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ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf., Volume 8, Issue 12 (December 2019) – 68 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Human activity type inference is important for applications ranging from managing transportation demand to land use management. Unlabelled mobility data offer the opportunity to explore different approaches for this task; however, validation is out of reach due to lack of reference data. This research proposes a framework for urban activity type inference using a Dirichlet multinomial dynamic Bayesian network with an empirical Bayes prior that that can be applied to mobility data of low spatiotemporal resolution. Results were validated using foursquare data, providing evidence of activity type inference accuracy. At the same time, results demonstrate that a hierarchical modeling framework can provide some flexibility against the challenges related to the nature of unsupervised activity classification.View this paper.
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Open AccessArticle
A Semantic Expansion Model for VGI Retrieval
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(12), 589; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8120589 - 17 Dec 2019
Viewed by 613
Abstract
OpenStreetMap (OSM) is a representative volunteered geographic information (VGI) project. However, there have been difficulties in retrieving spatial information from OSM. Ontology is an effective knowledge organization and representation method that is often used to enrich the search capabilities of search systems. This [...] Read more.
OpenStreetMap (OSM) is a representative volunteered geographic information (VGI) project. However, there have been difficulties in retrieving spatial information from OSM. Ontology is an effective knowledge organization and representation method that is often used to enrich the search capabilities of search systems. This paper constructed an OSM ontology model with semantic property items. A query expansion method is also proposed based on the similarity of properties of the ontology model. Moreover, a relevant experiment is conducted using OSM data related to China. The experimental results demonstrate that the recall and precision of the proposed method reach 80% and 87% for geographic information retrieval, respectively. This study provides a method that can be used as a reference for subsequent research on spatial information retrieval. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
CityGML-Based Road Information Model for Route Optimization of Snow-Removal Vehicle
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(12), 588; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8120588 - 17 Dec 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1120
Abstract
Infrastructure usability becomes limited during a heavy snowfall event. In order to prevent such limitations, damage calculations and a decision-making process are needed. Snow-removal routing is a type of relevant disaster-prevention service. While three-dimensional (3D) models support these measures, they contain complex information [...] Read more.
Infrastructure usability becomes limited during a heavy snowfall event. In order to prevent such limitations, damage calculations and a decision-making process are needed. Snow-removal routing is a type of relevant disaster-prevention service. While three-dimensional (3D) models support these measures, they contain complex information regarding compatibility. This study generates a city-level semantic information model for roads using CityGML, an open standard data schema, and calculates the optimal snow removal route using this model. To this end, constraint conditions are analyzed from the viewpoint of a snow-removal vehicle, and a road network for an optimal route is applied to a 3D road information model. Furthermore, this study proposes a new algorithm that reduces the number of nodes used in the optimal route calculation, and a genetic algorithm is used to find the solution of the formulated objective function. This new algorithm reduces the number of nodes to less than two-thirds that of the original numbers when determining the optimal travel route for snow-removal vehicles in the target area. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Approach for the Analysis of the Accessibility of Fire Hydrants in Urban Territories
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(12), 587; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8120587 - 17 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 711
Abstract
Globally, fire causes considerable losses that can be alleviated by taking appropriate actions facilitated by systems supported by geo-information technologies. This research focuses upon the development of an approach for planning urban infrastructures, and particularly in the accessibility of fire hydrants. Accessibility of [...] Read more.
Globally, fire causes considerable losses that can be alleviated by taking appropriate actions facilitated by systems supported by geo-information technologies. This research focuses upon the development of an approach for planning urban infrastructures, and particularly in the accessibility of fire hydrants. Accessibility of fire hydrants’ infrastructure in urban territories is one of the key elements in fire risk management and public safety. The main result of the research is a comprehensive and structured Geographic Information Systems (GISs)-based dataset for the fast and more efficient planning of fire hydrants in urban territories. The proposed framework for data collection and processing was used to determine the distribution of hydrants, location of fire brigade stations and areas and to demonstrate the capabilities of the existing municipal fire extinguishing systems in Vilnius City, Lithuania. Later on, research on fire hydrants’ accessibility, analysis of the location of protected and unprotected urban territories and marking of unprotected buildings, was carried out. The resulting map of unprotected urban territories can be of great benefit for understanding fire risks and offering more effective ways for fire risk management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geo-Information for Developing Urban Infrastructures)
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Open AccessArticle
Relevance of the Cell Neighborhood Size in Landscape Metrics Evaluation and Free or Open Source Software Implementations
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(12), 586; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8120586 - 13 Dec 2019
Viewed by 1119
Abstract
Landscape metrics constitute one of the main tools for the study of the changes of the landscape and of the ecological structure of a region. The most popular software for landscape metrics evaluation is FRAGSTATS, which is free to use but does not [...] Read more.
Landscape metrics constitute one of the main tools for the study of the changes of the landscape and of the ecological structure of a region. The most popular software for landscape metrics evaluation is FRAGSTATS, which is free to use but does not have free or open source software (FOSS). Therefore, FOSS implementations, such as QGIS’s LecoS plugin and GRASS’ r.li modules suite, were developed. While metrics are defined in the same way, the “cell neighborhood” parameter, specifying the configuration of the moving window used for the analysis, is managed differently: FRAGSTATS can use values of 4 or 8 (8 is default), LecoS uses 8 and r.li 4. Tests were performed to evaluate the landscape metrics variability depending on the “cell neighborhood” values: some metrics, such as “edge density” and “landscape shape index”, do not change, other, for example “patch number”, “patch density”, and “mean patch area”, vary up to 100% for real maps and 500% for maps built to highlight this variation. A review of the scientific literature was carried out to check how often the value of the “cell neighborhood” parameter is explicitly declared. A method based on the “aggregation index” is proposed to estimate the effect of the uncertainty on the “cell neighborhood” parameter on landscape metrics for different maps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Free and Open Source Tools for Geospatial Analysis and Mapping)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Concrete Preliminary Damage Inspection by Classification of Terrestrial Laser Scanner Point Clouds through Systematic Threshold Definition
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(12), 585; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8120585 - 13 Dec 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 827
Abstract
This paper presents a novel approach for automatic, preliminary detection of damage in concrete structures using ground-based terrestrial laser scanners. The method is based on computation of defect-sensitive features such as the surface curvature, since the surface roughness changes strongly if an area [...] Read more.
This paper presents a novel approach for automatic, preliminary detection of damage in concrete structures using ground-based terrestrial laser scanners. The method is based on computation of defect-sensitive features such as the surface curvature, since the surface roughness changes strongly if an area is affected by damage. A robust version of principal component analysis (PCA) classification is proposed to distinguish between structural damage and outliers present in the laser scanning data. Numerical simulations were conducted to develop a systematic point-wise defect classifier that automatically diagnoses the location of superficial damage on the investigated region. The method provides a complete picture of the surface health of concrete structures. It has been tested on two real datasets: a concrete heritage aqueduct in Brooks, Alberta, Canada; and a civil pedestrian concrete structure. The experiment results demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed systematic framework for detecting and localizing areas of damage as small as 1 cm or less. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geospatial Monitoring with Hyperspatial Point Clouds)
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Open AccessEditorial
Human-Centric Data Science for Urban Studies
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(12), 584; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8120584 - 12 Dec 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1482
Abstract
Due to the wide-spread use of disruptive digital technologies like mobile phones, cities have transitioned from data-scarce to data-rich environments. As a result, the field of geoinformatics is being reshaped and challenged to develop adequate data-driven methods. At the same time, the term [...] Read more.
Due to the wide-spread use of disruptive digital technologies like mobile phones, cities have transitioned from data-scarce to data-rich environments. As a result, the field of geoinformatics is being reshaped and challenged to develop adequate data-driven methods. At the same time, the term "smart city" is increasingly being applied in urban planning, reflecting the aims of different stakeholders to create value out of the new data sets. However, many smart city research initiatives are promoting techno-positivistic approaches which do not account enough for the citizens’ needs. In this paper, we review the state of quantitative urban studies under this new perspective, and critically discuss the development of smart city programs. We conclude with a call for a new anti-disciplinary, human-centric urban data science, and a well-reflected use of technology and data collection in smart city planning. Finally, we introduce the papers of this special issue which focus on providing a more human-centric view on data-driven urban studies, spanning topics from cycling and wellbeing, to mobility and land use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human-Centric Data Science for Urban Studies)
Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Physical, Social, and Housing Disorder on Neighborhood Crime: A Contemporary Test of Broken Windows Theory
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(12), 583; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8120583 - 12 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1102
Abstract
The current study tests neighborhood (i.e., block group) effects reflective of broken windows theory (i.e., neighborhood, public space, social, housing disorder) on crime. Furthermore, these effects are tested independently on serious (i.e., Part I), and less serious (i.e., Part II) crime rates. Disorder [...] Read more.
The current study tests neighborhood (i.e., block group) effects reflective of broken windows theory (i.e., neighborhood, public space, social, housing disorder) on crime. Furthermore, these effects are tested independently on serious (i.e., Part I), and less serious (i.e., Part II) crime rates. Disorder data on a racially/ethnically stratified sample of block groups (N = 60) within Milwaukee, Wisconsin, U.S.A. were collected through systematic observations. Using these data, along with census and crime data, linear regression modeling was employed to test the effect of disorder measures on each crime outcome measure. Consistent with broken windows theory, disorder was associated with crime rates; however, the effect of disorder on crime was limited to the public space disorder measure. Furthermore, the effects of disorder on Part I crime rates were mediated by Part II offenses. Partial support was found for broken windows theory, in which neighborhood context had a greater effect on less serious offenses. Neighborhoods with increasing frequencies of disorder may benefit from bolstering partnerships between law enforcement officers, community members, and other local stakeholders with the aim of deterring offending at all levels, and consequently, decreasing indices of disorder and crime. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Crime Mapping and Analysis Using GIS)
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Open AccessArticle
A Dual-Path and Lightweight Convolutional Neural Network for High-Resolution Aerial Image Segmentation
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(12), 582; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8120582 - 12 Dec 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1104
Abstract
Semantic segmentation on high-resolution aerial images plays a significant role in many remote sensing applications. Although the Deep Convolutional Neural Network (DCNN) has shown great performance in this task, it still faces the following two challenges: intra-class heterogeneity and inter-class homogeneity. To overcome [...] Read more.
Semantic segmentation on high-resolution aerial images plays a significant role in many remote sensing applications. Although the Deep Convolutional Neural Network (DCNN) has shown great performance in this task, it still faces the following two challenges: intra-class heterogeneity and inter-class homogeneity. To overcome these two problems, a novel dual-path DCNN, which contains a spatial path and an edge path, is proposed for high-resolution aerial image segmentation. The spatial path, which combines the multi-level and global context features to encode the local and global information, is used to address the intra-class heterogeneity challenge. For inter-class homogeneity problem, a Holistically-nested Edge Detection (HED)-like edge path is employed to detect the semantic boundaries for the guidance of feature learning. Furthermore, we improve the computational efficiency of the network by employing the backbone of MobileNetV2. We enhance the performance of MobileNetV2 with two modifications: (1) replacing the standard convolution in the last four Bottleneck Residual Blocks (BRBs) with atrous convolution; and (2) removing the convolution stride of 2 in the first layer of BRBs 4 and 6. Experimental results on the ISPRS Vaihingen and Potsdam 2D labeling dataset show that the proposed DCNN achieved real-time inference speed on a single GPU card with better performance, compared with the state-of-the-art baselines. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Accumulative Errors Optimization for Visual Odometry of ORB-SLAM2 Based on RGB-D Cameras
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(12), 581; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8120581 - 11 Dec 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 869
Abstract
Oriented feature from the accelerated segment test (oFAST) and rotated binary robust independent elementary features (rBRIEF) SLAM2 (ORB-SLAM2) represent a recognized complete visual simultaneous location and mapping (SLAM) framework with visual odometry as one of its core components. Given the accumulated error problem [...] Read more.
Oriented feature from the accelerated segment test (oFAST) and rotated binary robust independent elementary features (rBRIEF) SLAM2 (ORB-SLAM2) represent a recognized complete visual simultaneous location and mapping (SLAM) framework with visual odometry as one of its core components. Given the accumulated error problem with RGB-Depth ORB-SLAM2 visual odometry, which causes a loss of camera tracking and trajectory drift, we created and implemented an improved visual odometry method to optimize the cumulative error. First, this paper proposes an adaptive threshold oFAST algorithm to extract feature points from images and rBRIEF is used to describe the feature points. Then, the fast library for approximate nearest neighbors strategy is used for image rough matching, the results of which are optimized by progressive sample consensus. The image matching precision is further improved by using an epipolar line constraint based on the essential matrix. Finally, the efficient Perspective-n-Point method is used to estimate the camera pose and a least-squares optimization problem is constructed to adjust the estimated value to obtain the final camera pose. The experimental results show that the proposed method has better robustness, higher image matching accuracy and more accurate determination of the camera motion trajectory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Indoor Mapping and Modelling)
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Open AccessArticle
Global Mapping of GDP at 1 km2 Using VIIRS Nighttime Satellite Imagery
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(12), 580; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8120580 - 11 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1037
Abstract
Frequent and rapid spatially explicit assessment of socioeconomic development is critical for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) at both national and global levels. Over the past decades, scientists have proposed many methods for estimating human activity on the Earth’s surface at various [...] Read more.
Frequent and rapid spatially explicit assessment of socioeconomic development is critical for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) at both national and global levels. Over the past decades, scientists have proposed many methods for estimating human activity on the Earth’s surface at various spatiotemporal scales using Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Line System (DMSP-OLS) nighttime light (NTL) data. However, the DMSP-OLS NTL data and the associated processing methods have limited their reliability and applicability for systematic measuring and mapping of socioeconomic development. This study utilized Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) NTL and the Isolation Forest machine learning algorithm for more intelligent data processing to capture human activities. We used machine learning and NTL data to map gross domestic product (GDP) at 1 km2. We then used these data products to derive inequality indexes (e.g., Gini coefficients) at nationally aggregate levels. This flexible approach processes the data in an unsupervised manner at various spatial scales. Our assessments show that this method produces accurate subnational GDP data products for mapping and monitoring human development uniformly across the globe. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Fire Risk Assessment in Dense Urban Areas Using Information Fusion Techniques
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(12), 579; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8120579 - 11 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 748
Abstract
A comprehensive fire risk assessment is very important in dense urban areas as it provides an estimation of people at risk and property. Fire policy and mitigation strategies in developing countries are constrained by inadequate information, which is mainly due to a lack [...] Read more.
A comprehensive fire risk assessment is very important in dense urban areas as it provides an estimation of people at risk and property. Fire policy and mitigation strategies in developing countries are constrained by inadequate information, which is mainly due to a lack of capacity and resources for data collection, analysis, and modeling. In this research, we calculated the fire risk considering two aspects, urban infrastructure and the characteristics of a high-rise building for a dense urban area in Zanjan city. Since the resources for this purpose were rather limited, a variety of information was gathered and information fusion techniques were conducted by employing spatial analyses to produce fire risk maps. For this purpose, the spatial information produced using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and then attribute data (about 150 characteristics of each high-rise building) were gathered for each building. Finally, considering high-risk urban infrastructures, like the position of oil and gas pipes and electricity lines and the fire safety analysis of high-rise buildings, the vulnerability map for the area was prepared. The fire risk of each building was assessed and its risk level was identified. Results can help decision-makers, urban planners, emergency managers, and community organizations to plan for providing facilities and minimizing fire hazards and solve some related problems to reduce the fire risk. Moreover, the results of sensitivity analysis (SA) indicate that the social training factor is the most effective causative factor in the fire risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information Fusion Based on GIS)
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Open AccessArticle
An Experimental Research on the Use of Recurrent Neural Networks in Landslide Susceptibility Mapping
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(12), 578; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8120578 - 11 Dec 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1003
Abstract
Natural hazards have a great number of influencing factors. Machine-learning approaches have been employed to understand the individual and joint relations of these factors. However, it is a challenging process for a machine learning algorithm to learn the relations of a large parameter [...] Read more.
Natural hazards have a great number of influencing factors. Machine-learning approaches have been employed to understand the individual and joint relations of these factors. However, it is a challenging process for a machine learning algorithm to learn the relations of a large parameter space. In this circumstance, the success of the model is highly dependent on the applied parameter reduction procedure. As a state-of-the-art neural network model, representative learning assumes full responsibility of learning from feature extraction to prediction. In this study, a representative learning technique, recurrent neural network (RNN), was applied to a natural hazard problem. To that end, it aimed to assess the landslide problem by two objectives: Landslide susceptibility and inventory. Regarding the first objective, an empirical study was performed to explore the most convenient parameter set. In landslide inventory studies, the capability of the implemented RNN on predicting the subsequent landslides based on the events before a certain time was investigated respecting the resulting parameter set of the first objective. To evaluate the behavior of implemented neural models, receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed. Precision, recall, f-measure, and accuracy values were additionally measured by changing the classification threshold. Here, it was proposed that recall metric be utilized for an evaluation of landslide mapping. Results showed that the implemented RNN achieves a high estimation capability for landslide susceptibility. By increasing the network complexity, the model started to predict the exact label of the corresponding landslide initiation point instead of estimating the susceptibility level. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
As-Built BIM for a Fifteenth-Century Chinese Brick Structure at Various LoDs
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(12), 577; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8120577 - 11 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 797
Abstract
Building information modeling (BIM) has received significant research attention in the field of built heritage. As-built BIM refers to a BIM representation of the “as-is” conditions of built heritage at the time of a survey. Determining the level of development (LoD) is crucial [...] Read more.
Building information modeling (BIM) has received significant research attention in the field of built heritage. As-built BIM refers to a BIM representation of the “as-is” conditions of built heritage at the time of a survey. Determining the level of development (LoD) is crucial for as-built BIM owing to its relevance to model effects and modeling efforts. This study addresses this issue from the viewpoint of a brick structure based on a case study of a fifteenth-century ruin in Nanjing, China. Three LoDs are proposed based on the combined use of a commercial platform and auxiliary tools: A host model linked with raster images composed using orthoimage and relief maps (LoD 1), an as-built volume with semantic skins (LoD 2), and a brick-by-brick model with custom industry foundation class parameters at local areas (LoD 3). The results reveal that LoD 1 caters to an efficient web-based workflow for brick-damage annotations; as-built dimensions can be extracted from LoD 2; and LoD 3 enables attributes, such as damage types, to be attached at the brick level. In future studies, the detection of brick shapes is expected to automate the process of as-built surface mapping. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BIM for Cultural Heritage (HBIM))
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a CityGML Application Domain Extension for Simulating the Building Construction Process
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(12), 576; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8120576 - 11 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 792
Abstract
Virtual 3D city models can be stored and exchanged in the CityGML open data model. When dynamic phenomena in 3D cities are represented with a CityGML application domain extension (ADE), the objects in CityGML are often used as static background, and it is [...] Read more.
Virtual 3D city models can be stored and exchanged in the CityGML open data model. When dynamic phenomena in 3D cities are represented with a CityGML application domain extension (ADE), the objects in CityGML are often used as static background, and it is difficult to represent the evolutionary process of the objects themselves. Although a construction process model in building information modeling (BIM) is available, it cannot efficiently and accurately simulate the building construction process at the city level. Accordingly, employing the arrow diagramming method, we developed a CityGML ADE to represent this process. We extended the hierarchy of the model and proposed the process levels of detail model. Subsequently, we explored a mechanism to associate the construction process and building objects as well as the mechanism to automate construction process transitions. Experiments indicated that the building construction process ADE (BCPADE) could adequately express the characteristics of this process. Compared with the building construction process model in the architecture, engineering, and construction field, BCPADE removes redundant information, i.e., that unrelated to a 3D city. It can adequately express building construction processes at multiple spatiotemporal scales and accurately convey building object behavior during building evolution, such as adding, removal, merging, and change. Such characteristics enable BCPADE to render efficient and accurate simulations of the building construction process at the city level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integration of BIM and GIS for Built Environment Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Decision Model for Predicting Social Vulnerability Using Artificial Intelligence
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(12), 575; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8120575 - 11 Dec 2019
Viewed by 845
Abstract
Social vulnerability, from a socio-environmental point of view, focuses on the identification of disadvantaged or vulnerable groups and the conditions and dynamics of the environments in which they live. To understand this issue, it is important to identify the factors that explain the [...] Read more.
Social vulnerability, from a socio-environmental point of view, focuses on the identification of disadvantaged or vulnerable groups and the conditions and dynamics of the environments in which they live. To understand this issue, it is important to identify the factors that explain the difficulty of facing situations with a social disadvantage. Due to its complexity and multidimensionality, it is not always easy to point out the social groups and urban areas affected. This research aimed to assess the connection between certain dimensions of social vulnerability and its urban and dwelling context as a fundamental framework in which it occurs using a decision model useful for the planning of social and urban actions. For this purpose, a holistic approximation was carried out on the census and demographic data commonly used in this type of study, proposing the construction of (i) a knowledge model based on Artificial Neural Networks (Self-Organizing Map), with which a demographic profile is identified and characterized whose indicators point to a presence of social vulnerability, and (ii) a predictive model of such a profile based on rules from dwelling variables constructed by conditional inference trees. These models, in combination with Geographic Information Systems, make a decision model feasible for the prediction of social vulnerability based on housing information. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Dynamics Research in the Age of Smart and Intelligent Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Clustering Complex Trajectories Based on Topologic Similarity and Spatial Proximity: A Case Study of the Mesoscale Ocean Eddies in the South China Sea
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(12), 574; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8120574 - 11 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 632
Abstract
Many real-world dynamic features such as ocean eddies, rain clouds, and air masses may split or merge while they are migrating within a space. Topologically, the migration trajectories of such features are structurally more complex as they may have multiple branches due to [...] Read more.
Many real-world dynamic features such as ocean eddies, rain clouds, and air masses may split or merge while they are migrating within a space. Topologically, the migration trajectories of such features are structurally more complex as they may have multiple branches due to the splitting and merging processes. Identifying the spatial aggregation patterns of the trajectories could help us better understand how such features evolve. We propose a method, a Global Similarity Measuring Algorithm for the Complex Trajectories (GSMCT), to examine the spatial proximity and topologic similarity among complex trajectories. The method first transforms the complex trajectories into graph structures with nodes and edges. The global similarity between two graph structures (i.e., two complex trajectories) is calculated by averaging their topologic similarity and the spatial proximity, which are calculated using the Comprehensive Structure Matching (CSM) and the Hausdorff distance (HD) methods, respectively. We applied the GSMCT, the HD, and the Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) methods to examine the complex trajectories of the 1993–2016 mesoscale eddies in the South China Sea (SCS). Based on the similarity evaluation results, we categorized the complex trajectories across the SCS into four groups, which are similar to the zoning results reported in previous studies, though difference exists. Moreover, the yearly numbers of complex trajectories in the clusters in the northernmost (Cluster 1) and the southernmost SCS (Cluster 4) are almost the same. However, their seasonal variation and migration characteristics are totally opposite. Such new knowledge is very useful for oceanographers of interest to study and numerically simulate the mesoscale ocean eddies in the SCS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geographic Complexity: Concepts, Theories, and Practices)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of the Cycling Flow Between Origin and Destination for Dockless Shared Bicycles Based on Singular Value Decomposition
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(12), 573; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8120573 - 11 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 663
Abstract
Recently, an increasing number of cities have deployed bicycle-sharing systems to solve the first/last mile connection problem, generating a large quantity of data. In this paper, singular value decomposition (SVD) was used to extract the main features of the cycling flow from the [...] Read more.
Recently, an increasing number of cities have deployed bicycle-sharing systems to solve the first/last mile connection problem, generating a large quantity of data. In this paper, singular value decomposition (SVD) was used to extract the main features of the cycling flow from the origin and destination (OD) data of shared bicycles in Beijing. The results show that (1) pairs of OD flow clusters can be derived from the pairs of vectors after SVD, and each pair of clusters represents a small part of an area with dockless shared bicycles; (2) the spatial clusters derived from the top vectors of SVD are highly coincident with the hot spot areas in the heatmap of shared bicycles; (3) approximately 30% of the study area accounts for nearly 80% of bike riding; (4) nearly 70% of the clustered area derived from the top 1000 vectors of SVD is associated with subway stations; and (5) the types of point of interest (POI) differ between the origin area and destination area for the clustered area of the top 1000 vectors. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Designing Geovisual Analytics Environments and Displays with Humans in Mind
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(12), 572; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8120572 - 11 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 589
Abstract
In this open-access Special Issue, we feature a set of publications under the theme “Human-Centered Geovisual Analytics and Visuospatial Display Design” [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human-Centered Geovisual Analytics and Visuospatial Display Design)
Open AccessArticle
Modeling Spatio-Temporal Evolution of Urban Crowd Flows
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(12), 570; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8120570 - 11 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 892
Abstract
Metropolitan cities are facing many socio-economic problems (e.g., frequent traffic congestion, unexpected emergency events, and even human-made disasters) related to urban crowd flows, which can be described in terms of the gathering process of a flock of moving objects (e.g., vehicles, pedestrians) towards [...] Read more.
Metropolitan cities are facing many socio-economic problems (e.g., frequent traffic congestion, unexpected emergency events, and even human-made disasters) related to urban crowd flows, which can be described in terms of the gathering process of a flock of moving objects (e.g., vehicles, pedestrians) towards specific destinations during a given time period via different travel routes. Understanding the spatio-temporal characteristics of urban crowd flows is therefore of critical importance to traffic management and public safety, yet it is very challenging as it is affected by many complex factors, including spatial dependencies, temporal dependencies, and environmental conditions. In this research, we propose a novel matrix-computation-based method for modeling the morphological evolutionary patterns of urban crowd flows. The proposed methodology consists of four connected steps: (1) defining urban crowd levels, (2) deriving urban crowd regions, (3) quantifying their morphological changes, and (4) delineating the morphological evolution patterns. The proposed methodology integrates urban crowd visualization, identification, and correlation into a unified and efficient analytical framework. We validated the proposed methodology under both synthetic and real-world data scenarios using taxi mobility data in Wuhan, China as an example. Results confirm that the proposed methodology can enable city planners, municipal managers, and other stakeholders to identify and understand the gathering process of urban crowd flows in an informative and intuitive manner. Limitations and further directions with regard to data representativeness, data sparseness, pattern sensitivity, and spatial constraint are also discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
HsgNet: A Road Extraction Network Based on Global Perception of High-Order Spatial Information
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(12), 571; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8120571 - 10 Dec 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 836
Abstract
Road extraction is a unique and difficult problem in the field of semantic segmentation because roads have attributes such as slenderness, long span, complexity, and topological connectivity, etc. Therefore, we propose a novel road extraction network, abbreviated HsgNet, based on high-order spatial information [...] Read more.
Road extraction is a unique and difficult problem in the field of semantic segmentation because roads have attributes such as slenderness, long span, complexity, and topological connectivity, etc. Therefore, we propose a novel road extraction network, abbreviated HsgNet, based on high-order spatial information global perception network using bilinear pooling. HsgNet, taking the efficient LinkNet as its basic architecture, embeds a Middle Block between the Encoder and Decoder. The Middle Block learns to preserve global-context semantic information, long-distance spatial information and relationships, and different feature channels’ information and dependencies. It is different from other road segmentation methods which lose spatial information, such as those using dilated convolution and multiscale feature fusion to record local-context semantic information. The Middle Block consists of three important steps: (1) forming a feature resource pool to gather high-order global spatial information; (2) selecting a feature weight distribution, enabling each pixel position to obtain complementary features according to its own needs; and (3) inversely mapping the intermediate output feature encoding to the size of the input image by expanding the number of channels of the intermediate output feature. We compared multiple road extraction methods on two open datasets, SpaceNet and DeepGlobe. The results show that compared to the efficient road extraction model D-LinkNet, our model has fewer parameters and better performance: we achieved higher mean intersection over union (71.1%), and the model parameters were reduced in number by about 1/4. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Quality Control of “As Built” BIM Datasets Using the ISO 19157 Framework and a Multiple Hypothesis Testing Method Based on Proportions
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(12), 569; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8120569 - 10 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 725
Abstract
Building information model (BIM) data are digital and geometric-based data that are enriched thematically, semantically, and relationally, and are conceptually very similar to geographic information. In this paper, we propose both the use of the international standard ISO 19157 for the adequate formulation [...] Read more.
Building information model (BIM) data are digital and geometric-based data that are enriched thematically, semantically, and relationally, and are conceptually very similar to geographic information. In this paper, we propose both the use of the international standard ISO 19157 for the adequate formulation of the quality control for BIM datasets and a statistical approach based on a binomial/multinomial or hypergeometric (univariate/multivariate) model and a multiple hypothesis testing method. The use of ISO 19157 means that the definition of data quality units conforms to data quality elements and well-defined scopes, but also that the evaluation method and conformity levels use standardized measures. To achieve an accept/reject decision for quality control, a statistical model is needed. Statistical methods allow one to limit the risks of the parties (producer and user risks). In this way, several statistical models, based on proportions, are proposed and we illustrate how to apply several quality controls together (multiple hypothesis testing). All use cases, where the comparison of a BIM dataset versus reality is needed, are appropriate situations in which to apply this method in order to supply a general digital model of reality. An example of its application is developed to control an “as-built” BIM dataset where sampling is needed. This example refers to a simple residential building with four floors, composed of a basement garage, two commercial premises, four apartments, and an attic. The example is composed of six quality controls that are considered simultaneously. The controls are defined in a rigorous manner using ISO 19157, by means of categories, scopes, data quality elements, quality measures, compliance levels, etc. The example results in the rejection of the BIM dataset. The presented method is, therefore, adequate for controlling BIM datasets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integration of BIM and GIS for Built Environment Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing the Distribution of Heavy Industrial Heat Sources in India between 2012 and 2018
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(12), 568; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8120568 - 10 Dec 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 573
Abstract
The heavy industry in India has witnessed rapid development in the past decades. This has increased the pressures and load on the Indian environment, and has also had a great impact on the world economy. In this study, the Preparatory Project Visible Infrared [...] Read more.
The heavy industry in India has witnessed rapid development in the past decades. This has increased the pressures and load on the Indian environment, and has also had a great impact on the world economy. In this study, the Preparatory Project Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer (NPP VIIRS) 375-m active fire product (VNP14IMG) and night-time light (NTL) data were used to study the spatiotemporal patterns of heavy industrial development in India. We employed an improved adaptive K-means algorithm to realize the spatial segmentation of long-term VNP14IMG data and artificial heat-source objects. Next, the initial heavy industry heat sources were distinguished from normal heat sources using a threshold recognition model. Finally, the maximum night-time light data were used to delineate the final heavy industry heat sources. The results suggest, that this modified method is a much more accurate and effective way of monitoring heavy industrial heat sources, and the accuracy of this detection model was higher than 92.7%. The number of main findings were concluded from the study: (1) the heavy industry heat sources are mainly concentrated in the north-east Assam state, east-central Jharkhand state, north Chhattisgarh and Odisha states, and the coastal areas of Gujarat and Maharashtra. Many heavy industrial heat sources were also found around a line from Kolkata on the Eastern Indian Ocean to Mumbai on the Western Indian Ocean. (2) The number of working heavy industry heat sources (NWH) and, particularly, the total number of fire hotspots for each working heavy industry heat source area (NFHWH) are continuing to increase in India. These trends mirror those for the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and total population of India between 2012 and 2017. (3) The largest values of NWH and NFHWH were in Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, and Odisha whereas the smallest negative values, the S l o p e _ N W H in Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh were also the two largest values in the whole country. The smallest negative values of S l o p e _ N W H and S l o p e _ N F H W H were in Haryana. The S l o p e _ N F H W H in the mainland Gujarat had the second most negative value, while the value of the S l o p e _ N W H was the third-highest positive value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geo-Informatics in Resource Management)
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Open AccessFeature PaperTechnical Note
Developing the Chinese Academic Map Publishing Platform
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(12), 567; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8120567 - 10 Dec 2019
Viewed by 855
Abstract
The discipline of the humanities has long been inseparable from the exploration of space and time. With the rapid advancement of digitization, databases, and data science, humanities research is making greater use of quantitative spatiotemporal analysis and visualization. In response to this trend, [...] Read more.
The discipline of the humanities has long been inseparable from the exploration of space and time. With the rapid advancement of digitization, databases, and data science, humanities research is making greater use of quantitative spatiotemporal analysis and visualization. In response to this trend, our team developed the Chinese academic map publishing platform (AMAP) with the aim of supporting the digital humanities from a Chinese perspective. In compiling materials mined from China’s historical records, AMAP attempts to reconstruct the geographical distribution of entities including people, activities, and events, using places to connect these historical objects through time. This project marks the beginning of the development of a comprehensive database and visualization system to support humanities scholarship in China, and aims to facilitate the accumulation of spatiotemporal datasets, support multi-faceted queries, and provide integrated visualization tools. The software itself is built on Harvard’s WorldMap codebase, with enhancements which include improved support for Asian projections, support for Chinese encodings, the ability to handle long text attributes, feature level search, and mobile application support. The goal of AMAP is to make Chinese historical data more accessible, while cultivating collaborative opensource software development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Historical GIS and Digital Humanities)
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Open AccessArticle
Using Geographic Ontologies and Geo-Characterization to Represent Geographic Scenarios
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(12), 566; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8120566 - 10 Dec 2019
Viewed by 768
Abstract
Traditional Geographic Information Systems (GIS) represent the environment under reductionist thinking, which disaggregates a geographic environment into independent geographic themes. The reductionist approach makes the spatiotemporal characteristics of geo-features explicit, but neglects the holistic nature of the environment, such as the hierarchical structure [...] Read more.
Traditional Geographic Information Systems (GIS) represent the environment under reductionist thinking, which disaggregates a geographic environment into independent geographic themes. The reductionist approach makes the spatiotemporal characteristics of geo-features explicit, but neglects the holistic nature of the environment, such as the hierarchical structure and interactions among environmental elements. To fill this gap, we integrate the concept geographic scenario with the fundamental principles of General System Theory to realize the environmental complexity in GIS. With the integration, a geographic scenario constitutes a hierarchy of spatiotemporal frameworks for organizing environmental elements and subserving the exploration of their relationships. Furthermore, we propose geo-characterization with ontological commitments to both static and dynamic properties of a geographic scenario and prescribe spatial, temporal, semantic, interactive, and causal relationships among environmental elements. We have tested the utility of the proposed representation in OWL and the associated reasoning process in Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL) rules in a case study in Nanjing, China. The case study represents Nanjing and the Nanjing presidential palace to demonstrate the connections among environmental elements in different scenarios and the support for information queries, evolution process simulation, and semantic inferences. The proposed representation encodes geographic knowledge of the environment, makes the interactions among environmental elements explicit, supports geographic process simulation, opens opportunities for deep knowledge mining, and grounds a foundation for GeoAI to discover geographic complexity and dynamics beyond the support of conventional theme-centric inquiries in GIS. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Improved Mobile Mapping System to Detect Road-Killed Amphibians and Small Birds
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(12), 565; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8120565 - 10 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1019
Abstract
Roads represent a major source of mortality for many species. To mitigate road mortality, it is essential to know where collisions with vehicles are happening and which species and populations are most affected. For this, moving platforms such as mobile mapping systems (MMS) [...] Read more.
Roads represent a major source of mortality for many species. To mitigate road mortality, it is essential to know where collisions with vehicles are happening and which species and populations are most affected. For this, moving platforms such as mobile mapping systems (MMS) can be used to automatically detect road-killed animals on the road surface. We recently developed an MMS to detect road-killed amphibians, composed of a scanning system on a trailer. We present here a smaller and improved version of this system (MMS2) for detecting road-killed amphibians and small birds. It is composed of a stereo multi-spectral and high definition camera (ZED), a high-power processing laptop, a global positioning system (GPS) device, a support device, and a lighter charger. The MMS2 can be easily attached to any vehicle and the surveys can be performed by any person with or without sampling skills. To evaluate the system’s effectiveness, we performed several controlled and real surveys in the Évora district (Portugal). In real surveys, the system detected approximately 78% of the amphibians and birds present on surveyed roads (overlooking 22%) and generated approximately 17% of false positives. Our system can improve the implementation of conservation measures, saving time for researchers and transportation planning professionals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of GIS for Biodiversity Research)
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Open AccessCommunication
Monitoring 2.0: Update on the Halyomorpha halys Invasion of Trentino
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(12), 564; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8120564 - 10 Dec 2019
Viewed by 838
Abstract
“BugMap” is a citizen science mobile application that provides a platform for amateur and expert scientists to report sightings of two invasive insect pests, the tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) and the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). [...] Read more.
“BugMap” is a citizen science mobile application that provides a platform for amateur and expert scientists to report sightings of two invasive insect pests, the tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) and the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). The latter is a notorious pest of fruit trees, vegetables, ornamentals, and row crops, inflicting severe agricultural and ecological disturbances in invaded areas. Our approach consists of coupling traditional monitoring with citizen science to uncover H. halys invasion in Trentino. The project was initiated in 2016 and the first results were reported in 2018. Here, we revisit our initiative four years after its adoption and unravel new information related to the invader dispersal and overwintering capacity. We found that our previous model predicted the current distribution of H. halys in Trentino with an accuracy of 72.5%. A new MaxEnt model was generated by pooling all reports received so far, providing a clearer perspective on areas at risk of stink bug establishment in this north Italian region. The information herein presented is of immediate importance for enhancing monitoring strategies of this pest and for refining its integrated management tactics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crowdsourced Geographic Information in Citizen Science)
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Open AccessArticle
Grey System Theory in Research into Preferences Regarding the Location of Place of Residence within a City
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(12), 563; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8120563 - 09 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 518
Abstract
Analyses of the correlations between social and economic phenomena are rarely limited to simple evaluations of the relationships that exist between two features. Information about the structure and behaviour of complex phenomena and processes in the natural environment and social systems is usually [...] Read more.
Analyses of the correlations between social and economic phenomena are rarely limited to simple evaluations of the relationships that exist between two features. Information about the structure and behaviour of complex phenomena and processes in the natural environment and social systems is usually incomplete and uncertain. Grey relational analysis (GRA) poses an alternative to statistical methods (e.g., correlation analysis, variance analysis, regression analysis and direct comparisons) to evaluate complex phenomena. In GRA, the number of assumptions relating to the size and distribution of samples is far smaller than in statistical methods. The required number of observations in the GRA is n ≥ 4. Therefore, the grey system theory (GST) provides useful tools for analysing limited and imperfect data. GST can be used to predict a system’s future behaviour and to evaluate the relationships between observation vectors. The study aimed to determine the strength of the relationships between the analysed features with the use of GST and to analyse the model’s behaviour for a different number of variables. The main assumptions and definitions relating to GST were presented. The residential preferences of a selected social group were analysed. The proposed approach supports the development of effective decision-making procedures in urban planning. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Model Ensembles of Artificial Neural Networks and Support Vector Regression for Improved Accuracy in the Prediction of Vegetation Conditions and Droughts in Four Northern Kenya Counties
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(12), 562; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8120562 - 08 Dec 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 979
Abstract
For improved drought planning and response, there is an increasing need for highly predictive and stable drought prediction models. This paper presents the performance of both homogeneous and heterogeneous model ensembles in the satellite-based prediction of drought severity using artificial neural networks (ANN) [...] Read more.
For improved drought planning and response, there is an increasing need for highly predictive and stable drought prediction models. This paper presents the performance of both homogeneous and heterogeneous model ensembles in the satellite-based prediction of drought severity using artificial neural networks (ANN) and support vector regression (SVR). For each of the homogeneous and heterogeneous model ensembles, the study investigates the performance of three model ensembling approaches: (1) non-weighted linear averaging, (2) ranked weighted averaging, and (3) model stacking using artificial neural networks. Using the approach of “over-produce then select”, the study used 17 years of satellite data on 16 selected variables for predictive drought monitoring to build 244 individual ANN and SVR models from which 111 models were automatically selected for the building of the model ensembles. Model stacking is shown to realize models that are superior in performance in the prediction of future drought conditions as compared to the linear averaging and weighted averaging approaches. The best performance from the heterogeneous stacked model ensembles recorded an R2 of 0.94 in the prediction of future (1 month ahead) vegetation conditions on unseen test data (2016–2017) as compared to an R2 of 0.83 and R2 of 0.78 for ANN and SVR, respectively, in the traditional approach of selection of the best (champion) model. We conclude that despite the computational resource intensiveness of the model ensembling approach, the returns in terms of model performance for drought prediction are worth the investment, especially in the context of the continued exponential increase in computational power and the potential benefits of improved forecasting for vulnerable populations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Integration of Multi-Camera Video Moving Objects and GIS
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(12), 561; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8120561 - 07 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 852
Abstract
This work discusses the integration of multi-camera video moving objects (MCVO) and GIS. This integration was motivated by the characteristics of multi-camera videos distributed in the urban environment, namely, large data volume, sparse distribution and complex spatial–temporal correlation of MCVO, thereby resulting in [...] Read more.
This work discusses the integration of multi-camera video moving objects (MCVO) and GIS. This integration was motivated by the characteristics of multi-camera videos distributed in the urban environment, namely, large data volume, sparse distribution and complex spatial–temporal correlation of MCVO, thereby resulting in low efficiency of manual browsing and retrieval of videos. To address the aforementioned drawbacks, on the basis of multi-camera video moving object extraction, this paper first analyzed the characteristics of different video-GIS Information fusion methods and investigated the integrated data organization of MCVO by constructing a spatial–temporal pipeline among different cameras. Then, the conceptual integration model of MCVO and GIS was proposed on the basis of spatial mapping, and the GIS-MCVO prototype system was constructed in this study. Finally, this study analyzed the applications and potential benefits of the GIS-MCVO system, including a GIS-based user interface on video moving object expression in the virtual geographic scene, video compression storage, blind zone trajectory deduction, retrieval of MCVO, and video synopsis. Examples have shown that the integration of MCVO and GIS can improve the efficiency of expressing video information, achieve the compression of video data, rapidly assisting the user in browsing video objects from multiple cameras. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Non-Employment Activity Type Imputation from Points of Interest and Mobility Data at an Individual Level: How Accurate Can We Get?
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(12), 560; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8120560 - 05 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 694
Abstract
Human activity type inference has long been the focus for applications ranging from managing transportation demand to monitoring changes in land use patterns. Today’s ever increasing volume of mobility data allow researchers to explore a wide range of methodological approaches for this task. [...] Read more.
Human activity type inference has long been the focus for applications ranging from managing transportation demand to monitoring changes in land use patterns. Today’s ever increasing volume of mobility data allow researchers to explore a wide range of methodological approaches for this task. Such data, however, lack reference observations that would allow the validation of methodological approaches. This research proposes a methodological framework for urban activity type inference using a Dirichlet multinomial dynamic Bayesian network with an empirical Bayes prior that can be applied to mobility data of low spatiotemporal resolution. The method was validated using open source Foursquare data under different isochrone configurations. The results provide evidence of the limits of activity detection accuracy using such data as determined by the Area Under Receiving Operating Curve (AUROC), log-loss, and accuracy metrics. At the same time, results demonstrate that a hierarchical modeling framework can provide some flexibility against the challenges related to the nature of unsupervised activity classification using trajectory variables and POIs as input. Full article
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