wilt, root rots, nematode complex, and parasitic broomrape. Here, we will attempt to appraise and harmonise historical and contemporary knowledge that contributes to pea resistance breeding for soilborne disease management and discuss the way forward. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulation of Crop Quality and Stress Responses)
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25 pages, 9253 KiB  
Article
Leaf Count Aided Novel Framework for Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Genotypes Discrimination in Phenomics: Leveraging Computer Vision and Deep Learning Applications
by Mukesh Kumar Vishal, Rohit Saluja, Devarshi Aggrawal, Biplab Banerjee, Dhandapani Raju, Sudhir Kumar, Viswanathan Chinnusamy, Rabi Narayan Sahoo and Jagarlapudi Adinarayana
Plants 2022, 11(19), 2663; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11192663 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2197
Abstract
Drought is a detrimental factor to gaining higher yields in rice (Oryza sativa L.), especially amid the rising occurrence of drought across the globe. To combat this situation, it is essential to develop novel drought-resilient varieties. Therefore, screening of drought-adaptive genotypes is [...] Read more.
Drought is a detrimental factor to gaining higher yields in rice (Oryza sativa L.), especially amid the rising occurrence of drought across the globe. To combat this situation, it is essential to develop novel drought-resilient varieties. Therefore, screening of drought-adaptive genotypes is required with high precision and high throughput. In contemporary emerging science, high throughput plant phenotyping (HTPP) is a crucial technology that attempts to break the bottleneck of traditional phenotyping. In traditional phenotyping, screening significant genotypes is a tedious task and prone to human error while measuring various plant traits. In contrast, owing to the potential advantage of HTPP over traditional phenotyping, image-based traits, also known as i-traits, were used in our study to discriminate 110 genotypes grown for genome-wide association study experiments under controlled (well-watered), and drought-stress (limited water) conditions, under a phenomics experiment in a controlled environment with RGB images. Our proposed framework non-destructively estimated drought-adaptive plant traits from the images, such as the number of leaves, convex hull, plant–aspect ratio (plant spread), and similarly associated geometrical and morphological traits for analyzing and discriminating genotypes. The results showed that a single trait, the number of leaves, can also be used for discriminating genotypes. This critical drought-adaptive trait was associated with plant size, architecture, and biomass. In this work, the number of leaves and other characteristics were estimated non-destructively from top view images of the rice plant for each genotype. The estimation of the number of leaves for each rice plant was conducted with the deep learning model, YOLO (You Only Look Once). The leaves were counted by detecting corresponding visible leaf tips in the rice plant. The detection accuracy was 86–92% for dense to moderate spread large plants, and 98% for sparse spread small plants. With this framework, the susceptible genotypes (MTU1010, PUSA-1121 and similar genotypes) and drought-resistant genotypes (Heera, Anjali, Dular and similar genotypes) were grouped in the core set with a respective group of drought-susceptible and drought-tolerant genotypes based on the number of leaves, and the leaves’ emergence during the peak drought-stress period. Moreover, it was found that the number of leaves was significantly associated with other pertinent morphological, physiological and geometrical traits. Other geometrical traits were measured from the RGB images with the help of computer vision. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Breeding Technology for Plants)
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15 pages, 2627 KiB  
Article
Striving for Stability in the Dough Mixing Quality of Spring Wheat under the Influence of Prolonged Heat and Drought
by Sbatie Lama, Marina Kuzmenkova, Pernilla Vallenback and Ramune Kuktaite
Plants 2022, 11(19), 2662; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11192662 - 10 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1319
Abstract
The effects of prolonged heat and drought stress and cool growing conditions on dough mixing quality traits of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were studied in fifty-six genotypes grown in 2017 and 2018 in southern Sweden. The mixing parameters evaluated by mixograph [...] Read more.
The effects of prolonged heat and drought stress and cool growing conditions on dough mixing quality traits of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were studied in fifty-six genotypes grown in 2017 and 2018 in southern Sweden. The mixing parameters evaluated by mixograph and the gluten protein characteristics studied by size exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography (SE-HPLC) in dough were compared between the two growing seasons which were very different in length, temperature and precipitation. The genotypes varying in gluten strength between the growing seasons (≤5%, ≤12%, and ≤17%) from three groups (stable (S), moderately stable (MS), and of varying stability (VS)) were studied. The results indicate that most of the mixing parameters were more strongly impacted by the interaction between the group, genotype, and year than by their individual contribution. The excessive prolonged heat and drought did not impact the buildup and mixing time expressed as peak time and time 1–2. The gluten polymeric proteins (unextractable, %UPP; total unextractable, TOTU) and large unextractable monomeric proteins (%LUMP) were closely associated with buildup and water absorption in dough. Major significant differences were found in the dough mixing parameters between the years within each group. In Groups S and MS, the majority of genotypes showed the smallest variation in the dough mixing parameters responsible for the gluten strength and dough development between the years. The mixing parameters such as time 1–2, buildup, and peak time (which were not affected by prolonged heat and drought stress) together with the selected gluten protein parameters (%UPP, TOTU, and %LUMP) are essential components to be used in future screening of dough mixing quality in wheat in severe growing environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Response to Abiotic Stress and Climate Change)
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13 pages, 4909 KiB  
Article
Genome-Wide Identification of the NAC Transcription Factors in Gossypium hirsutum and Analysis of Their Responses to Verticillium wilt
by Shimei Bai, Qingqing Niu, Yuqing Wu, Kunling Xu, Meng Miao and Jun Mei
Plants 2022, 11(19), 2661; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11192661 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1639
Abstract
The NAC transcription factors (NACs) are among the largest plant-specific gene regulators and play essential roles in the transcriptional regulation of both biotic and abiotic stress responses. Verticillium wilt of cotton caused by Verticillium dahliae (V. dahliae) is a destructive soil-borne [...] Read more.
The NAC transcription factors (NACs) are among the largest plant-specific gene regulators and play essential roles in the transcriptional regulation of both biotic and abiotic stress responses. Verticillium wilt of cotton caused by Verticillium dahliae (V. dahliae) is a destructive soil-borne disease that severely decreases cotton yield and quality. Although NACs constitute a large family in upland cotton (G. hirsutum L.), there is little systematic investigation of the NACs’ responsive to V. dahliae that has been reported. To further explore the key NACs in response to V. dahliae resistance and obtain a better comprehension of the molecular basis of the V. dahliae stress response in cotton, a genome-wide survey was performed in this study. To investigate the roles of GhNACs under V. dahliae induction in upland cotton, mRNA libraries were constructed from mocked and infected roots of upland cotton cultivars with the V. dahliae-sensitive cultivar “Jimian 11” (J11) and V. dahliae-tolerant cultivar “Zhongzhimian 2” (Z2). A total of 271 GhNACs were identified. Genome analysis showed GhNACs phylogenetically classified into 12 subfamilies and distributed across 26 chromosomes and 20 scaffolds. A comparative transcriptome analysis revealed 54 GhNACs were differentially expressed under V. dahliae stress, suggesting a potential role of these GhNACs in disease response. Additionally, one NAC090 homolog, GhNAC204, could be a positive regulator of cotton resistance to V. dahliae infection. These results give insight into the GhNAC gene family, identify GhNACs’ responsiveness to V. dahliae infection, and provide potential molecular targets for future studies for improving V. dahliae resistance in cotton. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Protection and Biotic Interactions)
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20 pages, 762 KiB  
Review
Receptor-like Kinases (LRR-RLKs) in Response of Plants to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses
by Aigerim Soltabayeva, Nurbanu Dauletova, Symbat Serik, Margulan Sandybek, John Okoth Omondi, Assylay Kurmanbayeva and Sudhakar Srivastava
Plants 2022, 11(19), 2660; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11192660 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 4155
Abstract
Plants live under different biotic and abiotic stress conditions, and, to cope with the adversity and severity, plants have well-developed resistance mechanisms. The mechanism starts with perception of the stimuli followed by molecular, biochemical, and physiological adaptive measures. The family of LRR-RLKs (leucine-rich [...] Read more.
Plants live under different biotic and abiotic stress conditions, and, to cope with the adversity and severity, plants have well-developed resistance mechanisms. The mechanism starts with perception of the stimuli followed by molecular, biochemical, and physiological adaptive measures. The family of LRR-RLKs (leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases) is one such group that perceives biotic and abiotic stimuli and also plays important roles in different biological processes of development. This has been mostly studied in the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, and to some extent in other plants, such as Solanum lycopersicum, Nicotiana benthamiana, Brassica napus, Oryza sativa, Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare, Brachypodium distachyon, Medicago truncatula, Gossypium barbadense, Phaseolus vulgaris, Solanum tuberosum, and Malus robusta. Most LRR-RLKs tend to form different combinations of LRR-RLKs-complexes (dimer, trimer, and tetramers), and some of them were observed as important receptors in immune responses, cell death, and plant development processes. However, less is known about the function(s) of LRR-RLKs in response to abiotic and biotic stresses. Here, we give recent updates about LRR-RLK receptors, specifically focusing on their involvement in biotic and abiotic stresses in the model plant, A. thaliana. Furthermore, the recent studies on LRR-RLKs that are homologous in other plants is also reviewed in relation to their role in triggering stress response processes against biotic and abiotic stimuli and/or in exploring their additional function(s). Furthermore, we present the interactions and combinations among LRR-RLK receptors that have been confirmed through experiments. Moreover, based on GENEINVESTIGATOR microarray database analysis, we predict some potential LRR-RLK genes involved in certain biotic and abiotic stresses whose function and mechanism may be explored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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12 pages, 273 KiB  
Article
Improved Bioherbicidal Efficacy of Bipolaris eleusines through Herbicide Addition on Weed Control in Paddy Rice
by Jianping Zhang, Guifang Duan, Shuang Yang, Liuqing Yu, Yongliang Lu, Wei Tang and Yongjie Yang
Plants 2022, 11(19), 2659; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11192659 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1447
Abstract
Bipolaris eleusines was mixed with herbicides to improve the control of barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli), a noxious weed in rice fields. The compatibility of B. eleusines with herbicides was evaluated for toxic effects on spore germination and mycelium growth in vitro tests, [...] Read more.
Bipolaris eleusines was mixed with herbicides to improve the control of barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli), a noxious weed in rice fields. The compatibility of B. eleusines with herbicides was evaluated for toxic effects on spore germination and mycelium growth in vitro tests, and varied effects were observed with different chemical products. Briefly, 25 g/L penoxsulam OD plus 10% bensulfuron-methyl WP were much more compatible with B. eleusines, and there was no inhibition of spore germination but the promotion of mycelium growth of B. eleusines at all treatment rates. Under greenhouse conditions, the coefficient of the specificity of B. eleusines conidial agent was determined as 3.91, closer to the herbicidal control of 2.89, showing it is highly specific between rice and barnyardgrass. Field experiments in 2011 and 2012 showed that B. eleusines conidial agent displayed good activity on barnyardgrass, monochoria [Monochoria vaginalis (Burm.f.) Presl. Ex Kunth.], and small-flower umbrella sedge (Cyperus difformis L.) and had no negative impact on the rice plant. It also reduced the loss of rice yield when compared with the non-treated control and could make this pathogen a conidial agent for commercial bioherbicidal development in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioherbicide Development for Weed Control)
19 pages, 6983 KiB  
Article
Photosynthetic Apparatus of Hydrocharis morsus-ranae in Different Solar Lighting
by Elizabeth Kordyum, Oleksandr Polishchuk, Yuri Akimov and Vasyl Brykov
Plants 2022, 11(19), 2658; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11192658 - 10 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1479
Abstract
Hydrocharis morsus-ranae is a free-floating species growing in lakes and slow-flowing rivers near the shore in Europe and Western Asia, and as an invasive plant in the USA and Canada. Light-requiring plants of this species can also grow in the shade, up to [...] Read more.
Hydrocharis morsus-ranae is a free-floating species growing in lakes and slow-flowing rivers near the shore in Europe and Western Asia, and as an invasive plant in the USA and Canada. Light-requiring plants of this species can also grow in the shade, up to about 30% of full sunlight. In this paper we present the data about the photosynthetic apparatus of sunny and shady H. morsus-ranae plants grown in the sun and in the shade in nature. Methods of light and transmission electron microscopy, biochemistry, chlorophyll fluorescence induction as well as the principal component analysis were used. It was found that leaves of plants growing in shade differed from those in the sun with such traits as thickness of a blade, palisade and spongy parenchyma, ultrastructure of chloroplasts, and quantum efficiency of photosynthetic electron transport, the content of chlorophylls and carotenoids, anthocyanins and phenilpropanoids. By these traits, H. morsus-ranae shady plants are similar with shade-bearing plants that indicates their adaptation to light intensity lowering. The ordination plots (PCA) suggested a clear structural and functional shift of plants growing in different lighting showing relationship to light changes in the natural environment. Thus, our results displayed the high phenotypic plasticity of the H. morsus-ranae photosynthetic apparatus, which ensures its acclimation to changing light environment and wide distribution of this species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Ecophysiological Adaptation to Environmental Stress)
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14 pages, 1545 KiB  
Article
Soil–Plant Relationships in Soybean Cultivated under Crop Rotation after 17 Years of No-Tillage and Occasional Chiseling
by Gustavo Ferreira da Silva, Ana Paula Oliveira Matusevicius, Juliano Carlos Calonego, Larissa Chamma, Bruno Cesar Ottoboni Luperini, Michely da Silva Alves, Hugo Mota Ferreira Leite, Elizabete de Jesus Pinto, Marcelo de Almeida Silva and Fernando Ferrari Putti
Plants 2022, 11(19), 2657; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11192657 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1770
Abstract
No-tillage cover crops contribute to better soil quality, being able to replace mechanized tillage management. This observation can only be made after several years of adopting conservationist practices and through research on soil–plant relationships. The objective of the research was to verify the [...] Read more.
No-tillage cover crops contribute to better soil quality, being able to replace mechanized tillage management. This observation can only be made after several years of adopting conservationist practices and through research on soil–plant relationships. The objective of the research was to verify the relationship between the production components, physiological, root development, and physical-hydric properties of the soil in the yield of soybean grown in succession to different cover crops or with soil chiseling. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design with four replications, comparing the cultivation of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea) and millet (Penninsetum glaucum L.) as cover crops and a treatment with soil chiseling. The evaluations were carried out during soybean (Glycine max L.) cultivation in the 2019/20 summer crop, that is, after 17 years of experimenting started in 2003. Rotation with sunn hemp increased soybean yield by 6% and 10%, compared with millet rotation and soil chiseling. The species used in crop rotation in a long-term no-tillage system interfere with the physical and water characteristics of the soil, affecting the physiological responses and soybean yield. The rotation with sunn hemp offers greater water stability to the plants and provides greater soybean yield in succession. Future research that better addresses year-to-year variation, architecture, and continuity of pores provided by crop rotation, and evaluations of gas exchange, fluorescence, and activities of stress enzymes in soybean plants may contribute to a better understanding of soil–plant relationships in long-term no-till. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Conservation Tillage for Sustainable Agriculture)
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11 pages, 1359 KiB  
Article
Antifeeding and Oviposition Deterrent Effect of Ludwigia spp. (Onagraceae) against Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)
by Eliana Aparecida Ferreira, Eduardo Carvalho Faca, Silvana Aparecida de Souza, Claudemir Antonio Garcia Fioratti, Juliana Rosa Carrijo Mauad, Claudia Andrea Lima Cardoso, Munir Mauad and Rosilda Mara Mussury
Plants 2022, 11(19), 2656; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11192656 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1900
Abstract
Plants produce a wide variety of bioactive compounds with insecticidal properties, such as secondary metabolites capable of interfering with the nutrition and reproduction of pest species such as Plutella xylostella. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of [...] Read more.
Plants produce a wide variety of bioactive compounds with insecticidal properties, such as secondary metabolites capable of interfering with the nutrition and reproduction of pest species such as Plutella xylostella. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ludwigia spp. (Onagraceae) on the feeding and oviposition of P. xylostella. Choice bioassays were performed using aqueous and ethanolic extracts. The aqueous extract of L. tomentosa resulted in an approximately 81% reduction in larval feeding compared to that in the control, with an antifeedant index (AI) of 52%. The aqueous and ethanolic extract of L. nervosa acted by stimulating larval feeding. The oviposition was significantly reduced in the kale leaves treated with aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ludwigia spp. The aqueous extracts promoted an average 90% reduction in oviposition when compared to that in the control, and an oviposition deterrent index (ODI) above 61% was classified as an oviposition deterrent. In addition, ethanolic extracts affected 81% of oviposition, with an ODI above 41%. Bioassays should be performed to clarify the use of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of L. nervosa as they acted as phagostimulants in the feeding tests and as deterrents in the oviposition tests. The phenolic compounds—flavonoids, condensed tannins, and alkaloids—were more abundant in L. nervosa, L. tomentosa, L. sericea, and L. longifolia. The extracts of L. longifolia and L. tomentosa showed the best results, interfering with the host choice for feeding and oviposition in P. xylostella and representing an alternative for the control of diamondback moths. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Biological Activity of Plant Extracts)
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12 pages, 3951 KiB  
Article
Research of Water Molecules Cluster Structuring during Haberlea rhodopensis Friv. Hydration
by Ignat Ignatov, Fabio Huether, Nikolai Neshev, Yoana Kiselova-Kaneva, Teodora P. Popova, Ralitsa Bankova, Nedyalka Valcheva, Alexander I. Ignatov, Mariana Angelcheva, Ivan Angushev and Sadek Baiti
Plants 2022, 11(19), 2655; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11192655 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2110
Abstract
Gesneriaceae plant family is comprised of resurrection species, namely Boea hygrometrica and Paraboea rufescens, that are native to the Southeast Asia and Haberlea rhodopensis, Ramonda myconi, and Ramonda serbica, which are mainly found in the Balkan Peninsula. Haberlea rhodopensis [...] Read more.
Gesneriaceae plant family is comprised of resurrection species, namely Boea hygrometrica and Paraboea rufescens, that are native to the Southeast Asia and Haberlea rhodopensis, Ramonda myconi, and Ramonda serbica, which are mainly found in the Balkan Peninsula. Haberlea rhodopensis is known to be able to survive extreme and prolonged dehydration. Study was carried out after the dried plant Haberlea rhodopensis Friv. had been hydrated and had reached its fresh state. Two juice samples were collected from the plant blossom: The first sample was prepared with 1% filtered water through a patented EVOdrop device. Then the sample was saturated with hydrogen with EVOdrop booster to a concentration of 1.2 ppm, pH = 7.3, ORP = −390 mV. This first sample was prepared with filtered tap water from Sofia, Bulgaria. The second sample, which was a control one, was developed with tap water from Sofia, Bulgaria, consisting of 1% solutions of Haberlea rhodopensis. A study revealed that during the drying process in H. rhodopensis the number of free water molecules decreases, and water dimers are formed. The aim of our study was to determine the number of water molecules in clusters in 1% solutions of hydrated H. rhodopensis plants. Results were analyzed according to the two types of water used in the experiment. Th EVOdrop device is equipped with an ultranano membrane and rotating jet nozzle to create a vortex water and saturation thanks to a second device EVObooster to obtain hydrogen-rich water. In the current study Hydrogen-rich water is referred to as Hydrogen EVOdrop Water (HEW). Research was conducted using the following methods—spectral methods non-equilibrium energy spectrum (NES) and differential non-equilibrium energy spectrum (DNES), mathematical models, and study of the distribution of water molecules in water clusters. In a licensed Eurotest Laboratory, the research of tap water before and after flowing through the EVOdrop device was proven. Studies have been carried out on the structuring of water molecule clusters after change of hydrogen bond energies. The restructuring comes with rearrangement of water molecules by the energy levels of hydrogen bonds. Local extrema can be observed in the spectrum with largest amount of water molecules. The structural changes were tested using the NES and DNES spectral methods. The conducted research proved that the application of EVOdrop device and EVObooster changes the parameters of water to benefit hydration and health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Natural Compounds in Plants)
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16 pages, 2708 KiB  
Article
Effects of Living Mulch and Branches Mulching on Soil Moisture, Temperature and Growth of Rain-Fed Jujube Trees
by Min Tang, Xiaodong Gao, Pute Wu, Hongchen Li and Chao Zhang
Plants 2022, 11(19), 2654; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11192654 - 9 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1634
Abstract
The influence of different mulching measures on soil moisture, soil temperature, and crop growth was investigated during the jujube growing season in rain-fed jujube orchards using micro-plot experiments. The mulching treatments included clean tillage (CT, control treatment), jujube branches mulching (JBM), and white [...] Read more.
The influence of different mulching measures on soil moisture, soil temperature, and crop growth was investigated during the jujube growing season in rain-fed jujube orchards using micro-plot experiments. The mulching treatments included clean tillage (CT, control treatment), jujube branches mulching (JBM), and white clover planting (WCP). The results revealed that: (1) The average soil moisture content of JBM was greater than that of CT by 3.76% and 2.34%, respectively, during the 2013 and 2014 jujube growth periods, and its soil water deficit was minimal in each soil layer from 0 to 70 cm. WCP had the greatest soil water deficit. The average soil moisture content of the 0–70 cm soil layer in WCP was 3.88% and 5.55% lower than that in CT during the 2013 and 2014 jujube growth seasons, respectively (p < 0.05). (2) JBM had the highest annual average soil moisture content in each soil layer from 0 to 70 cm, followed by CT, while WCP had the lowest. White clover and jujube competed for water in the 20–40 cm soil layer, and JBM had the lowest variation in soil moisture. (3) Mulching with jujube branches and planting white clover could both control the temperature of the 0–25 cm soil layer and narrow the daily temperature range, with JBM being the least affected by air temperature. (4) Jujube’s leaf area index and stem diameter increase in JBM were both significantly greater than in CT and WCP. In conclusion, using pruned jujube branches as surface mulch is appropriate for rain-fed jujube orchards because it can preserve soil moisture, regulate soil temperature, and promote jujube growth. Full article
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30 pages, 2562 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Salicornia bigelovii Germplasm for Food Use in Egypt and the United Arab Emirates Based on Agronomic Traits and Nutritional Composition
by Dionysia-Angeliki Lyra, Anitha Raman, Aly Hozayen, Rashyd Zaaboul, Fouad O. Abou-Zaid, Ahmed El-Naggar, Sherine Mansoor, Henda Mahmoudi and Khalil Ammar
Plants 2022, 11(19), 2653; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11192653 - 9 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2705
Abstract
Climate change significantly aggravates the quality of soil and water, especially in desert regions such as the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Egypt concluding in an alarming increase in salinity in the reservoirs of the natural resources. Saline farming rises as a promising [...] Read more.
Climate change significantly aggravates the quality of soil and water, especially in desert regions such as the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Egypt concluding in an alarming increase in salinity in the reservoirs of the natural resources. Saline farming rises as a promising solution, utilizing low-quality water and land resources to grow salt-tolerant varieties of conventional crops and halophytes. Samphire (Salicornia spp.) is among the most popular multi-purpose halophytes that are locally consumed in several countries around the world as a vegetable. Six Salicornia bigelovii genotypes (ICBA-2, ICBA-3, ICBA-4, ICBA-8, ICBA-9, ICBA-10) were evaluated for their agronomic performance and nutritional composition in Dubai in UAE and, for the first time, at the Red Sea Governorate in Egypt in the 2019–2020 season using saline groundwater for irrigation (ECw = 26 and 6.6 dS/m, respectively). ICBA-10 performed well in both locations with high green biomass and seed yield (10.9 kgm−2 and 116.3 gm−2, respectively, in UAE; 7.7 kgm−2 and 82.9 gm−2, respectively, in Egypt). ICBA-10 was, overall, also good in ion accumulation, total amino acids and unsaturated fatty acids content in both locations for shoots and seeds. Our results indicated that a lack of a drainage system and leaching fraction, the silt loam texture and the drip irrigation system might have contributed in the gradual accumulation of salts in the soil at Mubarak Valley at the end of the experiment at a higher level than ICBA. Apart from the agronomic parameters, higher salinity levels also affected ion accumulation, the amino acids and the fatty acids content for both shoots and seeds, whereas the proximate composition was affected to a lesser extent. Our findings on the high unsaturated fatty acids content under higher salinity corroborate the nutritional value of S. bigelovii oil. Due to its euhalophyte nature, S. bigelovii is a valuable source of minerals, amino acids and antioxidants that render it the most promising salt-loving plant for food use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Biosaline Agriculture)
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16 pages, 3068 KiB  
Article
Mineral Nutrition of Naturally Growing Scots Pine and Norway Spruce under Limited Water Supply
by Yury V. Ivanov, Ilya E. Zlobin, Alexander V. Kartashov, Alexandra I. Ivanova, Valery P. Ivanov, Sergey I. Marchenko, Dmitry I. Nartov and Vladimir V. Kuznetsov
Plants 2022, 11(19), 2652; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11192652 - 9 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1262
Abstract
The deterioration of plant mineral nutrition during drought is a significant factor in the negative influence of drought on plant performance. We aimed to study the effects of seasonal and multiyear water shortages on nutrient supply and demand in Scots pine and Norway [...] Read more.
The deterioration of plant mineral nutrition during drought is a significant factor in the negative influence of drought on plant performance. We aimed to study the effects of seasonal and multiyear water shortages on nutrient supply and demand in Scots pine and Norway spruce. We studied pine and spruce trees naturally grown in the Bryansk region (Russia). The dynamics of several nutrients (K, Ca, Mg, P, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Ca) in wood, needles, and bark of current-year twigs and the dynamics of the available pools of these elements at different soil depths were analysed. To assess the physiological consequences of changes in element concentrations, lipid peroxidation products and photosynthetic pigments were measured in the needles. Water shortage increased the wood concentrations of all elements except for Mn. In pine, this increase was mainly due to seasonal water deficit, whereas in spruce, multiyear differences in water supply were more important. This increased availability of nutrients was not observed in soil-based analyses. In needles, quite similar patterns of changes were found between species, with Mg increasing almost twofold and Fe and Mn decreasing under water shortage, whereas the remainder of the elements did not change much under differing water supplies. Neither the concentrations of photosynthetic pigments nor the contents of lipid peroxidation products correlated with element dynamics in needles. In summary, water shortage increased the availability of all elements except Mn for the plant; however, needle element contents were regulated independently of element availability for plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Nutrition)
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20 pages, 1738 KiB  
Article
Ground Vegetation in Pinus sylvestris Forests at Different Successional Stages following Clear Cuttings: A Case Study
by Dovilė Gustienė, Iveta Varnagirytė-Kabašinskienė and Vidas Stakėnas
Plants 2022, 11(19), 2651; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11192651 - 9 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1491
Abstract
The impact of intensive forestry on various components of ecosystems has become the main subject of public and scientific debate in many regions in recent years. Forest ground vegetation is considered one of the most consistent and biodiversity-rich indicators of a certain stage [...] Read more.
The impact of intensive forestry on various components of ecosystems has become the main subject of public and scientific debate in many regions in recent years. Forest ground vegetation is considered one of the most consistent and biodiversity-rich indicators of a certain stage of successional forest development. Therefore, changes in this forest component can potentially show the risks of forest damage due to clear-cutting and recovery trends. This study was carried out to identify the ground vegetation species diversity, including species composition and cover, also ground vegetation species relations with organic layer (forest floor) and upper mineral soil parameters at the different successional stages of the Pinus sylvestris L. stand development, including 1–2-year-old clear-cuts, and 6–130 years old stands. This study identified that the herb and dwarf shrub species were more light-demanding in the 2-year-old clear-cuts, as well as in the 6-year and 10-year old P. sylvestris stands compared to the middle-aged and mature forest stands. The dominant ground vegetation species, characteristic for the Pinetum vaccinio-myrtillosum forest type, were negatively dependent on the forest floor mass; they also had negative correlations with the concentrations of total P, K, Ca, and Mg in the forest floor and upper mineral soil but had positive correlations with the soil pH values and total N. The developed regression models of the percentage cover of mosses, herbs and dwarf shrubs according to the P. sylvestris stand age highlight the stabilization of the increase in the moss cover about 30 years after clear-cutting, with no clear trend for vascular species. The herbs and dwarf shrub species were highly variable during the stand rotation due to the species-specific characteristics and random factors rather than due to the influence of stand age. In this study, relatively short-term changes in ground vegetation species composition and percentage cover were determined after clear-cutting, but an important aspect is that new ground vegetation species appeared in the open areas, creating the potential for increasing species diversity. The clear-cutting system supports different species and numbers of herbs and mosses at different stages of stand development, which potentially increases the overall vegetation species diversity of the ecosystem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from Conference of CYSENI 2022)
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27 pages, 1748 KiB  
Review
Plant Development and Crop Yield: The Role of Gibberellins
by Ricardo Castro-Camba, Conchi Sánchez, Nieves Vidal and Jesús Mª Vielba
Plants 2022, 11(19), 2650; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11192650 - 9 Oct 2022
Cited by 49 | Viewed by 7049
Abstract
Gibberellins have been classically related to a few key developmental processes, thus being essential for the accurate unfolding of plant genetic programs. After more than a century of research, over one hundred different gibberellins have been described. There is a continuously increasing interest [...] Read more.
Gibberellins have been classically related to a few key developmental processes, thus being essential for the accurate unfolding of plant genetic programs. After more than a century of research, over one hundred different gibberellins have been described. There is a continuously increasing interest in gibberellins research because of their relevant role in the so-called "Green Revolution", as well as their current and possible applications in crop improvement. The functions attributed to gibberellins have been traditionally restricted to the regulation of plant stature, seed germination, and flowering. Nonetheless, research in the last years has shown that these functions extend to many other relevant processes. In this review, the current knowledge on gibberellins homeostasis and mode of action is briefly outlined, while specific attention is focused on the many different responses in which gibberellins take part. Thus, those genes and proteins identified as being involved in the regulation of gibberellin responses in model and non-model species are highlighted. The present review aims to provide a comprehensive picture of the state-of-the-art perception of gibberellins molecular biology and its effects on plant development. This picture might be helpful to enhance our current understanding of gibberellins biology and provide the know-how for the development of more accurate research and breeding programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Characterization of Signal Transduction in the Plant Hormone)
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22 pages, 5420 KiB  
Article
Plant Diversity of Mts. Oligirtos and Farmakas (NE Peloponnisos, Greece) with Emphasis on Their Endemic Flora
by Andreas Zikos and Theophanis Constantinidis
Plants 2022, 11(19), 2649; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11192649 - 9 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1706
Abstract
Greece is known to be a biodiversity hotspot. Though the plant diversity of Peloponnisos, the southernmost part of the Greek mainland, has been well-studied during the past 200 years, there are still gaps in our knowledge. To this end, the flora of the [...] Read more.
Greece is known to be a biodiversity hotspot. Though the plant diversity of Peloponnisos, the southernmost part of the Greek mainland, has been well-studied during the past 200 years, there are still gaps in our knowledge. To this end, the flora of the neighboring mountains Oligirtos and Farmakas was investigated, with a total of 740 and 762 taxa (species and subspecies) recorded, respectively, of which 635 and 756 for the first time. Ten species or subspecies were previously not known from Peloponnisos. Endemics correspond to 10.2% and 8.9% of the total flora and are predominately hemicryptophytes and entomogamous. Almost half of them produce capsules. The number of endemics per 2 × 2 km grid cell reveals that their highest number is found in areas of high elevation, and corresponds to habitats above the tree line, or to the limestone cliffs vegetation. No less than 62 endemic plant taxa of Mt. Oligirtos and 58 of Mt. Farmakas are threatened. A comparison of Mts. Oligirtos and Farmakas with five neighboring mountains shows that elevation correlates positively with the number of regional or bi-regional endemics but not with local or narrow endemics. The importance of mountainous regions for plant conservation is stressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Taxonomy and Plant Conservation, Volume II)
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13 pages, 4569 KiB  
Article
Varying Responses of Vegetation Greenness to the Diurnal Warming across the Global
by Jie Zhao, Kunlun Xiang, Zhitao Wu and Ziqiang Du
Plants 2022, 11(19), 2648; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11192648 - 8 Oct 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1258
Abstract
The distribution of global warming has been varying both diurnally and seasonally. Little is known about the spatiotemporal variations in the relationships between vegetation greenness and day- and night-time warming during the last decades. We investigated the global inter- and intra-annual responses of [...] Read more.
The distribution of global warming has been varying both diurnally and seasonally. Little is known about the spatiotemporal variations in the relationships between vegetation greenness and day- and night-time warming during the last decades. We investigated the global inter- and intra-annual responses of vegetation greenness to the diurnal asymmetric warming during the period of 1982–2015, using the normalized different vegetation index (NDVI, a robust proxy for vegetation greenness) obtained from the NOAA/AVHRR NDVI GIMMS3g dataset and the monthly average daily maximum (Tmax) and minimum temperature (Tmin) obtained from the gridded Climate Research Unit, University of East Anglia. Several findings were obtained: (1) The strength of the relationship between vegetation greenness and the diurnal temperature varied on inter-annual and seasonal timescales, indicating generally weakening warming effects on the vegetation activity across the global. (2) The decline in vegetation response to Tmax occurred mainly in the mid-latitudes of the world and in the high latitudes of the northern hemisphere, whereas the decline in the vegetation response to Tmin primarily concentrated in low latitudes. The percentage of areas with a significantly negative trend in the partial correlation coefficient between vegetation greenness and diurnal temperature was greater than that of the areas showing the significant positive trend. (3) The trends in the correlation between vegetation greenness and diurnal warming showed a complex spatial pattern: the majority of the study areas had undergone a significant declining strength in the vegetation greenness response to Tmax in all seasons and to Tmin in seasons except autumn. These findings are expected to have important implications for studying the diurnal asymmetry warming and its effect on the terrestrial ecosystem. Full article
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15 pages, 2794 KiB  
Article
Tamarix hispida NAC Transcription Factor ThNAC4 Confers Salt and Drought Stress Tolerance to Transgenic Tamarix and Arabidopsis
by Meiheriguli Mijiti, Yucheng Wang, Liuqiang Wang and Xugela Habuding
Plants 2022, 11(19), 2647; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11192647 - 8 Oct 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1620
Abstract
Salt and drought are considered two major abiotic stresses that have a significant impact on plants. Plant NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2) transcription factors (TFs) have been shown to play vital roles in plant development and responses to various abiotic stresses. ThNAC4, [...] Read more.
Salt and drought are considered two major abiotic stresses that have a significant impact on plants. Plant NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2) transcription factors (TFs) have been shown to play vital roles in plant development and responses to various abiotic stresses. ThNAC4, a NAC gene from Tamarix hispida involved in salt and osmotic stress tolerance, was identified and characterized in this study. According to a phylogenetic study, ThNAC4 is a member of NAC subfamily II. Subcellular localization analysis showed that ThNAC4 is located in the nucleus, and transcriptional activation experiments demonstrated that ThNAC4 is a transcriptional activator. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing ThNAC4 exhibited improved salt and osmotic tolerance, as demonstrated by improved physiological traits. ThNAC4-overexpressing and ThNAC4-silenced T. hispida plants were generated using the transient transformation method and selected for gain- and loss-of-function analysis. The results showed that overexpression of ThNAC4 in transgenic Tamarix and Arabidopsis plants increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POD, and GST) and osmoprotectant (proline and trehalose) contents under stress conditions. These findings suggest that ThNAC4 plays an important physiological role in plant abiotic stress tolerance by increasing ROS scavenging ability and improving osmotic potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Response to Abiotic Stress and Climate Change)
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17 pages, 1366 KiB  
Review
Exploring Dabai (Canarium odontophyllum), Indigenous Fruit of Borneo: A Review of Nutritional Values, Potential Uses, Emerging Application in Essential Oil Processing, and Health Benefits
by Muhammad Hazwan Hamzah, Mohd Salahuddin Mohd Basri, Bernard Maringgal, Maimunah Mohd Ali, Mohd Hafizz Wondi, Hasfalina Che Man and Sukardi Gatuk Abdulloh
Plants 2022, 11(19), 2646; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11192646 - 8 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4664
Abstract
Dabai (Canarium odontophyllum) is a fruit-bearing plant native to Borneo. Its fruit is an indigenous seasonal fruit that is considered to be underutilized due to its short shelf life. However, new products have been developed to ensure a continuous supply of [...] Read more.
Dabai (Canarium odontophyllum) is a fruit-bearing plant native to Borneo. Its fruit is an indigenous seasonal fruit that is considered to be underutilized due to its short shelf life. However, new products have been developed to ensure a continuous supply of dabai fruit throughout the year. Hence, the exploration of dabai fruits in characterizations and utilization for food products and essential oil has expanded exponentially. This review addresses the nutritional values, health benefits, potential food products, and essential oil processing of dabai fruit. All parts of dabai fruit, such as the pulp, skin, and kernel, contain a considerable amount of bioactive compounds, dietary fiber, and nutrients. Moreover, dabai fruit has also been proven to have health benefits such as an antioxidant capacity, cholesterol reduction, diabetes type 2 prevention, and reduction in the risk of heart disease. Some potential dabai-based food products and oil processing of dabai are also highlighted. The future perspectives and challenges concerning the potential uses of dabai are critically addressed at the end of this review. Based on this review, it is proven that dabai has various health benefits and represents a potential breakthrough in the agricultural and food industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Domestication of Fruit Trees)
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16 pages, 2331 KiB  
Article
Validation of Reference Genes in a Population of Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) Plants Regenerated in Colchicine
by Francisca Valenzuela, Vivían D’Afonseca, Ricardo Hernández, Aleydis Gómez and Ariel D. Arencibia
Plants 2022, 11(19), 2645; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11192645 - 8 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1822
Abstract
For the first time we report the validation of reference genes in plants from a population of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) clones cultured in vitro on a colchicine-supplemented medium. Nodal segment explants of the cultivar Duke were regenerated by organogenesis under different [...] Read more.
For the first time we report the validation of reference genes in plants from a population of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) clones cultured in vitro on a colchicine-supplemented medium. Nodal segment explants of the cultivar Duke were regenerated by organogenesis under different periods of colchicine 1 mg/L exposure (1, 2, 3, 5, 30 days). The clones selected for the study showed variability for phenotypic traits after 2 years of adaptation to field conditions, compared to plants of the donor genotype that were regenerated on a medium without colchicine. Vaccinium myrtillus (GAPDH) and Vaccinium macrocarpon (ATP1, NADH, RPOB and COX2) were used as reference genomes for primer design. The results show that colchicine treatments can cause genomic changes in blueberry plants. At the molecular level, exposure of plants to colchicine in early periods could promote an increase in gene expression of specific genes such as ATP1, COX2, GAPDH, MATK, NADH and RPOB. However, prolonged exposure (30 days) could decrease gene expression of the genes studied. For qPCR assays, the primers designed for ATP1, COX2, GAPDH and MATK genes showed high efficiency. In addition, the GAPDH, ATP1, NADH and COX2 genes showed high stability and could be recommended as potential reference genes for gene expression assays in Vaccinium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plant Breeding, Genetics and Genomics)
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11 pages, 284 KiB  
Article
Influence of Mineral Fertilizer and Manure Application on the Yield and Quality of Maize in Relation to Intercropping in the Southeast Republic of Kazakhstan
by Maksat Batyrbek, Fakher Abbas, Ruqin Fan and Qingfang Han
Plants 2022, 11(19), 2644; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11192644 - 8 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1846
Abstract
Maize (Zea mays L.) is a valuable forage crop. It is also an essential and promising crop for the Republic of Kazakhstan, cultivated in the southern zone. Some new maize hybrids have been introduced, which have been beneficial for high yields with [...] Read more.
Maize (Zea mays L.) is a valuable forage crop. It is also an essential and promising crop for the Republic of Kazakhstan, cultivated in the southern zone. Some new maize hybrids have been introduced, which have been beneficial for high yields with less fertilizer input. This study aims to introduce the new maize hybrid, Arman 689, for the judicial use of fertilizer and the high yield. This study was carried out in 2015 in the southeast region of Kazakhstan. There are five treatments with various mineral fertilizer and poultry manure doses: 1. control (T0), 2. P60 K100 (T1), 3. N100P60K100 (T2). 4. N100P60K100 + 40 tons of manure/ha (T3), and 5. N100P60K100 + 60 ton of manure/ha (T4). The fertilizers used were ammonium nitrate (N—34.6%), amorphous (N—11.0%, P2O5—46.0%), and potassium chloride KCl (K2O—56%). The results showed that the grain yield ranges from 5.51 t/ha (T0) to 8.49 (T4) t/ha. The protein contents in the maize grain varied from 9%(T0)–11.3%(T4). The grain nitrogen content accounted for 54.2 to 52.0%. The nutrient uptake results by different treatments indicated that nitrogen contributed to 41.5% of the total yield increase. Using manure in combination with mineral fertilizers reduced the payback of the applied resources, as the payback of T2–T4 was 8.8–9.1 kg of grain. With the application of recommended mineral fertilizer (NPK), the protein yield was 0.83 t/ha, 0.33, and 1.22 t/ha higher than T0 and T1 treatments, respectively. There was no significant yield difference under T3 and T4 treatments (p > 0.05). Overall, the treatment, NPK + 40 tons of manure, was proved the ultimate for the Arman hybrid in providing the optimum quantity and quality of maize, as well as reducing the payback cost (8.8–9.1 kg of grain). It is suggested to apply NPK-recommended doses along with manure in maize (Arman hybrid)-based intercropping systems to utilize the resources efficiently. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Intercropping)
12 pages, 1821 KiB  
Article
Integrative Pathogenicity Assay and Operational Taxonomy-Based Detection of New Forma Specialis of Fusarium oxysporum Causing Datepalm Wilt
by Imran Ul Haq, Siddra Ijaz, Nabeeha Aslam Khan, Iqrar Ahmad Khan, Hayssam M. Ali and Ernesto A. Moya-Elizondo
Plants 2022, 11(19), 2643; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11192643 - 8 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2093
Abstract
Pathogenicity-associated genes are highly host-specific and contribute to host-specific virulence. We tailored the traditional Koch’s postulates with integrative omics by hypothesizing that the effector genes associated with host-pathogenicity are determinant markers for virulence, and developed Integrative Pathogenicity (IP) postulates for authenticated pathogenicity testing [...] Read more.
Pathogenicity-associated genes are highly host-specific and contribute to host-specific virulence. We tailored the traditional Koch’s postulates with integrative omics by hypothesizing that the effector genes associated with host-pathogenicity are determinant markers for virulence, and developed Integrative Pathogenicity (IP) postulates for authenticated pathogenicity testing in plants. To set the criteria, we experimented on datepalm (Phoenix dactylifera) for the vascular wilt pathogen and confirmed the pathogen based on secreted in xylem genes (effectors genes) using genomic and transcriptomic approaches, and found it a reliable solution when pathogenicity is in question. The genic regions ITS, TEF1-α, and RPBII of Fusarium isolates were examined by phylogenetic analysis to unveil the validated operational taxonomy at the species level. The hierarchical tree generated through phylogenetic analysis declared the fungal pathogen as Fusarium oxysporum. Moreover, the Fusarium isolates were investigated at the subspecies level by probing the IGS, TEF1-α, and Pgx4 genic regions to detect the forma specialis of F. oxysporum that causes wilt in datepalm. The phylogram revealed a new forma specialis in F. oxysporum that causes vascular wilt in datepalm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenesis and Disease Control in Crops)
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14 pages, 1074 KiB  
Article
Effects of Seed Endophytic Bacteria on Life History and Reproductive Traits in a Cosmopolitan Weed, Capsella bursa-pastoris
by Byungwook Choi, Tae-Min Kim, Seorin Jeong, Yousuk Kim and Eunsuk Kim
Plants 2022, 11(19), 2642; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11192642 - 8 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1461
Abstract
Diverse bacteria inhabit plant seeds, and at least some of them can enhance plant performance at the early developmental stage. However, it is still inconclusive whether seed bacteria can influence post-germination traits and their contribution to plant fitness. To explore the evolutionary and [...] Read more.
Diverse bacteria inhabit plant seeds, and at least some of them can enhance plant performance at the early developmental stage. However, it is still inconclusive whether seed bacteria can influence post-germination traits and their contribution to plant fitness. To explore the evolutionary and ecological consequences of seed endophytic bacteria, we isolated four bacterial strains from the seeds of an annual weedy plant species, Capsella bursa-pastoris, and conducted a common garden experiment using seeds inoculated by isolated bacteria. Seeds infected by bacteria tended to germinate in spring rather than in autumn. Bacterial treatment also altered the expression of plant life history and reproductive traits, including flowering dates, rosette diameter at bolting, number of inflorescences, and fruit production. The results of the path analyses suggested that such effects of bacterial treatments were due to bacterial inoculation as well as germination delayed until spring. Spring germinants with bacterial infection showed a weaker association between post-germination traits and relative fitness than those without bacterial infection. These results suggest that seed bacteria likely affect the expression of post-germination traits directly or indirectly by delaying the germination season. An altered contribution of plant traits to relative fitness implies the influence of seed bacteria on the strength of natural selection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Ecology)
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10 pages, 775 KiB  
Article
Molecular Breeding of Water-Saving and Drought-Resistant Rice for Blast and Bacterial Blight Resistance
by Anning Zhang, Yi Liu, Feiming Wang, Deyan Kong, Junguo Bi, Fenyun Zhang, Xingxing Luo, Jiahong Wang, Guolan Liu, Lijun Luo and Xinqiao Yu
Plants 2022, 11(19), 2641; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11192641 - 8 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1835
Abstract
Rice production is often affected by biotic and abiotic stressors. The breeding of resistant cultivars is a cost-cutting and environmentally friendly strategy to maintain a sustainable high production level. An elite water-saving and drought-resistant rice (WDR), Hanhui3, is susceptible to blast and bacterial [...] Read more.
Rice production is often affected by biotic and abiotic stressors. The breeding of resistant cultivars is a cost-cutting and environmentally friendly strategy to maintain a sustainable high production level. An elite water-saving and drought-resistant rice (WDR), Hanhui3, is susceptible to blast and bacterial blight (BB). This study was conducted to introgress three resistance genes (Pi2, xa5, and Xa23) for blast and BB into Hanhui3, using marker-assisted selection (MAS) for the foreground selection and a whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array for the background selection. As revealed by the whole-genome SNP array, the recurrent parent genome (RPG) recovery of the improved NIL was 94.2%. The resistance levels to blast and BB of the improved NIL and its derived hybrids were higher than that of the controls. In addition, the improved NIL and its derived hybrids retained the desired agronomic traits from Hanhui3, such as yield. The improved NIL could be useful to enhance resistance against biotic stressors and produce stable grain yields in Oryza sativa subspecies indica rice breeding programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Opportunities and Challenges in Plant Germplasm)
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18 pages, 3122 KiB  
Article
The S-Gene YUC6 Pleiotropically Determines Male Mating Type and Pollen Size in Heterostylous Turnera (Passifloraceae): A Novel Neofunctionalization of the YUCCA Gene Family
by Paige M. Henning, Joel S. Shore and Andrew G. McCubbin
Plants 2022, 11(19), 2640; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11192640 - 8 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1664
Abstract
In heterostylous, self-incompatible Turnera species, a member of the YUCCA gene family, YUC6, resides at the S-locus and has been hypothesized to determine the male mating type. YUCCA gene family members synthesize the auxin, indole-3-acetic acid, via a two-step process involving [...] Read more.
In heterostylous, self-incompatible Turnera species, a member of the YUCCA gene family, YUC6, resides at the S-locus and has been hypothesized to determine the male mating type. YUCCA gene family members synthesize the auxin, indole-3-acetic acid, via a two-step process involving the TAA gene family. Consequently, it has been speculated that differences in auxin concentration in developing anthers are the biochemical basis underlying the male mating type. Here, we provide empirical evidence that supports this hypothesis. Using a transgenic knockdown approach, we show that YUC6 acts pleiotropically to control both the male physiological mating type and pollen size, but not the filament length dimorphism associated with heterostyly in Turnera. Using qPCR to assess YUC6 expression in different transgenic lines, we demonstrate that the level of YUC6 knockdown correlates with the degree of change observed in the male mating type. Further assessment of YUC6 expression through anther development, in the knockdown lines, suggests that the male mating type is irreversibly determined during a specific developmental window prior to microsporogenesis, which is consistent with the genetically sporophytic nature of this self-incompatibility system. These results represent the first gene controlling male mating type to be characterized in any species with heterostyly. Full article
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7 pages, 1200 KiB  
Communication
Growth and Competitiveness of ALS-Inhibiting Herbicide-Resistant Amaranthus retroflexus L.
by Ruolin Wang, Yujun Han, Ying Sun, Hongjuan Huang, Shouhui Wei and Zhaofeng Huang
Plants 2022, 11(19), 2639; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11192639 - 8 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1412
Abstract
The evolved acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibiting herbicide-resistant redroot amaranth has been confirmed in China and caused a great loss in soybean production. This study was conducted to evaluate the growth and competitiveness of ALS-resistant (R) and ALS-susceptible (S) redroot amaranth biotypes. Seeds of [...] Read more.
The evolved acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibiting herbicide-resistant redroot amaranth has been confirmed in China and caused a great loss in soybean production. This study was conducted to evaluate the growth and competitiveness of ALS-resistant (R) and ALS-susceptible (S) redroot amaranth biotypes. Seeds of both R and S biotypes were subjected to different temperature regimes. Data revealed that the germination percentage and seedling vigor of both biotypes did not differ largely from each other at 10/20 to 30/40 °C. Under noncompetitive conditions, there were no significant leaf number, plant height, or dry weight differences between the R and S biotypes. Moreover, replacement series experiment results indicated that the R and S biotypes have a similar competitive ability. This study shows that there are no significant differences in growth or competitiveness between the R and S redroot amaranth biotypes regarding the physiological characteristics evaluated. Therefore, the proportion and distribution of the R biotype will not be affected in the absence of the ALS-inhibiting herbicide. Some other effective management practices should be adopted to cope with this troublesome weed. Full article
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Article
Potential Therapeutic Properties of the Leaf of Cydonia Oblonga Mill. Based on Mineral and Organic Profiles
by Diana Melo Ferreira, Natália M. de Oliveira, Lara Lopes, Jorge Machado and Maria Beatriz Oliveira
Plants 2022, 11(19), 2638; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11192638 - 7 Oct 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1893
Abstract
Leaf extract of Cydonia Oblonga Mill. is interesting for further exploration of the potential of its substrates for therapeutic supplements. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were conducted on samples of green (October), yellow (November), and brown (December) quince leaves collected in the region of [...] Read more.
Leaf extract of Cydonia Oblonga Mill. is interesting for further exploration of the potential of its substrates for therapeutic supplements. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were conducted on samples of green (October), yellow (November), and brown (December) quince leaves collected in the region of Pinhel, Portugal. Mineral analysis determined the measurements of the levels of several macro- and micro-elements. Organic analysis assessed the moisture content, total phenolic content (TPC), vitamin E, and fatty acid (FA) profiles. Mineral analysis was based on ICP-MS techniques, while the profiles of vitamin E and FA relied on HPLC-DAD-FLD and GC-FID techniques, respectively. Moisture content was determined through infrared hygrometry and TPC was determined by spectrophotometric methods. Regarding the mineral content, calcium, magnesium, and iron were the most abundant minerals. Concerning organic analysis, all leaf samples showed similar moisture content, while the TPC of gallic acid equivalents (GAE) and total vitamin E content, the most predominant of which was the α-tocopherol isomer, showed significant variations between green-brown and yellow leaves. FA composition in all leaf samples exhibited higher contents of SFA and PUFA than MUFA, with a predominance of palmitic and linolenic acids. Organic and inorganic analysis of quince leaves allow for the prediction of adequate physiological properties, mainly cardiovascular, pulmonary, and immunological defenses, which with our preliminary in silico studies suggest an excellent supplement to complementary therapy, including drastic pandemic situations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemistry)
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