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Open AccessArticle

Development of a CityGML Application Domain Extension for Simulating the Building Construction Process

by Chi Zhang 1,2,3,4, Yunping Liu 1, Chen Lin 5,*, Liangchen Zhou 2,3,4, Bingxian Lin 2,3,4 and Mingliang Che 1
1
College of Geographic Science, Nantong University, Nantong 226019, China
2
Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment, Nanjing Normal University, Ministry of Education, Nanjing 210023, China
3
State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base of Geographical Environment Evolution (Jiangsu Province), Nanjing 210023, China
4
Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing 210023, China
5
Key Laboratory of Watershed Geographic Sciences, Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(12), 576; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8120576
Received: 13 November 2019 / Revised: 8 December 2019 / Accepted: 9 December 2019 / Published: 11 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integration of BIM and GIS for Built Environment Applications)
Virtual 3D city models can be stored and exchanged in the CityGML open data model. When dynamic phenomena in 3D cities are represented with a CityGML application domain extension (ADE), the objects in CityGML are often used as static background, and it is difficult to represent the evolutionary process of the objects themselves. Although a construction process model in building information modeling (BIM) is available, it cannot efficiently and accurately simulate the building construction process at the city level. Accordingly, employing the arrow diagramming method, we developed a CityGML ADE to represent this process. We extended the hierarchy of the model and proposed the process levels of detail model. Subsequently, we explored a mechanism to associate the construction process and building objects as well as the mechanism to automate construction process transitions. Experiments indicated that the building construction process ADE (BCPADE) could adequately express the characteristics of this process. Compared with the building construction process model in the architecture, engineering, and construction field, BCPADE removes redundant information, i.e., that unrelated to a 3D city. It can adequately express building construction processes at multiple spatiotemporal scales and accurately convey building object behavior during building evolution, such as adding, removal, merging, and change. Such characteristics enable BCPADE to render efficient and accurate simulations of the building construction process at the city level. View Full-Text
Keywords: CityGML; application domain extension; building construction process; building data model; 3D city CityGML; application domain extension; building construction process; building data model; 3D city
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Zhang, C.; Liu, Y.; Lin, C.; Zhou, L.; Lin, B.; Che, M. Development of a CityGML Application Domain Extension for Simulating the Building Construction Process. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8, 576.

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