Selected Papers from Conference of CYSENI 2022

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Crop Physiology and Crop Production".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 September 2022) | Viewed by 34866

Special Issue Editors


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1. Department of Horticulture, Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research–NIBIO Ullensvang, Ulensvangvegen 1005, NO-5781 Lofthus, Norway
2. Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, Institute of Horticulture, Babtai, Lithuania
Interests: crop load management; fruit tree rootstocks; fruit quality; planting systems; pomology
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Guest Editor
Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, Laboratory of Plant Physiology, Kaunas str. 30, LT-54333, Kaunas dist, Kėdainiai, Lithuania
Interests: photophysiology; photosynthetic system; apple tree physiology; fruit quality
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

New challenges and aspirations in the environmental sciences are being raised and coped with by young scientists every year, focusing on sustainable agronomy, horticulture, forestry, nontoxicity, sustainable plant protection systems, etc. This Special Issue represents the CYSENI 2022 conference, covering a broad range of topics. We invite conference attendees, co-authors, and their colleagues to submit original research and review articles.

The 18th International Conference of Young Scientists on Energy and Natural Sciences Issues (CYSENI 2022), taking place on May 24-27, 2022, represents various environmental sciences fields: innovative agriculture, horticulture, and forestry solutions; toxic-free environments; sustainable pest management; food sciences and technologies; plant biology and physiology; and plant genetics and breeding. This Special Issue will comprise selected papers from the Environmental Sciences section of CYSENI 2022.

Dr. Giedrė Samuolienė
Dr. Darius Kviklys
Dr. Neringa Rasiukeviciute
Dr. Kristina Laužikė
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • selected papers from CYSENI 2022
  • sustainable agriculture
  • sustainable horticulture
  • sustainable forestry
  • toxic-free environments
  • sustainable pest management
  • food sciences
  • food technologies
  • plant biology
  • plant physiology
  • plant genetics
  • plant breeding

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 1076 KiB  
Article
Seed Bank Community under Different-Intensity Agrophytocenoses on Hilly Terrain in Lithuania
by Regina Skuodienė, Vilija Matyžiūtė, Jūratė Aleinikovienė, Birutė Frercks and Regina Repšienė
Plants 2023, 12(5), 1084; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12051084 - 01 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1293
Abstract
On the summit of a hill with a lack of humidity, and in usually stronger eroded midslope parts, crops thin out. Changing ecological conditions change the soil seed bank as well. The aim of this study was to examine changes in the seed [...] Read more.
On the summit of a hill with a lack of humidity, and in usually stronger eroded midslope parts, crops thin out. Changing ecological conditions change the soil seed bank as well. The aim of this study was to examine changes in the seed bank size and number of species and the influence of seed surface characteristics on their spread in different-intensity agrophytocenoses under hilly relief conditions. This study included different parts of the hill (summit, midslope and footslope) in Lithuania. The southern exposition slope’s soil was slightly eroded Eutric Retisol (loamic). In spring and autumn, the seed bank was investigated at depths of 0–5 and 5–15 cm. Irrespective of the season, in the soil of permanent grassland, the seed number was 6.8 and 3.4 times smaller compared to those of cereal–grass crop rotation and crop rotation with black fallow. The highest number of seed species was determined in the footslope of the hill. Seeds with rough surfaces dominated on all parts of the hill, but the highest amount (on the average 69.6%) was determined on the summit of the hill. In autumn, a strong correlation was found between the total seed number and soil microbial carbon biomass (r = 0.841–0.922). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from Conference of CYSENI 2022)
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15 pages, 3580 KiB  
Article
The Overall Environmental Load and Resistance Risk Caused by Long-Term Fungicide Use to Control Venturia inaequalis in Apple Orchards in Latvia
by Regīna Rancāne, Alma Valiuškaitė, Viktorija Zagorska, Vitālijs Komašilovs and Neringa Rasiukevičiūtė
Plants 2023, 12(3), 450; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12030450 - 18 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1560
Abstract
Apple orchards are perennially planted where pesticides are applied to control numerous pests and diseases. The extensive long-term use of fungicides can lead to overall environmental load and resistance risk. This study aims to assess which fungicide-active substances have been used more intensively [...] Read more.
Apple orchards are perennially planted where pesticides are applied to control numerous pests and diseases. The extensive long-term use of fungicides can lead to overall environmental load and resistance risk. This study aims to assess which fungicide-active substances have been used more intensively in the last decade in Latvia, evaluating the overall environmental load using the Pesticide Load Indicator (PLI). It was essential to see whether the amount of active substance usage rises, how it correlates with the total changes of the PLI and which substances are with the highest scores. The other issue was to test the sensitivity of Venturia inaequalis populations to systemic fungicides. Six full-bearing apple orchards that reflected local plant protection practices were selected from the different growing regions of Latvia to analyze fungicide use from 2012 to 2021 and test V. inaequalis populations’ sensitivity to systemic substances difenoconazole and cyprodinil. The PLI demonstrated that the protective fungicides were the most crucial group overall, with the highest potential impact on the environment and human health. Systemic fungicides had a relatively lower environmental impact, but after long-term use, the pathogen population’s sensitivity to difenoconazole and cyprodinil was reduced. Introducing new fungicide classes and biological control agents could help growers improve plant protection strategies against V. inaequalis, reducing the risk of resistance and environmental load. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from Conference of CYSENI 2022)
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15 pages, 1589 KiB  
Article
Influence of Different Intensities of Tillage on Physiological Characteristics and Productivity of Crop-Rotation Plants
by Daiva Janusauskaite and Grazina Kadziene
Plants 2022, 11(22), 3107; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11223107 - 15 Nov 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1049
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different intensities of tillage on the physiological characteristics and productivity of plants in crop rotation. Five tillage practices (DP—deep ploughing (22–24 cm); SP—shallow ploughing (16–18 cm); SH—shallow harrowing (8–10 cm); DH—deep harrowing [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different intensities of tillage on the physiological characteristics and productivity of plants in crop rotation. Five tillage practices (DP—deep ploughing (22–24 cm); SP—shallow ploughing (16–18 cm); SH—shallow harrowing (8–10 cm); DH—deep harrowing (14–16 cm); and DD—direct drilling) were investigated in a long-term experiment in Dotnuva. The crop rotation was as follows: winter oilseed rape → spring wheat → spring barley → field pea → winter wheat. The simplification of conventional tillage negatively affected the photosynthetic indices of the majority of the crop rotation plants. The most favorable conditions for the photosynthetic processes in the plants were identified in the deep-ploughing treatment. The photochemical activity was negatively influenced and leaf senescence was accelerated under direct drilling. Direct drilling significantly decreased the grain yield of winter oilseed rape, spring wheat, and spring barley by 10.5%, 12.8%, and 17.2%, respectively, compared to deep ploughing. The grain yield of winter wheat was similar under deep ploughing and direct drilling; conversely, under shallow ploughing, shallow harrowing, and deep harrowing, the yield tended to decrease compared to deep ploughing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from Conference of CYSENI 2022)
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18 pages, 2968 KiB  
Article
Comparative Study Effect of Urea-Sulfur Fertilizers on Nitrogen Uptake and Maize Productivity
by Samar Swify, Dovile Avizienyte, Romas Mazeika and Zita Braziene
Plants 2022, 11(22), 3020; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11223020 - 09 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3326
Abstract
Combined nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) fertilization is a good management strategy to reduce N loss and increase the efficiency of N fertilizers to achieve high grain yields and quality. Field trials for 2 yrs. (2018–2019) were conducted to evaluate the comparative advantage [...] Read more.
Combined nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) fertilization is a good management strategy to reduce N loss and increase the efficiency of N fertilizers to achieve high grain yields and quality. Field trials for 2 yrs. (2018–2019) were conducted to evaluate the comparative advantage of conventional urea (150 N kg ha−1) compared to urea+ ammonium sulfate (150 N kg ha−1), urea+ calcium sulfate (150 N kg ha−1), and urea cocrystals (CaSO4.4urea) (150 N kg ha−1) when applied as nitrogen fertilizers to the maize. The statistics show a significant treatments effect on developed corn cobs, fresh and dry cob yields and grain yield, with 1000 grains with better results in 2019 than in 2018. The fertilization treatments affected grain yields significantly for 2018 and 2019, respectively. Urea+ ammonium sulfate and urea cocrystal provided a significant increase in grain yields by 10.5% and 7.50%, respectively, compared to urea in 2018, w1hereas, in 2019, urea cocrystal supplied the grain yields with a significant increase of 23.07% compared to urea, followed by urea + calcium sulfate which provided a 10.46% increase compared to urea. The study highlights that using urea-sulfur fertilizers enhanced the release of mineral nitrogen in the soil, improved the grain’s N uptake by the plant and increased maize grain yields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from Conference of CYSENI 2022)
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17 pages, 3493 KiB  
Article
Effects of Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Cultivars for Mixed Cropping with Oats (Avena sativa L.) on Yield and Competition Indices in an Organic Production System
by Lina Šarūnaitė, Monika Toleikienė, Aušra Arlauskienė, Kristyna Razbadauskienė, Irena Deveikytė, Skaidrė Supronienė, Roma Semaškienė and Žydrė Kadžiulienė
Plants 2022, 11(21), 2936; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11212936 - 31 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1951
Abstract
The benefits of cereal-legume mixed cropping is a sustainable agricultural practice. However, knowledge of the genotypic differences of semi-leafless pea varieties is not enough to help them compete with cereals. In this study, the effects of Lithuania’s newest Pisum sativum cultivars (‘Egle DS’ [...] Read more.
The benefits of cereal-legume mixed cropping is a sustainable agricultural practice. However, knowledge of the genotypic differences of semi-leafless pea varieties is not enough to help them compete with cereals. In this study, the effects of Lithuania’s newest Pisum sativum cultivars (‘Egle DS’ and ‘Lina DS’) and, for comparison, a control cultivar (‘Jūra DS’) established with Avena sativa in mixed cropping system were investigated. Three years of field trials (2018, 2019 and 2020) with four experiments involved three different mixtures of each field pea cultivar with oat. The aboveground biomass of mixed cropped new field pea cultivars was found to be significantly higher: biomass of cultivars ‘Egle DS’ increased by 17.0% and ‘Lina DS’ by 7.2% on average compared with the control cultivar ‘Jūra DS’. For the mixed cropping system, statistically greater total aboveground biomass was observed with plant ratios of 50% pea + 50% oat and 60% pea + 40% oat compared to peas monocultures. Mixed cropped oat was the dominant species in all tested mixture compositions; however, the highest total grain yield of mixed crops was obtained when new pea ‘Lina DS’ and ‘Egle DS’ cultivars were included in the mixtures compared with the control cultivar. The new pea cultivar ‘Egle DS’ had a greater effect on protein content compared to other tested pea cultivars. In the new pea cultivars ‘Lina DS’ and ‘Egle DS’, the higher photosynthetic capacity and aboveground biomass of mixed cropped pea with oat showed mixture effects in the mixed cropped system and could increase total yield compared with pea monoculture. Generally, the new pea cultivars displayed a greater Land Equivalent Ratio (LER) value, resulting in the greatest yield among the mixtures on average for all three years and all four experiments. Future research could optimize the effects of pea cultivar mixtures with cereals to further improve the yield of organic mixed cropping systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from Conference of CYSENI 2022)
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13 pages, 1853 KiB  
Article
Comparative Analysis of Antioxidant Accumulation under Cold Acclimation, Deacclimation and Reacclimation in Winter Wheat
by Gabija Vaitkevičiūtė, Andrius Aleliūnas, Yves Gibon and Rita Armonienė
Plants 2022, 11(21), 2818; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11212818 - 23 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1547
Abstract
Low temperature during cold acclimation (CA) leads to the accumulation of detrimental reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant tissues, which are scavenged by antioxidants, such as ascorbate and glutathione. However, there is a lack of studies examining the dynamics of antioxidants throughout CA, [...] Read more.
Low temperature during cold acclimation (CA) leads to the accumulation of detrimental reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant tissues, which are scavenged by antioxidants, such as ascorbate and glutathione. However, there is a lack of studies examining the dynamics of antioxidants throughout CA, deacclimation (DEA), and reacclimation (REA) in winter wheat. Six winter wheat genotypes were selected to assess the effect of CA, DEA, and REA on the concentrations of ascorbate and glutathione in leaf and crown tissues under two CA temperature treatments. Higher levels of total, reduced, and oxidised ascorbate were determined in leaves, whereas crowns accumulated higher concentrations of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) after CA, DEA, and REA. Constant low temperature (CLT) during CA led to higher contents of ascorbate and glutathione in both tissues at all stages of acclimation, in comparison with prolonged higher low temperature (PHLT). The concentrations of antioxidants increased after CA, tended to decrease after DEA, and returned to CA levels after REA. Significant positive correlations between freezing tolerance (FT) and antioxidants were only determined under the CA at CLT treatment, thus, affirming the negative effect of PHLT during CA on the FT of winter wheat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from Conference of CYSENI 2022)
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20 pages, 1738 KiB  
Article
Ground Vegetation in Pinus sylvestris Forests at Different Successional Stages following Clear Cuttings: A Case Study
by Dovilė Gustienė, Iveta Varnagirytė-Kabašinskienė and Vidas Stakėnas
Plants 2022, 11(19), 2651; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11192651 - 09 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1345
Abstract
The impact of intensive forestry on various components of ecosystems has become the main subject of public and scientific debate in many regions in recent years. Forest ground vegetation is considered one of the most consistent and biodiversity-rich indicators of a certain stage [...] Read more.
The impact of intensive forestry on various components of ecosystems has become the main subject of public and scientific debate in many regions in recent years. Forest ground vegetation is considered one of the most consistent and biodiversity-rich indicators of a certain stage of successional forest development. Therefore, changes in this forest component can potentially show the risks of forest damage due to clear-cutting and recovery trends. This study was carried out to identify the ground vegetation species diversity, including species composition and cover, also ground vegetation species relations with organic layer (forest floor) and upper mineral soil parameters at the different successional stages of the Pinus sylvestris L. stand development, including 1–2-year-old clear-cuts, and 6–130 years old stands. This study identified that the herb and dwarf shrub species were more light-demanding in the 2-year-old clear-cuts, as well as in the 6-year and 10-year old P. sylvestris stands compared to the middle-aged and mature forest stands. The dominant ground vegetation species, characteristic for the Pinetum vaccinio-myrtillosum forest type, were negatively dependent on the forest floor mass; they also had negative correlations with the concentrations of total P, K, Ca, and Mg in the forest floor and upper mineral soil but had positive correlations with the soil pH values and total N. The developed regression models of the percentage cover of mosses, herbs and dwarf shrubs according to the P. sylvestris stand age highlight the stabilization of the increase in the moss cover about 30 years after clear-cutting, with no clear trend for vascular species. The herbs and dwarf shrub species were highly variable during the stand rotation due to the species-specific characteristics and random factors rather than due to the influence of stand age. In this study, relatively short-term changes in ground vegetation species composition and percentage cover were determined after clear-cutting, but an important aspect is that new ground vegetation species appeared in the open areas, creating the potential for increasing species diversity. The clear-cutting system supports different species and numbers of herbs and mosses at different stages of stand development, which potentially increases the overall vegetation species diversity of the ecosystem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from Conference of CYSENI 2022)
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12 pages, 1825 KiB  
Article
Soil Seed Bank in a Pre-Erosion Cereal-Grass Crop Rotation
by Regina Skuodienė and Vilija Matyžiūtė
Plants 2022, 11(19), 2636; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11192636 - 07 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1396
Abstract
Soil erosion by water is a serious environmental problem. It is very important to form agrophytocenosis, which is productive on hilly terrain and could effectively protect the soil from erosion. The aim of the study was to examine the impact of a hilly [...] Read more.
Soil erosion by water is a serious environmental problem. It is very important to form agrophytocenosis, which is productive on hilly terrain and could effectively protect the soil from erosion. The aim of the study was to examine the impact of a hilly relief on the changes of seeds in a soil of pre-erosion cereal-grass crop rotation. The study included different parts of the hill (summit, midslope, and footslope). The southern exposition slope’s soil was slightly eroded Eutric Retisol (loamic) (RT-eu.lo), and the steepness of the slope was 9–11°. The seed bank was investigated at the depths of 0–5 and 5–15 cm. The number of seeds in the soil seed bank during autumn was 20.4% higher than in the spring. The highest number of seeds in the autumn was determined on the summit (40.6 thousand seeds m–2). The highest count during the spring was determined on the midslope of the hill (36.4 thousand seeds m–2). In general, in the soil seed bank of the midslope of the hill, the number of seeds was by 7.8% and 42.4% higher compared to the summit and footslope parts. The highest seed reserve was found in the soil at a 0–5 cm depth (59.4% of the total seed number). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from Conference of CYSENI 2022)
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21 pages, 1130 KiB  
Article
Performance and Genetic Parameters of Poplar Hybrids and Clones in a Field Trial Are Modified by Contrasting Environmental Conditions during the Vegetative Propagation Phase
by Valda Gudynaitė-Franckevičienė and Alfas Pliūra
Plants 2022, 11(18), 2401; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11182401 - 15 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1347
Abstract
This study investigates epigenetics-like phenomena: how performance phenotypic plasticity, genotypic variation, and the heritability of growth traits and total phenolic compounds of Populus hybrids and clones in field trials may be modified by contrasting temperature conditions at their vegetation propagation phase. The significant [...] Read more.
This study investigates epigenetics-like phenomena: how performance phenotypic plasticity, genotypic variation, and the heritability of growth traits and total phenolic compounds of Populus hybrids and clones in field trials may be modified by contrasting temperature conditions at their vegetation propagation phase. The significant effect of rooting–growing conditions on further tree performance in field trials was found for height increment in 2020, although the interaction hybrid by rooting–growing conditions was highly significant for phenolic compounds, tree height, and diameter, meaning that the performance of some hybrids was affected by rooting–growing conditions, thus demonstrating epigenetic-like effects. For phenolic compounds, interactions were also significant at the clonal level. High estimates of ecovalency indicate that some hybrids are ecologically sensitive, and epigenetic-like phenomena might occur. Hybrid P. balsamifera × P. trichocarpa is characterized by high ecovalency and specific adaptations according to mean tree height when vegetatively propagated under different rooting–growing conditions. Low estimates of P. deltoides × P. trichocarpa ecovalency demonstrate a general adaptation according to mean tree height in a field trial. Vegetative propagation conditions have also altered the genetic variation of traits in trees being planted in field trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from Conference of CYSENI 2022)
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11 pages, 3386 KiB  
Article
Influence of Morphostructural Elements for Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) Productivity in Different Agricultural Systems
by Danuta Romanovskaja, Almantas Razukas and Rita Asakaviciute
Plants 2022, 11(18), 2382; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11182382 - 13 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 974
Abstract
The research was carried out at Vokė Branch of the Institute of Agriculture of Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry in 2018–2019. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of the relative proportion of stems, leaves and flowers on [...] Read more.
The research was carried out at Vokė Branch of the Institute of Agriculture of Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry in 2018–2019. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of the relative proportion of stems, leaves and flowers on biomass formation and grain yield in organic and conventional farming systems. The study found that buckwheat produced one-third more biomass in the conventional farming system than in the organic farming system. Differences between buckwheat cultivars were more distinct due to biomass formation than grain yield. The research determined that the productivity (biomass and grain yields) of buckwheat was dependent on the proportion of morphological elements in plants and the process of biomass formation and grain yield in organic and conventional agricultural systems. Biomass yields depended on the relative number of stems in both farming systems. Grain yield depended on the ratio of flowers in the morphostructure; however, statistically significant correlations were found only in the organic farming system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from Conference of CYSENI 2022)
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12 pages, 1538 KiB  
Article
Estimation of Morphological Features and Essential Oil Content of Basils (Ocimum basilicum L.) Grown under Different Conditions
by Danguolė Juškevičienė, Audrius Radzevičius, Pranas Viškelis, Nijolė Maročkienė and Rasa Karklelienė
Plants 2022, 11(14), 1896; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11141896 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1694
Abstract
This study was carried out in the experimental field and in unheated greenhouses of the Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry Institute of Horticulture. The investigation aimed to evaluate the morphological features, amount of essential oil, and productivity of 10 basil ( [...] Read more.
This study was carried out in the experimental field and in unheated greenhouses of the Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry Institute of Horticulture. The investigation aimed to evaluate the morphological features, amount of essential oil, and productivity of 10 basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) cultivars grown under different growing conditions. Studied cultivars were different according to morphological parameters, productivity, and the accumulation of essential oil. Most of the investigated parameters were influenced by growing conditions. Basil plants of cultivars Sweet Genovese and Toscano were determined to be the highest, and their height reached up to 70.5 cm. Cultivar Sweet Genovese was the most productive; its fresh herb mass per plant reached up to 0.71 kg under growing in the open field and greenhouse. Higher air temperature and constant watering of the soil in the greenhouse increased the accumulation of essential oils of basil. The biochemical analyses showed that the essential oil amount of 31% was higher when basils were grown in a greenhouse compared to an open field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from Conference of CYSENI 2022)
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19 pages, 4295 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Swine Manure Biochar on the Physical Properties and Microbial Activity of Loamy Soils
by Muhammad Ayaz, Dalia Feizienė, Virginijus Feiza, Vita Tilvikienė, Edita Baltrėnaitė-Gedienė and Attaullah Khan
Plants 2022, 11(13), 1729; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11131729 - 29 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1821
Abstract
Biochar has been proven to influence soil hydro-physical properties, as well as the abundance and diversity of microbial communities. However, the relationship between the hydro-physical properties of soils and the diversity of microbial communities is not well studied in the context of biochar [...] Read more.
Biochar has been proven to influence soil hydro-physical properties, as well as the abundance and diversity of microbial communities. However, the relationship between the hydro-physical properties of soils and the diversity of microbial communities is not well studied in the context of biochar application. The soil analyzed in this study was collected from an ongoing field experiment (2019–2024) with six treatments and three replications each of biochar (B1 = 25 t·ha−1 and B0 = no biochar) and nitrogen fertilizer (N1 = 160, N2 = 120 kg·ha−1, and N0 = no fertilizer). The results show that biochar treatments (B1N0, B1N1, and B1N2) significantly improved the soil bulk density and total soil porosity at different depths. The B1N1 treatment substantially enhanced the volumetric water content (VMC) by 5–7% at −4 to −100 hPa suction at 5–10 cm depth. All three biochar treatments strengthened macropores by 33%, 37%, and 41%, respectively, at 5–10 cm depth and by 40%, 45%, and 54%, respectively, at 15–20 cm depth. However, biochar application significantly lowered hydraulic conductivity (HC) and enhanced carbon source utilization and soil indices at different hours. Additionally, a positive correlation was recorded among carbon sources, indices, and soil hydro-physical properties under biochar applications. We can summarize that biochar has the potential to improve soil hydro-physical properties and soil carbon source utilization; these changes tend to elevate fertility and the sustainability of Cambisol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from Conference of CYSENI 2022)
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14 pages, 3858 KiB  
Article
Effect of Light Intensity on the Growth and Antioxidant Activity of Sweet Basil and Lettuce
by Rūta Sutulienė, Kristina Laužikė, Tomas Pukas and Giedrė Samuolienė
Plants 2022, 11(13), 1709; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11131709 - 28 Jun 2022
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 7120
Abstract
Light and nutrients are among the most important factors for sustained plant production in agriculture. As one of the goals of the European Green Deal strategy is to reduce energy consumption, greenhouse growers focus on high-value crop cultivation with less-energy-demanding growing systems. This [...] Read more.
Light and nutrients are among the most important factors for sustained plant production in agriculture. As one of the goals of the European Green Deal strategy is to reduce energy consumption, greenhouse growers focus on high-value crop cultivation with less-energy-demanding growing systems. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of fertilization at different light intensities on the growth of lettuce and basil and the activity of the antioxidant system. Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum, ‘Opal’) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa, ‘Nikolaj’) were grown in a greenhouse supplementing natural light (~80 µmol m−2 s−1) with lighting at two photon flux densities (150 and 250 µmol m−2 s−1), 16 h photoperiod, and 20/16 °C day/night temperature in May (Lithuania, 55°60′ N, 23°48′ E). In each light regime treatment, half of the plants were grown without additional fertilization; the other half were fertilized twice a week with a complex fertilizer (NPK 3-1-3). The results showed that the antioxidant activity of basil was most affected by 150 µmol m2 s1 PPFD lighting and the absence of fertilization. Altered antioxidant activity in lettuce in the presence of 250 µmol m2 s1 PPFD additional light intensity and fertilization resulted in higher morphological parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from Conference of CYSENI 2022)
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18 pages, 3345 KiB  
Article
Aralia cordata Thunb. as a Source of Bioactive Compounds: Phytochemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity
by Viktorija Puzerytė, Pranas Viškelis, Aistė Balčiūnaitienė, Paulina Štreimikytė, Jonas Viškelis and Dalia Urbonavičienė
Plants 2022, 11(13), 1704; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11131704 - 28 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2318
Abstract
Plant primary and secondary metabolites are a significant source for many applications, including extractions of functional components, green synthesis development, and producing higher-added value products. However, in the variety of botanicals, Aralia cordata Thunb. plant is getting attention for its similarity to ginseng. [...] Read more.
Plant primary and secondary metabolites are a significant source for many applications, including extractions of functional components, green synthesis development, and producing higher-added value products. However, in the variety of botanicals, Aralia cordata Thunb. plant is getting attention for its similarity to ginseng. This study comprehensively examines the biochemical and phytochemical profiles of different A. cordata morphological parts: root, stem, leaf, inflorescence, berry, and seed. Additionally, the establishment of total phenolic content and quantitative analysis of powerful antioxidants such as chlorophyll, carotenoids (zeaxanthin, lutein, and β-carotene), proanthocyanidins, and anthocyanins content were evaluated. The results indicated that A. cordata stem and berries are an excellent source of anthocyanins in the range from 18.27 to 78.54 mg/100 g DW. Meanwhile, the antioxidant activity was evaluated using three different methods based on the capacity to scavenge: DPPH scavenging capacity, ABTS•+ radical cation assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and ranged from 27 to 168 µmol TE/g DW, 8 to 117 µmol TE/g DW, and 18 to 157 µmol TE/g DW, respectively. This study proposes a novel competitive plant for many health-promoting applications in the nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, material, and food industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from Conference of CYSENI 2022)
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12 pages, 2435 KiB  
Article
An Effective Method of Ribes spp. Inoculation with Blackcurrant Reversion Virus under In Vitro Conditions
by Ana Dovilė Juškytė, Ingrida Mažeikienė and Vidmantas Stanys
Plants 2022, 11(13), 1635; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11131635 - 21 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1806
Abstract
Blackcurrant reversion virus (BRV) is the most destructive currant-infecting and mite-transmitted pathogen from the genus Nepovirus. In this work, BRV transmission in the system Ribes ex vitro–Ribes in vitro was applied for the first time. Triple infection of BRV identified in [...] Read more.
Blackcurrant reversion virus (BRV) is the most destructive currant-infecting and mite-transmitted pathogen from the genus Nepovirus. In this work, BRV transmission in the system Ribes ex vitro–Ribes in vitro was applied for the first time. Triple infection of BRV identified in blackcurrant cv. Gojai was used for phylogenetic analysis and inoculation assay. Transmission of BRV was successful due to its stability in the inoculum for up to 8 days at 4 °C; all BRV isolates were infectious. Our suggested inoculation method through roots was applied in six Ribes spp. genotypes with 100.0% reliability, and the expression levels of defence-related gene PR1 to biotic stress was observed. The prevalence of the virus in microshoots after 2–14 days post-inoculation (dpi) was established by PCR. In resistant genotypes, the BRV was identified up to 8 dpi; meanwhile, infection remained constant in susceptible genotypes. We established that BRV transmission under controlled conditions depends on the inoculum quality, post-inoculation cultivation temperature, and host-plant susceptibility to pathogen. This in vitro inoculation method opens possibilities to reveal the resistance mechanisms or response pathways to BRV and can be used for the selection of resistant Ribes spp. in breeding programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from Conference of CYSENI 2022)
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14 pages, 2774 KiB  
Article
Triterpene Content in Flesh and Peel of Apples Grown on Different Rootstocks
by Aurita Butkevičiūtė, Valdimaras Janulis and Darius Kviklys
Plants 2022, 11(9), 1247; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11091247 - 05 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1941
Abstract
Advancements in rootstock breeding and selection have revolutionized the manner in which apples are grown throughout the world. Fruit tree breeding has typically focused on key horticultural characteristics. Even though agents with health benefits have been investigated more frequently during the recent years, [...] Read more.
Advancements in rootstock breeding and selection have revolutionized the manner in which apples are grown throughout the world. Fruit tree breeding has typically focused on key horticultural characteristics. Even though agents with health benefits have been investigated more frequently during the recent years, information about the effect of different cultivation factors, such as the rootstock, on triterpene concentration is still lacking. The present study aimed to evaluate triterpene profiles and the quantitative composition of different parts of apple fruit that was grown on 17 various origin and vigor rootstocks. HPLC analyses of triterpenes in apple samples were performed. The highest total content of triterpenes (7.72 ± 0.39 mg/g) was found in peel samples of apples grown on the dwarf rootstock 62-396-B10®. Depending on the rootstock, apple peel samples accumulated 3.52 to 4.74 times more triterpene compounds than apple flesh samples. Ursolic acid was the predominant triterpene compound in apple peel and flesh samples. The highest content of ursolic acid (5.84 ± 0.29 mg/g) was found in peel samples of apples grown on the dwarf rootstock 62-396-B10®. Meanwhile, the lowest amount of ursolic acid (3.25 ± 0.16 mg/g) was found in apple peel samples grown on the dwarf rootstock Cepiland-Pajam®2. A proper match of a cultivar and a rootstock can program a fruit tree to grow larger amounts of higher quality, antioxidant-rich, and high-nutrition-value fruit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from Conference of CYSENI 2022)
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