Virtual 3D city models can be stored and exchanged in the CityGML open data model. When dynamic phenomena in 3D cities are represented with a CityGML application domain extension (ADE), the objects in CityGML are often used as static background, and it is difficult to represent the evolutionary process of the objects themselves. Although a construction process model in building information modeling (BIM) is available, it cannot efficiently and accurately simulate the building construction process at the city level. Accordingly, employing the arrow diagramming method, we developed a CityGML ADE to represent this process. We extended the hierarchy of the model and proposed the process levels of detail model. Subsequently, we explored a mechanism to associate the construction process and building objects as well as the mechanism to automate construction process transitions. Experiments indicated that the building construction process ADE (BCPADE) could adequately express the characteristics of this process. Compared with the building construction process model in the architecture, engineering, and construction field, BCPADE removes redundant information, i.e., that unrelated to a 3D city. It can adequately express building construction processes at multiple spatiotemporal scales and accurately convey building object behavior during building evolution, such as adding, removal, merging, and change. Such characteristics enable BCPADE to render efficient and accurate simulations of the building construction process at the city level.
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