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ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf., Volume 7, Issue 6 (June 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) In the last years, new approaches aimed to increase the automation level of the positional accuracy [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of Thematic Similarity Using Confusion Matrices
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(6), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7060233
Received: 8 May 2018 / Revised: 13 June 2018 / Accepted: 18 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
The confusion matrix is the standard way to report on the thematic accuracy of geographic data (spatial databases, topographic maps, thematic maps, classified images, remote sensing products, etc.). Two widely adopted indices for the assessment of thematic quality are derived from the confusion
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The confusion matrix is the standard way to report on the thematic accuracy of geographic data (spatial databases, topographic maps, thematic maps, classified images, remote sensing products, etc.). Two widely adopted indices for the assessment of thematic quality are derived from the confusion matrix. They are overall accuracy (OA) and the Kappa coefficient (ĸ), which have received some criticism from some authors. Both can be used to test the similarity of two independent classifications by means of a simple statistical hypothesis test, which is the usual practice. Nevertheless, this is not recommended, because different combinations of cell values in the matrix can obtain the same value of OA or ĸ, due to the aggregation of data needed to compute these indices. Thus, not rejecting a test for equality between two index values does not necessarily mean that the two matrices are similar. Therefore, we present a new statistical tool to evaluate the similarity between two confusion matrices. It takes into account that the number of sample units correctly and incorrectly classified can be modeled by means of a multinomial distribution. Thus, it uses the individual cell values in the matrices and not aggregated information, such as the OA or ĸ values. For this purpose, it is considered a test function based on the discrete squared Hellinger distance, which is a measure of similarity between probability distributions. Given that the asymptotic approximation of the null distribution of the test statistic is rather poor for small and moderate sample sizes, we used a bootstrap estimator. To explore how the p-value evolves, we applied the proposed method over several predefined matrices which are perturbed in a specified range. Finally, a complete numerical example of the comparison of two matrices is presented. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A RSSI/PDR-Based Probabilistic Position Selection Algorithm with NLOS Identification for Indoor Localisation
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(6), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7060232
Received: 14 May 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 18 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
In recent years, location-based services have been receiving increasing attention because of their great development prospects. Researchers from all over the world have proposed many solutions for indoor positioning over the past several years. However, owing to the dynamic and complex nature of
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In recent years, location-based services have been receiving increasing attention because of their great development prospects. Researchers from all over the world have proposed many solutions for indoor positioning over the past several years. However, owing to the dynamic and complex nature of indoor environments, accurately and efficiently localising targets in indoor environments remains a challenging problem. In this paper, we propose a novel indoor positioning algorithm based on the received signal strength indication and pedestrian dead reckoning. In order to enhance the accuracy and reliability of our proposed probabilistic position selection algorithm in mixed line-of-sight (LOS) and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) environments, a low-complexity identification approach is proposed to identify the change in the channel situation between NLOS and LOS. Numerical experiment results indicate that our proposed algorithm has a higher accuracy and is less impacted by NLOS errors than other conventional methods in mixed LOS and NLOS indoor environments. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Spatial Variability of Local Rural Landscape Change under Rapid Urbanization in Eastern China
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(6), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7060231
Received: 2 May 2018 / Revised: 31 May 2018 / Accepted: 18 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
Understanding the characteristics of rural landscape change during the urbanization process is crucial to developing more elaborate rural landscape management plans for sustainable development. However, there is little information revealing how rural landscapes change at a local scale and limited evidence addressing how
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Understanding the characteristics of rural landscape change during the urbanization process is crucial to developing more elaborate rural landscape management plans for sustainable development. However, there is little information revealing how rural landscapes change at a local scale and limited evidence addressing how to improve the practicability of these management approaches. This paper aims to investigate local rural landscape compositions and patterns and to identify the spatial variability of local rural landscape change under rapid urbanization in eastern China to provide detail approaches to practicable and efficient local landscape management. The land use composition and landscape pattern from 2009 to 2012 were analyzed in three rural areas, namely, Daxing (DX) in Beijing, Quzhou (QZ) in Hebei Province and Changshu (CS) in Jiangsu Province. The results showed that the three rural areas varied in landscape pattern and land use composition change, even in the short term. Local farmland decreased slightly, demonstrating the effectiveness of the national farmland protection policy. Compared to the other two rural areas, CS was more diverse, fragmented and complex, and it had the greatest change rate between 2009 and 2012. In this rural area, semi-natural land dramatically increased, from 9.15% to 39.85%, and settlement construction unexpectedly decreased. QZ was characterized by a highly homogenous landscape dominated by farmland, which accounted for more than 80% of the total area, and it showed a slow decrease in farmland with weak increases in semi-natural land and construction. DX was characterized by a simple and homogenous landscape and had a median change rate of 9.32%, presenting a common land use change trend of a fast expansion in construction but decreases in farmland and semi-natural land. During decreases in highly valuable natural land, semi-natural land was important for nature conservation in rural areas at a local scale, but that process needs further improvement, especially in DX and QZ. Generally, local rural landscapes became more disaggregated and diverse during landscape change. Land use switches among farmland, orchards, nurseries, and other production lands were the major driving force for local change. Considering differential characteristics of landscape change among rural areas, we suggest that efficient landscape management requires the development of strategies that account for the spatial variability of urbanization effects. Subsidies for the management of semi-natural land with high natural value are meaningful for local natural conservation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Uncovering Spatial Inequality in Taxi Services in the Context of a Subsidy War among E-Hailing Apps
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(6), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7060230
Received: 13 May 2018 / Revised: 4 June 2018 / Accepted: 18 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
Spatial inequalities in urban public transportation are a major concern in many countries but little of this research has focused specifically on taxi services. The taxi situation has grown more complex, as traditional ride-for-hire services face growing competition from e-hailing apps like Uber
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Spatial inequalities in urban public transportation are a major concern in many countries but little of this research has focused specifically on taxi services. The taxi situation has grown more complex, as traditional ride-for-hire services face growing competition from e-hailing apps like Uber in the U.S., or Didi and Kuaidi in China. In 2014, Didi and Kuaidi triggered a nationwide subsidy war, with possible effects on the spatial inequality of taxi services. Taxi trajectory data from Shenzhen collected during the subsidy war shows that this competition reduced spatial inequality in the inner city but aggravated it in the outer city. In this study, a measure of service rate to depict the quantity of taxi services is proposed to calculate a Gini coefficient for evaluating change in the spatial inequality of taxi services. The Theil index and its decomposition were used to distinguish the contribution of Traffic Analysis Zones (TAZs) in the inner and the outer city and compare them to the overall spatial inequality of taxi services in Shenzhen, TAZs in the outer city had greater inequality in taxi services than the inner city. Furthermore, the primary contributor to overall inequality in taxi services was inequality within, rather than between, the inner and outer city. Moreover, the mean values for the changed service rates in the inner city were always larger than the outer city, and the inner city had a more equitable changed service rate than the outer city. These results could serve as a foundation for improving taxi services citywide. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Automated Orthorectification of VHR Satellite Images by SIFT-Based RPC Refinement
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(6), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7060229
Received: 28 April 2018 / Revised: 6 June 2018 / Accepted: 18 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
Raw remotely sensed images contain geometric distortions and cannot be used directly for map-based applications, accurate locational information extraction or geospatial data integration. A geometric correction process must be conducted to minimize the errors related to distortions and achieve the desired location accuracy
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Raw remotely sensed images contain geometric distortions and cannot be used directly for map-based applications, accurate locational information extraction or geospatial data integration. A geometric correction process must be conducted to minimize the errors related to distortions and achieve the desired location accuracy before further analysis. A considerable number of images might be needed when working over large areas or in temporal domains in which manual geometric correction requires more labor and time. To overcome these problems, new algorithms have been developed to make the geometric correction process autonomous. The Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) algorithm is an image matching algorithm used in remote sensing applications that has received attention in recent years. In this study, the effects of the incidence angle, surface topography and land cover (LC) characteristics on SIFT-based automated orthorectification were investigated at three different study sites with different topographic conditions and LC characteristics using Pleiades very high resolution (VHR) images acquired at different incidence angles. The results showed that the location accuracy of the orthorectified images increased with lower incidence angle images. More importantly, the topographic characteristics had no observable impacts on the location accuracy of SIFT-based automated orthorectification, and the results showed that Ground Control Points (GCPs) are mainly concentrated in the “Forest” and “Semi Natural Area” LC classes. A multi-thread code was designed to reduce the automated processing time, and the results showed that the process performed 7 to 16 times faster using an automated approach. Analyses performed on various spectral modes of multispectral data showed that the arithmetic data derived from pan-sharpened multispectral images can be used in automated SIFT-based RPC orthorectification. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Advanced Sidereal Filtering for Mitigating Multipath Effects in GNSS Short Baseline Positioning
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(6), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7060228
Received: 27 April 2018 / Revised: 1 June 2018 / Accepted: 18 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
Advanced sidereal filtering (ASF) is an observation-domain sidereal filtering that adopts the repeat time of each individual satellite separately rather than the mean repeat time, adopted by the modified sidereal filtering (MSF). To evaluate the performance of ASF, we apply the method to
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Advanced sidereal filtering (ASF) is an observation-domain sidereal filtering that adopts the repeat time of each individual satellite separately rather than the mean repeat time, adopted by the modified sidereal filtering (MSF). To evaluate the performance of ASF, we apply the method to filter the multipath for a short baseline based on a dual-antenna Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver. The errors from satellite and receiver clocks, satellite orbit, troposphere, ionosphere, and antenna phase center variations are greatly eliminated by single difference between the two antennas because they are connected to the same receiver clock. The performances of ASF are compared with MSF to evaluate the gain for multipath mitigation. Comparisons indicate that ASF slightly outperforms MSF when the repeat time values of all satellites incorporated in data processing are within the normal range (86,145–86,165 s), but the difference of variance reduction rate between ASF and MSF is statistically significant. When the data of a satellite with repeat time outside the normal range are included, the performances of MSF become much worse, but ASF is almost not affected. This advantage of ASF over MSF is important because the proportion of the days on which at least one satellite’s repeat time exceeds the normal range reaches 71.19% based on the statistics on the data of 2014 and 2015. After applying ASF multipath corrections on the test days, the averages of standard deviations of north, east, and up component are reduced from 3.8 to 2.1 mm, 3.2 to 1.7 mm, and 7.6 to 4.3 mm, respectively. Comparison between applying ASF with the single-day model and with the seven-day model indicates that the former is generally more effective in multipath reduction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Multi-Criteria Land Evaluation of Suitability for the Sport of Foot Orienteering: A Case Study of Croatia and Slovenia
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(6), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7060227
Received: 18 May 2018 / Revised: 15 June 2018 / Accepted: 18 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
This paper describes a new multi-criteria land evaluation method, based on geomorphology and land cover, for the automated detection of suitable terrain for the sport of foot orienteering (footO). Reference data, in the form of areas already mapped and used for footO, was
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This paper describes a new multi-criteria land evaluation method, based on geomorphology and land cover, for the automated detection of suitable terrain for the sport of foot orienteering (footO). Reference data, in the form of areas already mapped and used for footO, was used to define criteria for geomorphology and land cover, and represents an expert knowledge component. The motivation for this research is that orienteering maps are often drawn for unfamiliar terrain that organizers of the event or mapmakers need to determine in advance, usually from base maps or by random reconnaissance. In a presented case study of Croatia and Slovenia, the geomorphology was derived from Digital Elevation Model over Europe (EU-DEM). The slope and aspect define components of the direction of the surface, and we tested the usability of these simple terrain parameters for the task. The CORINE dataset was used for the definition of the land cover. The results of the case study give potentially suitable areas for foot orienteering in Croatia and Slovenia, and in neighboring areas. Evaluation of the results, using reference areas as the control, proved that the proposed methodology gives a reliable indication of terrain suitability for orienteering. The method is simple, straightforward, and can be performed using standard GIS with common raster algorithms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Research on a 3D Geological Disaster Monitoring Platform Based on REST Service
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(6), 226; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7060226
Received: 8 May 2018 / Revised: 8 June 2018 / Accepted: 18 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
Representational state transfer (REST) is a resource-based service architectural style. It abstracts data and services as resources and accesses them through a unique Uniform Resource Identifier (URI). Compared with traditional Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) methods, REST is more concise. It takes full
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Representational state transfer (REST) is a resource-based service architectural style. It abstracts data and services as resources and accesses them through a unique Uniform Resource Identifier (URI). Compared with traditional Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) methods, REST is more concise. It takes full advantage of HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and has better scalability and extensibility. Based on REST services, this article integrates geographic information, real-time disaster monitoring data, and warning services in a three-dimensional (3D) digital Earth infrastructure and establishes a three-dimensional geological disaster monitoring GIS platform with good service compatibility and extensibility. The platform visually displays geographical and geological information and real-time monitoring data in a three-dimensional Earth, accesses warning model services to implement disaster warnings, and realizes comprehensive information management, monitoring, and warnings of multiple types of geological disasters. This can provide decision support for disaster prevention and relief and improve the informatization of geological disaster prevention and control. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Metaphor Representation and Analysis of Non-Spatial Data in Map-Like Visualizations
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(6), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7060225
Received: 25 April 2018 / Revised: 27 May 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
Metaphors are rhetorical devices in linguistics that facilitate the understanding of an unfamiliar concept based on a familiar concept. Map representations are usually referred to as the second language of geo-science studies, and the metaphor method could be applied to maps to visualize
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Metaphors are rhetorical devices in linguistics that facilitate the understanding of an unfamiliar concept based on a familiar concept. Map representations are usually referred to as the second language of geo-science studies, and the metaphor method could be applied to maps to visualize non-spatial data via spatial element symbols. This study performs a cross-domain application of the map representation method through a map-like visualization. The procedure first designs the map layout with the aid of the Gosper curve. Under the guidance of the Gosper curve, the leaf data items without spatial attributes are arranged on the space plane. Through the bottom-up regional integration, one can complete the construction of the map framework. Then, the cartographic method is used to complete map-like renderings that reflect different data features through diverse visualizations. The map representation advantages, such as overview sensing and multi-scale representation, are also reflected in the map-like visualization and used to identify the characteristics of non-spatial data. Additionally, the electronic map provides a series of interactive convenience features for map observation and analysis. Using the help of map-like visualizations, one can perform a series of analyses of non-spatial data in a new form. To verify the proposed method, the authors conducted map-making experiments and data analyses using real data. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Regional Mapping Method for Oilseed Rape Based on HSV Transformation and Spectral Features
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(6), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7060224
Received: 25 April 2018 / Revised: 30 May 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 16 June 2018
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Abstract
This study proposed a colorimetric transformation and spectral features-based oilseed rape extraction algorithm (CSRA) to map oilseed rape at the provincial scale as a first step towards country-scale coverage. Using a stepwise analysis strategy, our method gradually separates vegetation from non-vegetation, crop from
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This study proposed a colorimetric transformation and spectral features-based oilseed rape extraction algorithm (CSRA) to map oilseed rape at the provincial scale as a first step towards country-scale coverage. Using a stepwise analysis strategy, our method gradually separates vegetation from non-vegetation, crop from non-crop, and oilseed rape from winter wheat. The wide-field view (WFV) images from Chinese Gaofen satellite no. 1 (GF-1) at six continuous flowering stages in Wuxue City, Hubei Province, China are used to extract the unique characteristics of oilseed rape during the flowering period and predict the parameter of the CSRA method. The oilseed rape maps of Hubei Province from 2014 to 2017 are obtained automatically based on the CSRA method using GF-1 WFV images. As a result, the CSRA-derived provincial oilseed rape maps achieved at least 85% overall accuracy of spatial consistency when comparing with local reference oilseed rape maps and lower than 20% absolute error of provincial planting areas when comparing with agricultural census data. The robustness of the CSRA method is also tested on other satellite images including one panchromatic and multispectral image from GF-2 and two RapidEye images. Moreover, the comparison between the CSRA and other previous methods is discussed using the six GF-1 WFV images of Wuxue City, showing the proposed method has better mapping accuracy than other tested methods. These results highlight the potential of our method for accurate extraction and regional mapping capacity for oilseed rape. Full article
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Open AccessArticle SmartEscape: A Mobile Smart Individual Fire Evacuation System Based on 3D Spatial Model
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(6), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7060223
Received: 13 April 2018 / Revised: 2 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 16 June 2018
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Abstract
We propose SmartEscape, a real-time, dynamic, intelligent and user-specific evacuation system with a mobile interface for emergency cases such as fire. Unlike past work, we explore dynamically changing conditions and calculate a personal route for an evacuee by considering his/her individual features. SmartEscape,
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We propose SmartEscape, a real-time, dynamic, intelligent and user-specific evacuation system with a mobile interface for emergency cases such as fire. Unlike past work, we explore dynamically changing conditions and calculate a personal route for an evacuee by considering his/her individual features. SmartEscape, which is fast, low-cost, low resource-consuming and mobile supported, collects various environmental sensory data and takes evacuees’ individual features into account, uses an artificial neural network (ANN) to calculate personal usage risk of each link in the building, eliminates the risky ones, and calculates an optimum escape route under existing circumstances. Then, our system guides the evacuee to the exit through the calculated route with vocal and visual instructions on the smartphone. While the position of the evacuee is detected by RFID (Radio-Frequency Identification) technology, the changing environmental conditions are measured by the various sensors in the building. Our ANN (Artificial Neural Network) predicts dynamically changing risk states of all links according to changing environmental conditions. Results show that SmartEscape, with its 98.1% accuracy for predicting risk levels of links for each individual evacuee in a building, is capable of evacuating a great number of people simultaneously, through the shortest and the safest route. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Citizen Science Approach for Collecting Toponyms
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(6), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7060222
Received: 30 March 2018 / Revised: 1 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 16 June 2018
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Abstract
The emerging trends and technologies of surveying and mapping potentially enable local experts to contribute and share their local geographical knowledge of place names (toponyms). We can see the increasing numbers of toponyms in digital platforms, such as OpenStreetMap, Facebook Place Editor, Swarm
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The emerging trends and technologies of surveying and mapping potentially enable local experts to contribute and share their local geographical knowledge of place names (toponyms). We can see the increasing numbers of toponyms in digital platforms, such as OpenStreetMap, Facebook Place Editor, Swarm Foursquare, and Google Local Guide. On the other hand, government agencies keep working to produce concise and complete gazetteers. Crowdsourced geographic information and citizen science approaches offer a new paradigm of toponym collection. This paper addresses issues in the advancing toponym practice. First, we systematically examined the current state of toponym collection and handling practice by multiple stakeholders, and we identified a recurring set of problems. Secondly, we developed a citizen science approach, based on a crowdsourcing level of participation, to collect toponyms. Thirdly, we examined the implementation in the context of an Indonesian case study. The results show that public participation in toponym collection is an approach with the potential to solve problems in toponym handling, such as limited human resources, accessibility, and completeness of toponym information. The lessons learnt include the knowledge that the success of this approach depends on the willingness of the government to advance their workflow, the degree of collaboration between stakeholders, and the presence of a communicative approach in introducing and sharing toponym guidelines with the community. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geoinformatics in Citizen Science)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle A Graph Database Model for Knowledge Extracted from Place Descriptions
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(6), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7060221
Received: 15 April 2018 / Revised: 3 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
Everyday place descriptions provide a rich source of knowledge about places and their relative locations. This research proposes a place graph model for modelling this spatial, non-spatial, and contextual knowledge from place descriptions. The model extends a prior place graph, and overcomes a
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Everyday place descriptions provide a rich source of knowledge about places and their relative locations. This research proposes a place graph model for modelling this spatial, non-spatial, and contextual knowledge from place descriptions. The model extends a prior place graph, and overcomes a number of limitations. The model is implemented using a graph database, and a management system has also been developed that allows operations including querying, mapping, and visualizing the stored knowledge in an extended place graph. Then three experimental tasks, namely georeferencing, reasoning, and querying, are selected to demonstrate the superiority of the extended model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Place-Based Research in GIScience and Geoinformatics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperTechnical Note HidroMap: A New Tool for Irrigation Monitoring and Management Using Free Satellite Imagery
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(6), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7060220
Received: 7 May 2018 / Revised: 31 May 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
Proper control and planning of water resource use, especially in those catchments with large surface, climatic variability and intensive irrigation activity, is essential for a sustainable water management. Decision support systems based on useful tools involving main stakeholders and hydrological planning offices of
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Proper control and planning of water resource use, especially in those catchments with large surface, climatic variability and intensive irrigation activity, is essential for a sustainable water management. Decision support systems based on useful tools involving main stakeholders and hydrological planning offices of the river basins play a key role. The free availability of Earth observation products with high temporal resolution, such as the European Sentinel-2B, has allowed us to combine remote sensing with cadastral and agronomic data. This paper introduces HidroMap to the scientific community, an open source tool as a geographic information system (GIS) organized in two different modules, desktop-GIS and web-GIS, with complementary functions and based on PostgreSQL/PostGIS database. Through an effective methodology HidroMap allows monitoring irrigation activity, managing unregulated irrigation, and optimizing available fluvial surveillance resources using satellite imagery. This is possible thanks to the automatic download, processing and storage of satellite products within field data provided by the River Surveillance Agency (RSA) and the Hydrological Planning Office (HPO). The tool was successfully validated in Duero Hydrographic Basin along the 2017 summer irrigation period. In conclusion, HidroMap comprised an important support tool for water management tasks and decision making tackled by Duero Hydrographic Confederation which can be adapted to any additional need and transferred to other river basin organizations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Free and Open Source Tools for Geospatial Analysis and Mapping)
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Open AccessArticle Ghost City Extraction and Rate Estimation in China Based on NPP-VIIRS Night-Time Light Data
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(6), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7060219
Received: 3 May 2018 / Revised: 21 May 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
The ghost city phenomenon is a serious problem resulting from the rapid urbanization process in China. Estimation of the ghost city rate (GCR) can provide information about vacant dwellings. This paper developed a methodology to quantitatively evaluate GCR values at the national scale
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The ghost city phenomenon is a serious problem resulting from the rapid urbanization process in China. Estimation of the ghost city rate (GCR) can provide information about vacant dwellings. This paper developed a methodology to quantitatively evaluate GCR values at the national scale using multi-resource remote sensing data. The Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership–Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer (NPP-VIIRS) night-time light data and moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) land cover data were used in the evaluation of the GCR values in China. The average ghost city rate (AGCR) was 35.1% in China in 2013. Shanghai had the smallest AGCR of 21.7%, while Jilin has the largest AGCR of 47.27%. There is a significant negative correlation between both the provincial AGCR and the per capita disposable income of urban households (R = −0.659, p < 0.01) and the average selling prices of commercial buildings (R = −0.637, p < 0.01). In total, 31 ghost cities are mainly concentrated in the economically underdeveloped inland provinces. Ghost city areas are mainly located on the edge of urban built-up areas, and the spatial pattern of ghost city areas changed in different regions. This approach combines statistical data with the distribution of vacant urban areas, which is an effective method to capture ghost city information. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Spatiotemporal Multi-View-Based Learning Method for Short-Term Traffic Forecasting
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(6), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7060218
Received: 24 April 2018 / Revised: 27 May 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 14 June 2018
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Abstract
Short-term traffic forecasting plays an important part in intelligent transportation systems. Spatiotemporal k-nearest neighbor models (ST-KNNs) have been widely adopted for short-term traffic forecasting in which spatiotemporal matrices are constructed to describe traffic conditions. The performance of the models is closely related to
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Short-term traffic forecasting plays an important part in intelligent transportation systems. Spatiotemporal k-nearest neighbor models (ST-KNNs) have been widely adopted for short-term traffic forecasting in which spatiotemporal matrices are constructed to describe traffic conditions. The performance of the models is closely related to the spatial dependencies, the temporal dependencies, and the interaction of spatiotemporal dependencies. However, these models use distance functions and correlation coefficients to identify spatial neighbors and measure the temporal interaction by only considering the temporal closeness of traffic, which result in existing ST-KNNs that cannot fully reflect the essential features of road traffic. This study proposes an improved spatiotemporal k-nearest neighbor model for short-term traffic forecasting by utilizing a multi-view learning algorithm named MVL-STKNN that fully considers the spatiotemporal dependencies of traffic data. First, the spatial neighbors for each road segment are automatically determined using cross-correlation under different temporal dependencies. Three spatiotemporal views are built on the constructed spatiotemporal closeness, periodic, and trend matrices to represent spatially heterogeneous traffic states. Second, a spatiotemporal weighting matrix is introduced into the ST-KNN model to recognize similar traffic patterns in the three spatiotemporal views. Finally, the results of traffic pattern recognition under these three spatiotemporal views are aggregated by using a neural network algorithm to describe the interaction of spatiotemporal dependencies. Extensive experiments were conducted using real vehicular-speed datasets collected on city roads and expressways. In comparison with baseline methods, the results show that the MVL-STKNN model greatly improves short-term traffic forecasting by lowering the mean absolute percentage error between 28.24% and 46.86% for the city road dataset and, between 53.80% and 90.29%, for the expressway dataset. The results suggest that multi-view learning merits further attention for traffic-related data mining under such a dynamic and data-intensive environment, which owes to its comprehensive consideration of spatial correlation and heterogeneity as well as temporal fluctuation and regularity in road traffic. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Deep Belief Networks Based Toponym Recognition for Chinese Text
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(6), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7060217
Received: 20 April 2018 / Revised: 21 May 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 14 June 2018
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Abstract
In Geographical Information Systems, geo-coding is used for the task of mapping from implicitly geo-referenced data to explicitly geo-referenced coordinates. At present, an enormous amount of implicitly geo-referenced information is hidden in unstructured text, e.g., Wikipedia, social data and news. Toponym recognition is
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In Geographical Information Systems, geo-coding is used for the task of mapping from implicitly geo-referenced data to explicitly geo-referenced coordinates. At present, an enormous amount of implicitly geo-referenced information is hidden in unstructured text, e.g., Wikipedia, social data and news. Toponym recognition is the foundation of mining this useful geo-referenced information by identifying words as toponyms in text. In this paper, we propose an adapted toponym recognition approach based on deep belief network (DBN) by exploring two key issues: word representation and model interpretation. A Skip-Gram model is used in the word representation process to represent words with contextual information that are ignored by current word representation models. We then determine the core hyper-parameters of the DBN model by illustrating the relationship between the performance and the hyper-parameters, e.g., vector dimensionality, DBN structures and probability thresholds. The experiments evaluate the performance of the Skip-Gram model implemented by the Word2Vec open-source tool, determine stable hyper-parameters and compare our approach with a conditional random field (CRF) based approach. The experimental results show that the DBN model outperforms the CRF model with smaller corpus. When the corpus size is large enough, their statistical metrics become approaching. However, their recognition results express differences and complementarity on different kinds of toponyms. More importantly, combining their results can directly improve the performance of toponym recognition relative to their individual performances. It seems that the scale of the corpus has an obvious effect on the performance of toponym recognition. Generally, there is no adequate tagged corpus on specific toponym recognition tasks, especially in the era of Big Data. In conclusion, we believe that the DBN-based approach is a promising and powerful method to extract geo-referenced information from text in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Place-Based Research in GIScience and Geoinformatics)
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Open AccessArticle Handling Points of Interest (POIs) on a Mobile Web Map Service Linked to Indoor Geospatial Objects: A Case Study
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(6), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7060216
Received: 4 April 2018 / Revised: 20 May 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 14 June 2018
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Abstract
Managing geo-based indoor content is important, because the components used to construct an urban environment are complex. Geospatial data are available worldwide, but services are tailored only to local features. As the accuracy of online maps increases, the buildings in a web-mapping service
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Managing geo-based indoor content is important, because the components used to construct an urban environment are complex. Geospatial data are available worldwide, but services are tailored only to local features. As the accuracy of online maps increases, the buildings in a web-mapping service can be created exactly as they are, in terms of actual features and geometric properties, and can provide some information on indoor elements. Nevertheless, not many practical use cases exist, as the available scope and volume of indoor content are limited. In Korea’s metropolitan areas, an indoor geospatial information management scheme was built to manage internal facility information for public and underground buildings on a three-dimensional (3D) basis and to provide online visualization services for users. Based on this enterprise system for public use of indoor 3D content, we conducted a case study with add-on features to manipulate and manage data by adding two-dimensional (2D) building data that are linked to the 3D models. We also changed the classification system of the points of interest (POIs) for each internal facility. To enhance public usability, a portion of the usable information in this scheme can be offered via an open application programming interface (Open API). To create a 2D POIs obtained from an indoor 3D object that was provided as a relative coordinate with only 3D geometric features, several steps were needed: adding the object to the system, storing the object as an absolute coordinate, and linking the object with an outdoor mapping service. In addition, to provide more useful information about indoor POIs generated from 3D models for users, detailed information should be further managed by directly using the Open APIs designed in this study. Subsequently, a mobile web mapping service system to visualize indoor contents was deployed to deliver practical processing and improvements based on the deployed Open API. The possibility of effective management and application of POIs related to indoor contents was confirmed through the mobile web-mapping demo service that was established using Open API. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Construction and Optimization of Three-Dimensional Disaster Scenes within Mobile Virtual Reality
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(6), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7060215
Received: 14 April 2018 / Revised: 31 May 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 14 June 2018
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Abstract
Because mobile virtual reality (VR) is both mobile and immersive, three-dimensional (3D) visualizations of disaster scenes based in mobile VR enable users to perceive and recognize disaster environments faster and better than is possible with other methods. To achieve immersion and prevent users
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Because mobile virtual reality (VR) is both mobile and immersive, three-dimensional (3D) visualizations of disaster scenes based in mobile VR enable users to perceive and recognize disaster environments faster and better than is possible with other methods. To achieve immersion and prevent users from feeling dizzy, such visualizations require a high scene-rendering frame rate. However, the existing related visualization work cannot provide a sufficient solution for this purpose. This study focuses on the construction and optimization of a 3D disaster scene in order to satisfy the high frame-rate requirements for the rendering of 3D disaster scenes in mobile VR. First, the design of a plugin-free browser/server (B/S) architecture for 3D disaster scene construction and visualization based in mobile VR is presented. Second, certain key technologies for scene optimization are discussed, including diverse modes of scene data representation, representation optimization of mobile scenes, and adaptive scheduling of mobile scenes. By means of these technologies, smartphones with various performance levels can achieve higher scene-rendering frame rates and improved visual quality. Finally, using a flood disaster as an example, a plugin-free prototype system was developed, and experiments were conducted. The experimental results demonstrate that a 3D disaster scene constructed via the methods addressed in this study has a sufficiently high scene-rendering frame rate to satisfy the requirements for rendering a 3D disaster scene in mobile VR. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Trend Analysis of Relationship between Primary Productivity, Precipitation and Temperature in Inner Mongolia
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(6), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7060214
Received: 13 March 2018 / Revised: 15 May 2018 / Accepted: 27 May 2018 / Published: 5 June 2018
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Abstract
This study mainly examined the relationships among primary productivity, precipitation and temperature by identifying trends of change embedded in time-series data. The paper also explores spatial variations of the relationship over four types of vegetation and across two precipitation zones in Inner Mongolia,
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This study mainly examined the relationships among primary productivity, precipitation and temperature by identifying trends of change embedded in time-series data. The paper also explores spatial variations of the relationship over four types of vegetation and across two precipitation zones in Inner Mongolia, China. Traditional analysis of vegetation response to climate change uses minimum, maximum, average or cumulative measurements; focuses on a whole region instead of fine-scale regional or ecological variations; or adopts generic analysis techniques. We innovatively integrate Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) and Redundancy Analysis (RDA) to overcome the weakness of traditional approaches. The EMD filtered trend surfaces reveal clear patterns of Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), precipitation, and temperature changes in both time and space. The filtered data decrease noises and cyclic fluctuations in the original data and are more suitable for examining linear relationship than the original data. RDA is further applied to reveal partial effect of precipitation and temperature, and their joint effect on primary productivity. The main findings are as follows: (1) We need to examine relationships between the trends of change of the variables of interest when investigating long-term relationships among them. (2) Long-term trend of change of precipitation or temperature can become a critical factor influencing primary productivity depending on local environments. (3) Synchronization (joint effect) of precipitation and temperature in growing season is critically important to primary productivity in the study area. (4) Partial and joint effects of precipitation and temperature on primary productivity vary over different precipitation zones and different types of vegetation. The method developed in this paper is applicable to ecosystem research in other regions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Improving Building Change Detection in VHR Remote Sensing Imagery by Combining Coarse Location and Co-Segmentation
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(6), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7060213
Received: 4 April 2018 / Revised: 18 May 2018 / Accepted: 27 May 2018 / Published: 4 June 2018
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Abstract
Building change detection based on remote sensing imagery is a significant task for urban construction, management, and planning. Feature differences caused by changes are fundamental in building change detection, but the spectral and spatial disturbances of adjacent geo-objects that can extensively affect the
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Building change detection based on remote sensing imagery is a significant task for urban construction, management, and planning. Feature differences caused by changes are fundamental in building change detection, but the spectral and spatial disturbances of adjacent geo-objects that can extensively affect the results are not considered. Moreover, the diversity of building features often renders change detection difficult to implement accurately. In this study, an effective approach is proposed for the detection of individual changed buildings. The detection process mainly consists of two phases: (1) locating the local changed area with the differencing method and (2) detecting changed buildings by using a fuzzy clustering-guided co-segmentation algorithm. This framework is broadly applicable for detecting changed buildings with accurate edges even if their colors and shapes differ to some extent. The results of the comparative experiment show that the strategy proposed in this study can improve building change detection. Full article
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Open AccessArticle 4D Time Density of Trajectories: Discovering Spatiotemporal Patterns in Movement Data
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(6), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7060212
Received: 10 April 2018 / Revised: 23 May 2018 / Accepted: 27 May 2018 / Published: 4 June 2018
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Abstract
Modern positioning and sensor technology enable the acquisition of movement positions and attributes on an unprecedented scale. Therefore, a large amount of trajectory data can be used to analyze various movement phenomena. In cartography, a common way to visualize and explore trajectory data
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Modern positioning and sensor technology enable the acquisition of movement positions and attributes on an unprecedented scale. Therefore, a large amount of trajectory data can be used to analyze various movement phenomena. In cartography, a common way to visualize and explore trajectory data is to use the 3D cube (e.g., space-time cube), where trajectories are presented as a tilted 3D polyline. As larger movement datasets become available, this type of display can easily become confusing and illegible. In addition, movement datasets are often unprecedentedly massive, high-dimensional, and complex (e.g., implicit spatial and temporal relations and interactions), making it challenging to explore and analyze the spatiotemporal movement patterns in space. In this paper, we propose 4D time density as a visualization method for identifying and analyzing spatiotemporal movement patterns in large trajectory datasets. The movement range of the objects is regarded as a 3D geographical space, into which the fourth dimension, 4D time density, is incorporated. The 4D time density is derived by modeling the movement path and velocity separately. We present a time density algorithm, and demonstrate it on the simulated trajectory and a real dataset representing the movement data of aircrafts in the Hong Kong International and the Macau International Airports. Finally, we consider wider applications and further developments of time density. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cognitive Aspects of Human-Computer Interaction for GIS)
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Open AccessArticle Assessment of Groundwater Nitrate Pollution Potential in Central Valley Aquifer Using Geodetector-Based Frequency Ratio (GFR) and Optimized-DRASTIC Methods
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(6), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7060211
Received: 5 March 2018 / Revised: 11 May 2018 / Accepted: 27 May 2018 / Published: 2 June 2018
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Abstract
Groundwater nitrate contamination in the Central Valley (CV) aquifer of California is widespread throughout the valley because of excess nitrogen fertilizer leaching down into the aquifer. The percolation of nitrate depends on several hydrogeological conditions of the valley. Groundwater contamination vulnerability mapping uses
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Groundwater nitrate contamination in the Central Valley (CV) aquifer of California is widespread throughout the valley because of excess nitrogen fertilizer leaching down into the aquifer. The percolation of nitrate depends on several hydrogeological conditions of the valley. Groundwater contamination vulnerability mapping uses hydrogeologic conditions to predict vulnerable areas. This paper presents a new Geodetector-based Frequency Ratio (GFR) method and an optimized-DRASTIC method to generate nitrate vulnerability index values for the CV. The optimized-DRASTIC method combined the individual weights and rating values for Depth to water, Recharge rate, Aquifer media, Soil media, Topography, Impact of vadose zone, and Hydraulic conductivity. The GFR method incorporated the Frequency-Ratio (FR) method to derive rating values and the Geodetector method to derive relative Power of Determinant (PD) values as weights to generate nitrate susceptibility index map. The optimized-DRASTIC method generated very-high to high index values in the eastern part of the CV. The GFR method showed very-high index values in most part of the San Joaquin and Tulare basin. The quantitatively derived rating values and weights in the GFR method improved the vulnerability index and showed better consistency with the observed nitrate contamination pattern than optimized-DRASTIC index, suggesting that GFR is a better method for groundwater contamination vulnerability mapping in the CV aquifer. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Analyzing Space-Time Dynamics of Theft Rates Using Exchange Mobility
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(6), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7060210
Received: 1 May 2018 / Revised: 21 May 2018 / Accepted: 27 May 2018 / Published: 2 June 2018
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Abstract
A critical issue in the geography of crime is the quantitative analysis of the spatial distribution of crimes which usually changes over time. In this paper, we use the concept of exchange mobility across different time periods to determine the spatial distribution of
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A critical issue in the geography of crime is the quantitative analysis of the spatial distribution of crimes which usually changes over time. In this paper, we use the concept of exchange mobility across different time periods to determine the spatial distribution of the theft rate in the city of Wuhan, China, in 2016. To this end, we use a newly-developed spatial dynamic indicator, the Local Indicator of Mobility Association (LIMA), which can detect differences in the spatial distribution of theft rate rankings over time from a distributional dynamics perspective. Our results provide a scientific reference for the evaluation of the effects of crime prevention efforts and offer a decision-making tool to enhance the application of temporal and spatial analytical methods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Feasibility of the Space–Time Cube in Temporal Cultural Landscape Visualization
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(6), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7060209
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 15 April 2018 / Accepted: 27 May 2018 / Published: 31 May 2018
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Abstract
Change acts as an inherent characteristic of the landscape, and expresses dynamic interactions between its tangible and intangible elements. While the documentation and analysis of spatiotemporal patterns have been broadly discussed, major challenges concern the design of task-oriented, user-friendly landscape visualizations. Geographic information
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Change acts as an inherent characteristic of the landscape, and expresses dynamic interactions between its tangible and intangible elements. While the documentation and analysis of spatiotemporal patterns have been broadly discussed, major challenges concern the design of task-oriented, user-friendly landscape visualizations. Geographic information system (GIS) techniques and approaches from visual analytics may bring solutions to those questions. This paper considers the milestone documents for the representation of cultural heritage, and proposes a workflow for assessing the feasibility of the space–time cube concept in landscape representation. The usability of the visualization was examined during the interview with domain experts and potential interdisciplinary users. The evaluation session covered benchmark tasks, feedback, and eye-tracking. The performance of the space–time cube was compared with another spatiotemporal visualization technique and measured in terms of correctness, response time, and satisfaction. The Royal Castle in Warsaw, which was registered in 1980 as a part of Warsaw’s World Heritage Site of United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), served as the case study. The user tests show that the designed space–time cube excels for the completion rate; however, more time is required to provide answers to question tasks focusing on comparisons. Together, the case study and feedback from domain experts and participants demonstrate the benefit of the space–time cube concept in designing landscape visualizations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Historic Settlement and Landscape Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle A Moment-Based Shape Similarity Measurement for Areal Entities in Geographical Vector Data
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(6), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7060208
Received: 16 March 2018 / Revised: 19 May 2018 / Accepted: 27 May 2018 / Published: 31 May 2018
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Abstract
Shape similarity measurement model is often used to solve shape-matching problems in geospatial data matching. It is widely used in geospatial data integration, conflation, updating and quality assessment. Many shape similarity measurements apply only to simple polygons. However, areal entities can be represented
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Shape similarity measurement model is often used to solve shape-matching problems in geospatial data matching. It is widely used in geospatial data integration, conflation, updating and quality assessment. Many shape similarity measurements apply only to simple polygons. However, areal entities can be represented either by simple polygons, holed polygons or multipolygons in geospatial data. This paper proposes a new shape similarity measurement model that can be used for all kinds of polygons. In this method, convex hulls of polygons are used to extract boundary features of entities and local moment invariants are calculated to extract overall shape features of entities. Combined with convex hull and local moment invariants, polygons can be represented by convex hull moment invariant curves. Then, a shape descriptor is obtained by applying fast Fourier transform to convex hull moment invariant curves, and shape similarity between areal entities is measured by the shape descriptor. Through similarity measurement experiments of different lakes in multiple representations and matching experiments between two urban area datasets, results showed that the method could distinguish areal entities even if they are represented by different kinds of polygons. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Mapping Spatiotemporal Patterns and Multi-Perspective Analysis of the Surface Urban Heat Islands across 32 Major Cities in China
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(6), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7060207
Received: 29 March 2018 / Revised: 17 May 2018 / Accepted: 27 May 2018 / Published: 30 May 2018
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Abstract
As urban thermal environments are being caused by global climatic changes and urbanization is not uniform on diurnal, seasonal, or annual scales, the spatiotemporal patterns of surface urban heat islands (SUHI) similarly vary between cities across regions. This research assessed the spatiotemporal variations
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As urban thermal environments are being caused by global climatic changes and urbanization is not uniform on diurnal, seasonal, or annual scales, the spatiotemporal patterns of surface urban heat islands (SUHI) similarly vary between cities across regions. This research assessed the spatiotemporal variations in SUHI intensities (SUHII), and then revealed their spatiotemporal patterns and relationships that existed within 32 major cities in China using spatialization technologies, such as the self-organizing map (SOM) method and statistical methods. Results showed that the spatial patterns of the SUHII patterns in China were significantly affected by the climatic types, whereas human heat discharge also disturbed the patterns to a certain extent. Specifically, the daytime SUHIIs in China had much higher seasonal variations in North China than in South China. The nighttime SUHIIs were much weaker and more stable than the daytime SUHIIs, and had far more obvious spatial patterns with much higher values in North China than in South China. As for the temporal regimes, the temporal variation in the SUHIIs in one city was more related to the development of the urbanization. To be specific, not all cities were experiencing increasingly worse urban thermal environments with urbanization as reported by previous studies. This research not only proposes a spatiotemporal framework to study the SUHIIs patterns and their relationships, but also provides an in-depth and comprehensive understanding of SUHIIs in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Environment Mapping Using GIS)
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Open AccessArticle Hydrological Modeling with Respect to Impact of Land-Use and Land-Cover Change on the Runoff Dynamics in Godavari River Basin Using the HEC-HMS Model
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(6), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7060206
Received: 23 March 2018 / Revised: 17 May 2018 / Accepted: 27 May 2018 / Published: 30 May 2018
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Abstract
Hydrological modeling and the hydrological response to land-use/land-cover changes induced by human activities have gained enormous research interest over the last few decades. The study presented here analyzes the spatial and qualitative changes in the rainfall–runoff that have resulted from the land-cover changes
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Hydrological modeling and the hydrological response to land-use/land-cover changes induced by human activities have gained enormous research interest over the last few decades. The study presented here analyzes the spatial and qualitative changes in the rainfall–runoff that have resulted from the land-cover changes between 1985–2014 in the Godavari River Basin using the Hydrologic Engineering Centre-Hydrologic Modeling System(HEC-HMS) model and remote sensing—GIS (geographic information system) techniques. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the dynamics of land-use/land-cover (LULC) changes for the years 1985, 1995, 2005, and 2014 for the Godavari Basin. The findings reveal an increase of 0.64% of built-up land, a decrease of 0.92% in shrubland, and an increase of 0.56% in waterbodies between 1985–2014. The LULC change detection results between the years 1985–2014 indicated a drastic change in the cropland, forest, built-up land, and water bodies among all of the other classes. The urbanization and agricultural activities are the major reasons for the increase of cropland, built-up land, and water bodies, at the expense of decreases in shrubland and forest. The study had an overall classification accuracy of 92% and an overall Kappa coefficient of 0.9. The HEC-HMS model is used to simulate the hydrology of the Godavari Basin. The analyses carried out were mainly focussed on the impact of LULC changes on the streamflow pattern. The surface runoff was simulated for the year 2014 to quantify the changes that have taken place due to changes in LULC. The observed and the simulated peak streamflow was found to be the same i.e., 56,780 m3/s on 9 September 2014. In the validation part, the linear regression method was used to correlate the observed and simulated streamflow data at the prominent gauge station of the Badrachalam outlet for the Godavari River Basin and give a correlation coefficient value of 0.83. It was found that the HEC-HMS model is compatible and works better for the rainfall–runoff modeling, as it takes into account the various parameters that are influencing the process. The hydrological modeling that was carried out using the HEC-HMS model has brought out the significant impact of LULCC on rainfall–runoff at the Pranhita sub-basinscale, indicating the model’s ability to successfully accommodate all of the environmental and landscape variables. The study indicates that deforestation at the cost of urbanization and cropland expansions leads to decreases in the overall evapotranspiration (ET) and infiltration, with an increase in runoff. The results of the study show that the integration of remote sensing, GIS, and the hydrological model (HEC-HMS) can solve hydrological problems in a river basin. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Implications of Field Worker Characteristics and Landscape Heterogeneity for Classification Correctness and the Completeness of Topographical Mapping
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(6), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7060205
Received: 6 April 2018 / Revised: 17 May 2018 / Accepted: 27 May 2018 / Published: 29 May 2018
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Abstract
The quality of spatial data may vary spatially. If mapping (interpretation of orthophotos) is done during fieldwork, this variation in quality may occur as a result of differences in the complexity of the landscape, differences in the characteristics of individual field workers, and
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The quality of spatial data may vary spatially. If mapping (interpretation of orthophotos) is done during fieldwork, this variation in quality may occur as a result of differences in the complexity of the landscape, differences in the characteristics of individual field workers, and differences in their perception of the landscape. In this study, we explored the interaction between the characteristics of these workers, including their gender and years of experience (as a proxy for their mapping skills), and landscape heterogeneity. There was no significant difference between male and female workers. Although field workers with more years of experience generally had higher mapping quality, the relationship was not statistically significant. We found differences in the rates of misclassification, omission, and commission errors between workers in different landscape types. We conclude that the error rates due to misclassification, omission, and commission were the lowest in more diverse landscapes (high number of different land use types) with a relatively high amount of buildings, whereas the error rates were the highest in mainly forested landscapes with larger and more complex shaped patches. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Automated Processing Method for Agglomeration Areas
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(6), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7060204
Received: 11 April 2018 / Revised: 7 May 2018 / Accepted: 27 May 2018 / Published: 29 May 2018
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Abstract
Agglomeration operations are a core component of the automated generalization of aggregated area groups. However, because geographical elements that possess agglomeration features are relatively scarce, the current literature has not given sufficient attention to agglomeration operations. Furthermore, most reports on the subject are
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Agglomeration operations are a core component of the automated generalization of aggregated area groups. However, because geographical elements that possess agglomeration features are relatively scarce, the current literature has not given sufficient attention to agglomeration operations. Furthermore, most reports on the subject are limited to the general conceptual level. Consequently, current agglomeration methods are highly reliant on subjective determinations and cannot support intelligent computer processing. This paper proposes an automated processing method for agglomeration areas. Firstly, the proposed method automatically identifies agglomeration areas based on the width of the striped bridging area, distribution pattern index (DPI), shape similarity index (SSI), and overlap index (OI). Next, the progressive agglomeration operation is carried out, including the computation of the external boundary outlines and the extraction of agglomeration lines. The effectiveness and rationality of the proposed method has been validated by using actual census data of Chinese geographical conditions in the Jiangsu Province. Full article
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