Special Issue "BIM for Cultural Heritage (HBIM)"

A special issue of ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information (ISSN 2220-9964).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Pierre Grussenmeyer
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Surveying and Civil Engineering, National Institute of Applied Sciences of Strasbourg, 67084 Strasbourg, France
Interests: close-range photogrammetry; architectural photogrammetry & laser scanning; mobile mapping systems and photogrammetric computer systems; integration and accuracy of data in 3D city and building models
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Alex Yen
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Guest Editor
China University of Technology, Taiwan
Interests: Conservation; Cultural Value; Management of CH; Risk Preparedness; Oriental Architecture; Heritage BIM
Dr. Jan Boehm
Website
Guest Editor
University College London, London, United Kingdom
Interests: photogrammetry; image understanding; robotics
Dr. Luigi Barazzetti
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Architecture, Built environment and Construction engineering (ABC), Politecnico di Milano, Via Ponzio 31, 20133, Milan, Italy
Interests: photogrammetry; laser scanning; automation; 3d modelling; monitoring; computer vision

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The BIM process has mainly been focused on new buildings, covering the whole building life-cycle from the construction phase to asset management. The generation of accurate as-built parametric models of structures and infrastructures verified by point cloud surveys is a complex task of primary importance in reuse and renovation projects in the architecture, engineering, and construction industry. BIM for built heritage (HBIM) is still an emerging field. The biggest difference between BIM and HBIM is that HBIM faces a built heritage that has already existed for a period of time and has special value. Built heritage is characterized by complex morphology and nonhomogeneous features which clash with BIM’s standardized procedures. HBIM research is linked to the value of architectural heritage. This also affects the data linked with the building model, such as numeric data, imagery, and text documents, which can all evidence its historic importance but can also be of historic value themselves. It is essential to clearly understand and record the value of architectural heritage in an appropriate information model in order to facilitate conservation-friendly management, and to include the LOD and LOI of models. Laser scanning and photogrammetry have a fundamental role in the survey of existing facilities, especially for the generation of accurate and detailed as-built parametric models. However, various studies have demonstrated that automatic modelling from point clouds has sporadic adoption in large and complex BIM projects. The reconstruction problem is typically carried out with manual modelling approaches, resulting in time-consuming and labour-intensive operations. The creation of parametric models from photogrammetric and laser scanning point clouds requires, therefore, new automatic methods that are able to operate without excessive simplification of the information encapsulated into huge point clouds. At the same time, heavy models are useless for practical purposes, and productive work must be avoided. This requires research work aimed at developing novel algorithms for surface reconstruction and object parameterization, capable of approximating the point cloud with sufficient metric accuracy. Particular attention must be paid to self-intersection issues during the automated parameterization of complex shapes. As the generation of complex 3D models and the digital collection and linkage of nongeometric information constitute a significant investment, attention must be given to overall benefit of the process. Novel use cases such as numeric simulations for heritage structures based on BIM or site management and monitoring regimes integrated with BIM can provide substantial return of investment.

Prof. Dr. Pierre Grussenmeyer
Prof. Dr. Alex Yen
Dr. Jan Boehm
Dr. Luigi Barazzetti
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • BIM
  • HBIM
  • survey
  • point cloud
  • smart object
  • ontology
  • LOD
  • heritage
  • Cultural value
  • conservation

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
A Built Heritage Information System Based on Point Cloud Data: HIS-PC
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(10), 588; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9100588 - 07 Oct 2020
Abstract
The digital management of an archaeological site requires to store, organise, access and represent all the information that is collected on the field. Heritage building information modelling, archaeological or heritage information systems now tend to propose a common framework where all the materials [...] Read more.
The digital management of an archaeological site requires to store, organise, access and represent all the information that is collected on the field. Heritage building information modelling, archaeological or heritage information systems now tend to propose a common framework where all the materials are managed from a central database and visualised through a 3D representation. In this research, we offer the development of a built heritage information system prototype based on a high-resolution 3D point cloud data set. The particularity of the approach is to consider a user-centred development methodology while avoiding meshing/down-sampling operations. The proposed system is initiated by a close collaboration between multi-modal users (managers, visitors, curators) and a development team (designers, developers, architects). The developed heritage information system permits the management of spatial and temporal information, including a wide range of semantics using relational along with NoSQL databases. The semantics used to describe the artifacts are subject to conceptual modelling. Finally, the system proposes a bi-directional communication with a 3D interface able to stream massive point clouds, which is a big step forward to provide a comprehensive site representation for stakeholders while minimising modelling costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BIM for Cultural Heritage (HBIM))
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
A Method for 3D Reconstruction of the Ming and Qing Official-Style Roof Using a Decorative Components Template Library
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(10), 570; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9100570 - 29 Sep 2020
Abstract
The ancient roof decorative components of the official-style architectures from the Ming and Qing dynasties in China hold both physical and symbolic significance. These roof structures are the essential objects in three-dimensional (3D) modeling of ancient architectures for traditional Chinese cultural preservation. Although [...] Read more.
The ancient roof decorative components of the official-style architectures from the Ming and Qing dynasties in China hold both physical and symbolic significance. These roof structures are the essential objects in three-dimensional (3D) modeling of ancient architectures for traditional Chinese cultural preservation. Although ancient architectures can be surveyed by a 3D laser scanner, the complex geometry and diverse pattern of their roof decorative components make the 3D point cloud reconstruction challenging, or at some points, nearly impossible in a fully automated manner. In this paper, we propose a method to ensure that the 3D shape of each roof decorative component is accurately modeled. First, we establish a decorative components template library (or “template library” in short hereafter), which is the first of its kind for the roofs of Ming and Qing official-style architectures. The process of establishing the decorative components template library begins with a remote collection of survey data using a terrestrial laser scanner and digital camera. The next stage involves the design and construction of different 3D decorative components in the template library with reference to the manuscripts written in the Ming and Qing dynasties’ architectural pattern books. With the point cloud data collected on any Ming and Qing official-style architecture, we further propose a geo-registration mechanism to search for an optimal fitting of the decorative components from the template library on the collected point cloud automatically. Based on the experimental results, the accuracy of point cloud registration yields less than 0.02 m, which meets the accuracy of the 3D model at LoD 300 level. Time consumption is less than 5s and stable, for large volume computing capacity has good robustness. The proposed strategy provides a new way for the 3D modeling of large and clustered historical architectures, particularly with complex structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BIM for Cultural Heritage (HBIM))
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Open AccessArticle
Digital Twin: Research Framework to Support Preventive Conservation Policies
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(4), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9040228 - 09 Apr 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Preventive strategies for the conservation of heritage sites have gradually been preferred to curative approaches because of their ability to maintain their significance. Furthermore, most experts now agree that conservation management of heritage places based on a common understanding of their cultural values [...] Read more.
Preventive strategies for the conservation of heritage sites have gradually been preferred to curative approaches because of their ability to maintain their significance. Furthermore, most experts now agree that conservation management of heritage places based on a common understanding of their cultural values is essential to address all the particularities of their contexts. Recently, significant research has demonstrated the potential of Heritage Building Information Modelling (HBIM) for the collaborative data management in conjunction with conservation projects. The recent development of HBIM web platforms illustrates the value of strengthening the link between the digital model and the physical realm of heritage assets. This paper advocates the application of Digital Twin’s (DT) principles, using HBIM models as a digital replica, to support the preventive conservation of heritage places. Based on an extensive literature review, a comprehensive framework that integrates the DT into the management plan process for the preventive conservation of built heritage is proposed. Several recommendations for its implementation are finally discussed, such as the identification of tangible features of significance, the threats associated with their integrity and the corresponding mitigation strategies, with particular emphasis on the value assessment process. The result is a data model for structuring information on preventive conservation strategies. This framework provides the basis for future implementation and demonstrates the need for a DT approach in this context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BIM for Cultural Heritage (HBIM))
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Development and Application of an Intelligent Modeling Method for Ancient Wooden Architecture
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(3), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9030167 - 11 Mar 2020
Abstract
Building-information-modeling for cultural heritage (HBIM), which is established using surveying data, can be used to conserve architectural heritage. The development of an HBIM model for ancient wooden architecture (AWA) structures requires interdisciplinary integration. A parametric model for the main components that intelligently integrates [...] Read more.
Building-information-modeling for cultural heritage (HBIM), which is established using surveying data, can be used to conserve architectural heritage. The development of an HBIM model for ancient wooden architecture (AWA) structures requires interdisciplinary integration. A parametric model for the main components that intelligently integrates the historical knowledge, as well as an intelligent modeling method for these components, are two critical issues required to bridge the existing gap and improve the application of HBIM. Taking an AWA structure constructed during the Liao and Song Dynasties as an example, the parametric model for the typical components, with emphasis on commonality and characteristics, were first proposed. Subsequently, an intelligent automated modeling method was developed and programmed using Dynamo, which can intelligently identify the component type and determine the invisible dimensions. A complicated dou-gong was successfully established with surveying data using the proposed method within five minutes, thereby validating the reliability and efficiency of this method. Furthermore, the proposed method was used to establish the HBIM model of Yingxian Wood Pagoda, which is the oldest and tallest AWA structure in China with a height of 65.88 m. The research findings will provide an essential reference for the conservation of wooden architectural heritage structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BIM for Cultural Heritage (HBIM))
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Open AccessArticle
As-Built BIM for a Fifteenth-Century Chinese Brick Structure at Various LoDs
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(12), 577; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8120577 - 11 Dec 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Building information modeling (BIM) has received significant research attention in the field of built heritage. As-built BIM refers to a BIM representation of the “as-is” conditions of built heritage at the time of a survey. Determining the level of development (LoD) is crucial [...] Read more.
Building information modeling (BIM) has received significant research attention in the field of built heritage. As-built BIM refers to a BIM representation of the “as-is” conditions of built heritage at the time of a survey. Determining the level of development (LoD) is crucial for as-built BIM owing to its relevance to model effects and modeling efforts. This study addresses this issue from the viewpoint of a brick structure based on a case study of a fifteenth-century ruin in Nanjing, China. Three LoDs are proposed based on the combined use of a commercial platform and auxiliary tools: A host model linked with raster images composed using orthoimage and relief maps (LoD 1), an as-built volume with semantic skins (LoD 2), and a brick-by-brick model with custom industry foundation class parameters at local areas (LoD 3). The results reveal that LoD 1 caters to an efficient web-based workflow for brick-damage annotations; as-built dimensions can be extracted from LoD 2; and LoD 3 enables attributes, such as damage types, to be attached at the brick level. In future studies, the detection of brick shapes is expected to automate the process of as-built surface mapping. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BIM for Cultural Heritage (HBIM))
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Open AccessArticle
HBIM Modeling from the Surface Mesh and Its Extended Capability of Knowledge Representation
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(7), 301; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8070301 - 15 Jul 2019
Cited by 14
Abstract
Built heritage has been documented by reality-based modeling for geometric description and by ontology for knowledge management. The current challenge still involves the extraction of geometric primitives and the establishment of their connection to heterogeneous knowledge. As a recently developed 3D information modeling [...] Read more.
Built heritage has been documented by reality-based modeling for geometric description and by ontology for knowledge management. The current challenge still involves the extraction of geometric primitives and the establishment of their connection to heterogeneous knowledge. As a recently developed 3D information modeling environment, building information modeling (BIM) entails both graphical and non-graphical aspects of the entire building, which has been increasingly applied to heritage documentation and generates a new issue of heritage/historic BIM (HBIM). However, HBIM needs to additionally deal with the heterogeneity of geometric shape and semantic knowledge of the heritage object. This paper developed a new mesh-to-HBIM modeling workflow and an integrated BIM management system to connect HBIM elements and historical knowledge. Using the St-Pierre-le-Jeune Church, Strasbourg, France as a case study, this project employs Autodesk Revit as a BIM environment and Dynamo, a built-in visual programming tool of Revit, to extend the new HBIM functions. The mesh-to-HBIM process segments the surface mesh, thickens the triangle mesh to 3D volume, and transfers the primitives to BIM elements. The obtained HBIM is then converted to the ontology model to enrich the heterogeneous knowledge. Finally, HBIM geometric elements and ontology semantic knowledge is joined in a unified BIM environment. By extending the capability of the BIM platform, the HBIM modeling process can be conducted in a time-saving way, and the obtained HBIM is a semantic model with object-oriented knowledge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BIM for Cultural Heritage (HBIM))
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