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Open AccessArticle

As-Built BIM for a Fifteenth-Century Chinese Brick Structure at Various LoDs

1
School of Architecture, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211800, China
2
Nanjing City-Town Architecture Design and Consultants Co., Ltd., Nanjing 210036, China
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School of Architecture, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China
4
School of Design, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(12), 577; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8120577
Received: 23 October 2019 / Revised: 21 November 2019 / Accepted: 10 December 2019 / Published: 11 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BIM for Cultural Heritage (HBIM))
Building information modeling (BIM) has received significant research attention in the field of built heritage. As-built BIM refers to a BIM representation of the “as-is” conditions of built heritage at the time of a survey. Determining the level of development (LoD) is crucial for as-built BIM owing to its relevance to model effects and modeling efforts. This study addresses this issue from the viewpoint of a brick structure based on a case study of a fifteenth-century ruin in Nanjing, China. Three LoDs are proposed based on the combined use of a commercial platform and auxiliary tools: A host model linked with raster images composed using orthoimage and relief maps (LoD 1), an as-built volume with semantic skins (LoD 2), and a brick-by-brick model with custom industry foundation class parameters at local areas (LoD 3). The results reveal that LoD 1 caters to an efficient web-based workflow for brick-damage annotations; as-built dimensions can be extracted from LoD 2; and LoD 3 enables attributes, such as damage types, to be attached at the brick level. In future studies, the detection of brick shapes is expected to automate the process of as-built surface mapping. View Full-Text
Keywords: brick; LoD; as-built BIM; built heritage; vault; point cloud; IFC; survey; masonry brick; LoD; as-built BIM; built heritage; vault; point cloud; IFC; survey; masonry
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Sun, Z.; Xie, J.; Zhang, Y.; Cao, Y. As-Built BIM for a Fifteenth-Century Chinese Brick Structure at Various LoDs. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8, 577.

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