Special Issue "Integration of BIM and GIS for Built Environment Applications"

A special issue of ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information (ISSN 2220-9964).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 July 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Lars Harrie
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
Interests: 3D city models; linked data; data integration; cartographic generalisation; spatial data infrastructure; visualization
Dr. Francesca Noardo
Website
Guest Editor
Built Environment and Architecture, Delft University of Technology, Delft, the Nethlands
Interests: GIS; 3D city models; GeoBIM; spatial data integration
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Claire Ellul
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, University College London, London, UK
Interests: 3D GIS; 3D city models; GeoBIM; spatial data quality and interoperability
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The use of digital 3D spatial information systems is a driving force of change in the built environment process. In all stages from planning to maintenance, we need both detailed digital representations of single objects based on building information models (BIM) and more inclusive representation of whole cities and landscapes based on 3D geographic information systems (GIS). Therefore, there has recently been much focus on integrating BIM and GIS data and technologies, often denoted GeoBIM. This Special Issue aims to advance our understanding of how spatial data science and engineering can enhance our knowledge of how to integrate BIM and GIS. We welcome both submissions with a theoretical approach and more applied studies, e.g., we encourage studies about specific use cases and practical, replicable applications. Furthermore, we welcome submissions that promote the use of open standards, both by evaluating the current standards and tools in exercises such as benchmarking and by proposing extensions/improvements to the current open standards.

This Special Issue seeks to describe and discuss the following topics but is not limited to them:

  • Case studies highlighting the potential of BIM/GIS integration;
  • BIM data used for maintaining and improving geodatabases;
  • Use of geodata in BIM;
  • Data models for BIM–GIS integration;
  • Spatial data analyses using BIM–GIS integration;
  • Improvements/extensions to open city model standards to facilitate BIM integration;
  • Improvements/extensions to open BIM standards to facilitate geospatial integration;
  • BIM georeferencing;
  • Versioning of integrated BIM–GIS data;
  • Smart city applications based on BIM and GIS data;
  • Open source tools for BIM–GIS integration;
  • 4D – the importance of time in BIM–GIS integration.

Prof. Dr. Lars Harrie
Dr. Francesca Noardo
Dr. Claire Ellul
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • 3D GIS
  • BIM
  • data integration
  • open standards
  • built environment
  • city models
  • smart cities

Published Papers (6 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle
Tools for BIM-GIS Integration (IFC Georeferencing and Conversions): Results from the GeoBIM Benchmark 2019
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(9), 502; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9090502 - 21 Aug 2020
Abstract
The integration of 3D city models with Building Information Models (BIM), coined as GeoBIM, facilitates improved data support to several applications, e.g., 3D map updates, building permits issuing, detailed city analysis, infrastructure design, context-based building design, to name a few. To solve the [...] Read more.
The integration of 3D city models with Building Information Models (BIM), coined as GeoBIM, facilitates improved data support to several applications, e.g., 3D map updates, building permits issuing, detailed city analysis, infrastructure design, context-based building design, to name a few. To solve the integration, several issues need to be tackled and solved, i.e., harmonization of features, interoperability, format conversions, integration of procedures. The GeoBIM benchmark 2019, funded by ISPRS and EuroSDR, evaluated the state of implementation of tools addressing some of those issues. In particular, in the part of the benchmark described in this paper, the application of georeferencing to Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) models and making consistent conversions between 3D city models and BIM are investigated, considering the OGC CityGML and buildingSMART IFC as reference standards. In the benchmark, sample datasets in the two reference standards were provided. External volunteers were asked to describe and test georeferencing procedures for IFC models and conversion tools between CityGML and IFC. From the analysis of the delivered answers and processed datasets, it was possible to notice that while there are tools and procedures available to support georeferencing and data conversion, comprehensive definition of the requirements, clear rules to perform such two tasks, as well as solid technological solutions implementing them, are still lacking in functionalities. Those specific issues can be a sensible starting point for planning the next GeoBIM integration agendas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integration of BIM and GIS for Built Environment Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
IFC Schemas in ISO/TC 211 Compliant UML for Improved Interoperability between BIM and GIS
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(4), 278; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9040278 - 23 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
This study aims to improve the interoperability between the application domains of Building Information Modelling (BIM) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) by linking and harmonizing core information concepts. Many studies have investigated the integration of application schemas and data instances according to the [...] Read more.
This study aims to improve the interoperability between the application domains of Building Information Modelling (BIM) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) by linking and harmonizing core information concepts. Many studies have investigated the integration of application schemas and data instances according to the BIM model IFC and the GIS model CityGML. This study investigates integration between core abstract concepts from IFC and ISO/TC 211 standards for GIS—independent of specific application schemas. A pattern was developed for conversion from IFC EXPRESS schemas to Unified Modelling Language (UML) models according to ISO/TC 211 standards. Core concepts from the two application domains were linked in the UML model, and conversions to implementation schemas for the Geography Markup Language (GML) and EXPRESS were tested. The results showed that the IFC model could be described as an ISO/TC 211 compliant UML model and that abstract concepts from ISO/TC 211 standards could be linked to core IFC concepts. Implementation schemas for BIM and GIS formats could be derived from the UML model, enabling implementation in applications from both domains without conversion of concepts. Future work should include refined linking and harmonization of core abstract concepts from the two application domains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integration of BIM and GIS for Built Environment Applications)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Requirements, Development, and Evaluation of A National Building Standard—A Swedish Case Study
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(2), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9020078 - 31 Jan 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to present a proposal for a national building standard in Sweden. We define requirements for the proposed standard, e.g., it should support development of 3D city models, connect to building information models (BIM) and national registers and [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper is to present a proposal for a national building standard in Sweden. We define requirements for the proposed standard, e.g., it should support development of 3D city models, connect to building information models (BIM) and national registers and be based on a national classification system for the urban environment. Based on these requirements we develop an Application Domain Extension (ADE) of the building model in the proposed CityGML 3.0 standard denoted CityGML Sve-Test. CityGML 3.0 includes several new features of interest, e.g., the space concept, enhanced possibilities to convert data, and to link to other standards. In our study we create test data according to CityGML Sve-Test and evaluate it against the requirements. It is shown that BIM models (in Industry Foundation Classes, IFC, format) can be converted to CityGML Sve-Test and that a classification system facilitates this conversion. The CityGML Sve-Test dataset can be used to increase the automation level in building permissions checking and a related study shows that CityGML 3.0 has capabilities to link to legal information and be a base for 3D cadastral index maps. Based on our experience, we suggest that the national building standard should conform to international standards and, if possible, include a classification system. The exchange format (GML, JSON etc.) might change, but to be based on a standardized data model ensures harmonized structures and concepts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integration of BIM and GIS for Built Environment Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Development of a CityGML Application Domain Extension for Simulating the Building Construction Process
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(12), 576; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8120576 - 11 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Virtual 3D city models can be stored and exchanged in the CityGML open data model. When dynamic phenomena in 3D cities are represented with a CityGML application domain extension (ADE), the objects in CityGML are often used as static background, and it is [...] Read more.
Virtual 3D city models can be stored and exchanged in the CityGML open data model. When dynamic phenomena in 3D cities are represented with a CityGML application domain extension (ADE), the objects in CityGML are often used as static background, and it is difficult to represent the evolutionary process of the objects themselves. Although a construction process model in building information modeling (BIM) is available, it cannot efficiently and accurately simulate the building construction process at the city level. Accordingly, employing the arrow diagramming method, we developed a CityGML ADE to represent this process. We extended the hierarchy of the model and proposed the process levels of detail model. Subsequently, we explored a mechanism to associate the construction process and building objects as well as the mechanism to automate construction process transitions. Experiments indicated that the building construction process ADE (BCPADE) could adequately express the characteristics of this process. Compared with the building construction process model in the architecture, engineering, and construction field, BCPADE removes redundant information, i.e., that unrelated to a 3D city. It can adequately express building construction processes at multiple spatiotemporal scales and accurately convey building object behavior during building evolution, such as adding, removal, merging, and change. Such characteristics enable BCPADE to render efficient and accurate simulations of the building construction process at the city level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integration of BIM and GIS for Built Environment Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Quality Control of “As Built” BIM Datasets Using the ISO 19157 Framework and a Multiple Hypothesis Testing Method Based on Proportions
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(12), 569; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8120569 - 10 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Building information model (BIM) data are digital and geometric-based data that are enriched thematically, semantically, and relationally, and are conceptually very similar to geographic information. In this paper, we propose both the use of the international standard ISO 19157 for the adequate formulation [...] Read more.
Building information model (BIM) data are digital and geometric-based data that are enriched thematically, semantically, and relationally, and are conceptually very similar to geographic information. In this paper, we propose both the use of the international standard ISO 19157 for the adequate formulation of the quality control for BIM datasets and a statistical approach based on a binomial/multinomial or hypergeometric (univariate/multivariate) model and a multiple hypothesis testing method. The use of ISO 19157 means that the definition of data quality units conforms to data quality elements and well-defined scopes, but also that the evaluation method and conformity levels use standardized measures. To achieve an accept/reject decision for quality control, a statistical model is needed. Statistical methods allow one to limit the risks of the parties (producer and user risks). In this way, several statistical models, based on proportions, are proposed and we illustrate how to apply several quality controls together (multiple hypothesis testing). All use cases, where the comparison of a BIM dataset versus reality is needed, are appropriate situations in which to apply this method in order to supply a general digital model of reality. An example of its application is developed to control an “as-built” BIM dataset where sampling is needed. This example refers to a simple residential building with four floors, composed of a basement garage, two commercial premises, four apartments, and an attic. The example is composed of six quality controls that are considered simultaneously. The controls are defined in a rigorous manner using ISO 19157, by means of categories, scopes, data quality elements, quality measures, compliance levels, etc. The example results in the rejection of the BIM dataset. The presented method is, therefore, adequate for controlling BIM datasets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integration of BIM and GIS for Built Environment Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Utilizing BIM and GIS for Representation and Visualization of 3D Cadastre
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(11), 503; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8110503 - 07 Nov 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
The current three-dimensionally (3D) delimited property units are in most countries registered using two-dimensional (2D) documentation and textual descriptions. This approach has limitations if used for representing the actual extent of complicated 3D property units, in particular in city centers. 3D digital models [...] Read more.
The current three-dimensionally (3D) delimited property units are in most countries registered using two-dimensional (2D) documentation and textual descriptions. This approach has limitations if used for representing the actual extent of complicated 3D property units, in particular in city centers. 3D digital models such as building information model (BIM) and 3D geographic information system (GIS) could be utilized for accurate identification of property units, better representation of cadastral boundaries, and detailed visualization of complex buildings. To facilitate this, several requirements need to be identified considering organizational, legal, and technical aspects. In this study, we formulate these requirements and then develop a framework for integration of 3D cadastre and 3D digital models. The aim of this paper is that cadastral information stored based on the land administration domain model (LADM) are integrated with BIM on building level for accurate representation of legal boundaries and with GIS on city level for visualization of 3D cadastre in urban environments. The framework is implemented and evaluated against the requirements in a practical case study in Sweden. The conclusion is that the integration of the cadastral information and BIM/GIS is possible on both conceptual level and data level which will facilitate that organizations dealing with cadastral information (cadastral units), BIM models (architecture, engineering, and construction companies), and GIS (surveying units on e.g., municipality level) can exchange information; this facilitates better representation and visualization of 3D cadastral boundaries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integration of BIM and GIS for Built Environment Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop