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ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf., Volume 4, Issue 4 (December 2015) , Pages 1774-2904

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Open AccessCase Report
The Building Blocks of User-Focused 3D City Models
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(4), 2890-2904; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4042890 - 21 Dec 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2361
Abstract
At Ordnance Survey, GB, we have taken an incremental approach to creating our 3D geospatial database. Research at Ordnance Survey has focused not only on methods for deriving 3D data, but also on the needs of the user in terms of the actual [...] Read more.
At Ordnance Survey, GB, we have taken an incremental approach to creating our 3D geospatial database. Research at Ordnance Survey has focused not only on methods for deriving 3D data, but also on the needs of the user in terms of the actual tasks they perform. This provides insights into the type and quality of the data required and how its quality is conveyed. In 2007, using task analysis and user-centred design, we derived a set of geometric characteristics of building exteriors that are relevant to one or more use contexts. This work has been valuable for guiding which building data to collect and how to augment our products. In 2014, we began to supply building height attributes as an alpha-release enhancement to our 2D topography data, OS MasterMap® Topography Layer. This is the first in a series of enhancements of our 2D data that forms part of a road map that will ultimately lead to a full range of 3D products. This paper outlines our research journey from the understanding of the key 3D building characteristics to the development of geo-spatial products and the specification of research. There remains a rich seam of research into methods for capturing user-focused, geo-spatial data to enable visualisation and analysis in three dimensions. Because the process of informing and designing a product is necessarily focused on the practicalities of production, storage and distribution, this paper is presented as a case report, as we believe our journey will be of interest to others involved in the capture of 3D buildings at a national level. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Applications of 3D City Models: State of the Art Review
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(4), 2842-2889; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4042842 - 18 Dec 2015
Cited by 173 | Viewed by 11275
Abstract
In the last decades, 3D city models appear to have been predominantly used for visualisation; however, today they are being increasingly employed in a number of domains and for a large range of tasks beyond visualisation. In this paper, we seek to understand [...] Read more.
In the last decades, 3D city models appear to have been predominantly used for visualisation; however, today they are being increasingly employed in a number of domains and for a large range of tasks beyond visualisation. In this paper, we seek to understand and document the state of the art regarding the utilisation of 3D city models across multiple domains based on a comprehensive literature study including hundreds of research papers, technical reports and online resources. A challenge in a study such as ours is that the ways in which 3D city models are used cannot be readily listed due to fuzziness, terminological ambiguity, unclear added-value of 3D geoinformation in some instances, and absence of technical information. To address this challenge, we delineate a hierarchical terminology (spatial operations, use cases, applications), and develop a theoretical reasoning to segment and categorise the diverse uses of 3D city models. Following this framework, we provide a list of identified use cases of 3D city models (with a description of each), and their applications. Our study demonstrates that 3D city models are employed in at least 29 use cases that are a part of more than 100 applications. The classified inventory could be useful for scientists as well as stakeholders in the geospatial industry, such as companies and national mapping agencies, as it may serve as a reference document to better position their operations, design product portfolios, and to better understand the market. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Approach for Indoor Path Computation among Obstacles that Considers User Dimension
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(4), 2821-2841; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4042821 - 17 Dec 2015
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2205
Abstract
People often transport objects within indoor environments, who need enough space for the motion. In such cases, the accessibility of indoor spaces relies on the dimensions, which includes a person and her/his operated objects. This paper proposes a new approach to avoid obstacles [...] Read more.
People often transport objects within indoor environments, who need enough space for the motion. In such cases, the accessibility of indoor spaces relies on the dimensions, which includes a person and her/his operated objects. This paper proposes a new approach to avoid obstacles and compute indoor paths with respect to the user dimension. The approach excludes inaccessible spaces for a user in five steps: (1) compute the minimum distance between obstacles and find the inaccessible gaps; (2) group obstacles according to the inaccessible gaps; (3) identify groups of obstacles that influence the path between two locations; (4) compute boundaries for the selected groups; and (5) build a network in the accessible area around the obstacles in the room. Compared to the Minkowski sum method for outlining inaccessible spaces, the proposed approach generates simpler polygons for groups of obstacles that do not contain inner rings. The creation of a navigation network becomes easier based on these simple polygons. By using this approach, we can create user- and task-specific networks in advance. Alternatively, the accessible path can be generated on the fly before the user enters a room. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Estimating Plant Traits of Grasslands from UAV-Acquired Hyperspectral Images: A Comparison of Statistical Approaches
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(4), 2792-2820; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4042792 - 10 Dec 2015
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 4851
Abstract
Grassland ecosystems cover around 40% of the entire Earth’s surface. Therefore, it is necessary to guarantee good grassland management at field scale in order to improve its conservation and to achieve optimal growth. This study identified the most appropriate statistical strategy, between partial [...] Read more.
Grassland ecosystems cover around 40% of the entire Earth’s surface. Therefore, it is necessary to guarantee good grassland management at field scale in order to improve its conservation and to achieve optimal growth. This study identified the most appropriate statistical strategy, between partial least squares regression (PLSR) and narrow vegetation indices, for estimating the structural and biochemical grassland traits from UAV-acquired hyperspectral images. Moreover, the influence of fertilizers on plant traits for grasslands was analyzed. Hyperspectral data were collected from an experimental field at the farm Haus Riswick, near Kleve in Germany, for two different flight campaigns in May and October. The collected image blocks were geometrically and radiometrically corrected for surface reflectance. Spectral signatures extracted for the plots were adopted to derive grassland traits by computing PLSR and the following narrow vegetation indices: the MERIS Terrestrial Chlorophyll Index (MTCI), the ratio of the Modified Chlorophyll Absorption in Reflectance and Optimized Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index (MCARI/OSAVI) modified by Wu, the Red-edge Chlorophyll Index (CIred-edge), and the Normalized Difference Red Edge (NDRE). PLSR showed promising results for estimating grassland structural traits and gave less satisfying outcomes for the selected chemical traits (crude ash, crude fiber, crude protein, Na, K, metabolic energy). Established relations are not influenced by the type and the amount of fertilization, while they are affected by the grassland health status. PLSR is found to be the best strategy, among the approaches analyzed in this paper, for exploring structural and biochemical features of grasslands. Using UAV-based hyperspectral sensing allows for the highly detailed assessment of grassland experimental plots. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Geomatics)
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Open AccessArticle
Combining 2D Mapping and Low Density Elevation Data in a GIS for GNSS Shadow Prediction
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(4), 2769-2791; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4042769 - 10 Dec 2015
Viewed by 1736
Abstract
The number of satellites visible to a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver is important for high accuracy surveys. To aid with this, there are software packages capable of predicting GNSS visibility at any location of the globe at any time of day. [...] Read more.
The number of satellites visible to a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver is important for high accuracy surveys. To aid with this, there are software packages capable of predicting GNSS visibility at any location of the globe at any time of day. These prediction packages operate by using regularly updated almanacs containing positional data for all navigation satellites; however, one issue that restricts their use is that most packages assume that there are no obstructions on the horizon. In an attempt to improve this, certain planning packages are now capable of modelling simple obstructions whereby portions of the horizon visible from one location can be blocked out, thereby simulating buildings or other vertical structures. While this is useful for static surveys, it is not applicable for dynamic surveys when the GNSS receiver is in motion. This problem has been tackled in the past by using detailed, high-accuracy building models and designing novel methods for modelling satellite positions using GNSS almanacs, which is a time-consuming and costly approach. The solution proposed in this paper is to use a GIS to combine existing, freely available GNSS prediction software to predict pseudo satellite locations, incorporate a 2.5D model of the buildings in an area created with national mapping agency 2D vector mapping and low density elevation data to minimise the need for a full survey, thereby providing savings in terms of cost and time. Following this, the ESRI ArcMap viewshed tool was used to ascertain what areas exhibit poor GNSS visibility due to obstructions over a wide area, and an accuracy assessment of the procedure was made. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Spatial Sampling Strategies for the Effect of Interpolation Accuracy
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(4), 2742-2768; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4042742 - 08 Dec 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2161
Abstract
Spatial interpolation methods are widely used in various fields and have been studied by several scholars with one or a few specific sampling datasets that do not reflect the complexity of the spatial characteristics and lead to conclusions that cannot be widely applied. [...] Read more.
Spatial interpolation methods are widely used in various fields and have been studied by several scholars with one or a few specific sampling datasets that do not reflect the complexity of the spatial characteristics and lead to conclusions that cannot be widely applied. In this paper, three factors that affect the accuracy of interpolation have been considered, i.e., sampling density, sampling mode, and sampling location. We studied the inverse distance weighted (IDW), regular spline (RS), and ordinary kriging (OK) interpolation methods using 162 DEM datasets considering six sampling densities, nine terrain complexities, and three sampling modes. The experimental results show that, in selective sampling and combined sampling, the maximum absolute errors of interpolation methods rapidly increase and the estimated values are overestimated. In regular-grid sampling, the RS method has the highest interpolation accuracy, and IDW has the lowest interpolation accuracy. However, in both selective and combined sampling, the accuracy of the IDW method is significantly improved and the RS method performs worse. The OK method does not significantly change between the three sampling modes. The following conclusion can be obtained from the above analysis: the combined sampling mode is recommended for sampling, and more sampling points should be added in the ridges, valleys, and other complex terrain. The IDW method should not be used in the regular-grid sampling mode, but it has good performance in the selective sampling mode and combined sampling mode. However, the RS method shows the opposite phenomenon. The sampling dataset should be analyzed before using the OK method, which can select suitable models based on the analysis results of the sampling dataset. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bridging the Gap between Geospatial Theory and Technology)
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Open AccessArticle
Fractal Characterization of Settlement Patterns and Their Spatial Determinants in Coastal Zones
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(4), 2728-2741; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4042728 - 03 Dec 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1843
Abstract
Using box-counting and spatial regression, this paper analyzes the morphological characteristics of coastal settlement patterns and their spatial determinants, with a case of the Wen-Tai region on the Chinese eastern coast. Coastal settlement patterns, which reflect the interactions between people and the surrounding [...] Read more.
Using box-counting and spatial regression, this paper analyzes the morphological characteristics of coastal settlement patterns and their spatial determinants, with a case of the Wen-Tai region on the Chinese eastern coast. Coastal settlement patterns, which reflect the interactions between people and the surrounding environment, can indicate the anthropogenic pressure sustained in the coastal zones. Characterization of settlement patterns in coastal zones is definitely needed for coastal management. Results indicate that coastal settlement patterns in the Wen-Tai region present significant fractal characteristics, and exhibit obvious spatial variations. The morphological characteristics of settlement patterns are significantly correlated with the standard deviation value of elevation and slope, as well as percentage of loam soils. In particular, cities with greater relief amplitude, higher slope variability, and higher percentage of loam soils would present more complexity in form. Proximity to roads and rivers are insignificant determinants. Our study contributes to the understanding of the spatial determinants of the morphological characteristics of settlement patterns in coastal zones. We argue that fractal dimension provides a useful tool to facilitate the identification of vulnerability hotspots for coastal studies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Collaborative Strategies for Sustainable EU Flood Risk Management: FOSS and Geospatial Tools—Challenges and Opportunities for Operative Risk Analysis
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(4), 2704-2727; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4042704 - 02 Dec 2015
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2849
Abstract
An analysis of global statistics shows a substantial increase in flood damage over the past few decades. Moreover, it is expected that flood risk will continue to rise due to the combined effect of increasing numbers of people and economic assets in risk-prone [...] Read more.
An analysis of global statistics shows a substantial increase in flood damage over the past few decades. Moreover, it is expected that flood risk will continue to rise due to the combined effect of increasing numbers of people and economic assets in risk-prone areas and the effects of climate change. In order to mitigate the impact of natural hazards on European economies and societies, improved risk assessment, and management needs to be pursued. With the recent transition to a more risk-based approach in European flood management policy, flood analysis models have become an important part of flood risk management (FRM). In this context, free and open-source (FOSS) geospatial models provide better and more complete information to stakeholders regarding their compliance with the Flood Directive (2007/60/EC) for effective and collaborative FRM. A geospatial model is an essential tool to address the European challenge for comprehensive and sustainable FRM because it allows for the use of integrated social and economic quantitative risk outcomes in a spatio-temporal domain. Moreover, a FOSS model can support governance processes using an interactive, transparent and collaborative approach, providing a meaningful experience that both promotes learning and generates knowledge through a process of guided discovery regarding flood risk management. This article aims to organize the available knowledge and characteristics of the methods available to give operational recommendations and principles that can support authorities, local entities, and the stakeholders involved in decision-making with regard to flood risk management in their compliance with the Floods Directive (2007/60/EC). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bridging the Gap between Geospatial Theory and Technology)
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Open AccessArticle
Weather Conditions, Weather Information and Car Crashes
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(4), 2681-2703; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4042681 - 27 Nov 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2461
Abstract
Road traffic safety is the result of a complex interaction of factors, and causes behind road vehicle crashes require different measures to reduce their impacts. This study assesses how strongly the variation in daily winter crash rates associates with weather conditions in Finland. [...] Read more.
Road traffic safety is the result of a complex interaction of factors, and causes behind road vehicle crashes require different measures to reduce their impacts. This study assesses how strongly the variation in daily winter crash rates associates with weather conditions in Finland. This is done by illustrating trends and spatiotemporal variation in the crash rates, by showing how a GIS application can evidence the association between temporary rises in regional crash rates and the occurrence of bad weather, and with a regression model on crash rate sensitivity to adverse weather conditions. The analysis indicates that a base rate of crashes depending on non-weather factors exists, and some combinations of extreme weather conditions are able to substantially push up crash rates on days with bad weather. Some spatial causation factors, such as variation of geophysical characteristics causing systematic differences in the distributions of weather variables, exist. Yet, even in winter, non-spatial factors are normally more significant. GIS data can support optimal deployment of rescue services and enhance in-depth quantitative analysis by helping to identify the most appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions. However, the supportive role of GIS should not be inferred as existence of highly significant spatial causation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geoinformation for Disaster Risk Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Lane-Level Road Information Mining from Vehicle GPS Trajectories Based on Naïve Bayesian Classification
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(4), 2660-2680; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4042660 - 26 Nov 2015
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2432
Abstract
In this paper, we propose a novel approach for mining lane-level road network information from low-precision vehicle GPS trajectories (MLIT), which includes the number and turn rules of traffic lanes based on naïve Bayesian classification. First, the proposed method (MLIT) uses an adaptive [...] Read more.
In this paper, we propose a novel approach for mining lane-level road network information from low-precision vehicle GPS trajectories (MLIT), which includes the number and turn rules of traffic lanes based on naïve Bayesian classification. First, the proposed method (MLIT) uses an adaptive density optimization method to remove outliers from the raw GPS trajectories based on their space-time distribution and density clustering. Second, MLIT acquires the number of lanes in two steps. The first step establishes a naïve Bayesian classifier according to the trace features of the road plane and road profiles and the real number of lanes, as found in the training samples. The second step confirms the number of lanes using test samples in reference to the naïve Bayesian classifier using the known trace features of test sample. Third, MLIT infers the turn rules of each lane through tracking GPS trajectories. Experiments were conducted using the GPS trajectories of taxis in Wuhan, China. Compared with human-interpreted results, the automatically generated lane-level road network information was demonstrated to be of higher quality in terms of displaying detailed road networks with the number of lanes and turn rules of each lane. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Improved PDR/Magnetometer/Floor Map Integration Algorithm for Ubiquitous Positioning Using the Adaptive Unscented Kalman Filter
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(4), 2638-2659; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4042638 - 25 Nov 2015
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2101
Abstract
In this paper, a scheme is presented for fusing a foot-mounted Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and a floor map to provide ubiquitous positioning in a number of settings, such as in a supermarket as a shopping guide, in a fire emergency service for [...] Read more.
In this paper, a scheme is presented for fusing a foot-mounted Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and a floor map to provide ubiquitous positioning in a number of settings, such as in a supermarket as a shopping guide, in a fire emergency service for navigation, or with a hospital patient to be tracked. First, several Zero-Velocity Detection (ZDET) algorithms are compared and discussed when used in the static detection of a pedestrian. By introducing information on the Zero Velocity of the pedestrian, fused with a magnetometer measurement, an improved Pedestrian Dead Reckoning (PDR) model is developed to constrain the accumulating errors associated with the PDR positioning. Second, a Correlation Matching Algorithm based on map projection (CMAP) is presented, and a zone division of a floor map is demonstrated for fusion of the PDR algorithm. Finally, in order to use the dynamic characteristics of a pedestrian’s trajectory, the Adaptive Unscented Kalman Filter (A-UKF) is applied to tightly integrate the IMU, magnetometers and floor map for ubiquitous positioning. The results of a field experiment performed on the fourth floor of the School of Environmental Science and Spatial Informatics (SESSI) building on the China University of Mining and Technology (CUMT) campus confirm that the proposed scheme can reliably achieve meter-level positioning. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Fast Inversion of Air-Coupled Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave (SASW) Using in situ Particle Displacement
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(4), 2619-2637; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4042619 - 24 Nov 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1918
Abstract
Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave (SASW) is widely used in nondestructive subsurface profiling for geological sites. The air-coupled SASW is an extension from conventional SASW methods by replacing ground-mounted accelerometers with non-contact microphones, which acquire a leaky surface wave instead of ground vibration. [...] Read more.
Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave (SASW) is widely used in nondestructive subsurface profiling for geological sites. The air-coupled SASW is an extension from conventional SASW methods by replacing ground-mounted accelerometers with non-contact microphones, which acquire a leaky surface wave instead of ground vibration. The air-coupled SASW is a good candidate for fast inspection in shallow geological studies. Especially for pavement maintenance, minimum traffic interference might be induced. One issue that restrains SASW from fast inspection is the traditional slow inversion which relies on guess-and-check iteration techniques including a forward analysis. In this article, a fast inversion analysis algorithm is proposed to estimate the shear velocity profile without performing conventional forward simulation. By investigating the attenuation of particle displacement along penetrating depths, a weighted combination relationship is derived to connect the dispersion curve with the shear velocity profile directly. Using this relationship, the shear velocity profile could be estimated from a given/measured dispersion curve. The proposed procedure allows the surface wave-based method to be fully automatic and even operated in real-time for geological site and pavement assessment. The method is verified by the forward analysis with stiffness matrix method. It is also proved by comparing with other published results using various inversion methods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Finding Causes of Irregular Headways Integrating Data Mining and AHP
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(4), 2604-2618; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4042604 - 24 Nov 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1577
Abstract
Irregular headways could reduce the public transit service level heavily. Finding out the exact causes of irregular headways will greatly help to develop efficient strategies aiming to improve transit service quality. This paper utilizes bus GPS data of Harbin to evaluate the headway [...] Read more.
Irregular headways could reduce the public transit service level heavily. Finding out the exact causes of irregular headways will greatly help to develop efficient strategies aiming to improve transit service quality. This paper utilizes bus GPS data of Harbin to evaluate the headway performance and proposes a statistical method to identify the abnormal headways. Association mining is used to dig deeper and recognize six causes of bus bunching. The AHP, embedded data analysis, is applied to determine the weight of each cause in the case of that these causes are combined with each other constantly. Results show that the front bus has a greater effect on bus bunching than the following bus, and the traffic condition is the most critical factor affecting bus headway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Spatio-Temporal Data Analysis and Mining)
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Open AccessArticle
Pitch and Flat Roof Factors’ Association with Spatiotemporal Patterns of Dengue Disease Analysed Using Pan-Sharpened Worldview 2 Imagery
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(4), 2586-2603; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4042586 - 23 Nov 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2237
Abstract
Dengue disease incidence is related with the construction of a house roof, which is an Aedes mosquito habitat. This study was conducted to classify pitch roof (PR) and flat roof (FR) surfaces using pan-sharpened Worldview 2 to identify dengue disease patterns (DDPs) and [...] Read more.
Dengue disease incidence is related with the construction of a house roof, which is an Aedes mosquito habitat. This study was conducted to classify pitch roof (PR) and flat roof (FR) surfaces using pan-sharpened Worldview 2 to identify dengue disease patterns (DDPs) and their association with DDP. A Supervised Minimum Distance classifier was applied to 653 training data from image object segmentations: PR (81 polygons), FR (50), and non-roof (NR) class (522). Ground validation of 272 pixels (52 for PR, 51 for FR, and 169 for NR) was done using a global positioning system (GPS) tool. Getis-Ord score pattern analysis was applied to 1154 dengue disease incidence with address-approach-based data with weighted temporal value of 28 days within a 1194 m spatial radius. We used ordinary least squares (OLS) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) to assess spatial association. Our findings showed 70.59% overall accuracy with a 0.51 Kappa coefficient of the roof classification images. Results show that DDPs were found in hotspot, random, and dispersed patterns. Smaller PR size and larger FR size showed some association with increasing DDP into more clusters (OLS: PR value = −0.27; FR = 0.04; R2 = 0.076; GWR: R2 = 0.76). The associations in hotspot patterns are stronger than in other patterns (GWR: R2 in hotspot = 0.39, random = 0.37, dispersed = 0.23). Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
GIS for Sustainable Urban Transport
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(4), 2583-2585; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4042583 - 23 Nov 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1912
Abstract
The world is urbanizing at a very fast pace. Modern geography, particularly geo-information systems (GIS) and global positioning systems (GPS) are reshaping the way urban and transport planners are collecting, exploring, synthesizing, analyzing, evaluating and presenting their data. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GIS for Sustainable Urban Transport)
Open AccessArticle
Data Integration for Climate Vulnerability Mapping in West Africa
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(4), 2561-2582; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4042561 - 19 Nov 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2929
Abstract
Vulnerability mapping reveals areas that are likely to be at greater risk of climate-related disasters in the future. Through integration of climate, biophysical, and socioeconomic data in an overall vulnerability framework, so-called “hotspots” of vulnerability can be identified. These maps can be used [...] Read more.
Vulnerability mapping reveals areas that are likely to be at greater risk of climate-related disasters in the future. Through integration of climate, biophysical, and socioeconomic data in an overall vulnerability framework, so-called “hotspots” of vulnerability can be identified. These maps can be used as an aid to targeting adaptation and disaster risk management interventions. This paper reviews vulnerability mapping efforts in West Africa conducted under the USAID-funded African and Latin American Resilience to Climate Change (ARCC) project. The focus is on the integration of remotely sensed and socioeconomic data. Data inputs included a range of sensor data (e.g., MODIS NDVI, Landsat, SRTM elevation, DMSP-OLS night-time lights) as well as high-resolution poverty, conflict, and infrastructure data. Two basic methods were used, one in which each layer was transformed into standardized indicators in an additive approach, and another in which remote sensing data were used to contextualize the results of composite indicators. We assess the benefits and challenges of data integration, and the lessons learned from these mapping exercises. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geoinformation for Disaster Risk Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing the Effect of Temporal Interval Length on the Blending of Landsat-MODIS Surface Reflectance for Different Land Cover Types in Southwestern Continental United States
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(4), 2542-2560; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4042542 - 17 Nov 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1997
Abstract
Capturing spatial and temporal dynamics is a key issue for many remote-sensing based applications. Consequently, several image-blending algorithms that can simulate the surface reflectance with high spatial-temporal resolution have been developed recently. However, the performance of the algorithm against the effect of temporal [...] Read more.
Capturing spatial and temporal dynamics is a key issue for many remote-sensing based applications. Consequently, several image-blending algorithms that can simulate the surface reflectance with high spatial-temporal resolution have been developed recently. However, the performance of the algorithm against the effect of temporal interval length between the base and simulation dates has not been reported. In this study, our aim was to evaluate the effect of different temporal interval lengths on the accuracy using the widely used blending algorithm, Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM), based on Landsat, Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images and National Land Cover Database (NLCD). Taking the southwestern continental United States as the study area, a series of experiments was conducted using two schemes, which were the assessment of STARFM with (i) a fixed base date and varied simulation date and (ii) varied base date and specific simulation date, respectively. The result showed that the coefficient of determination (R2), Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) varied, and overall trend of R2 decreased along with the increasing temporal interval between the base and simulation dates for six land cover types. The mean R2 value of cropland was lowest, whereas shrub had the highest value for two schemes. The result may facilitate selection of an appropriate temporal interval when using STARFM. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of the Consistency of MODIS Land Cover Product (MCD12Q1) Based on Chinese 30 m GlobeLand30 Datasets: A Case Study in Anhui Province, China
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(4), 2519-2541; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4042519 - 16 Nov 2015
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2416
Abstract
Land cover plays an important role in the climate and biogeochemistry of the Earth system. It is of great significance to produce and evaluate the global land cover (GLC) data when applying the data to the practice at a specific spatial scale. The [...] Read more.
Land cover plays an important role in the climate and biogeochemistry of the Earth system. It is of great significance to produce and evaluate the global land cover (GLC) data when applying the data to the practice at a specific spatial scale. The objective of this study is to evaluate and validate the consistency of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land cover product (MCD12Q1) at a provincial scale (Anhui Province, China) based on the Chinese 30 m GLC product (GlobeLand30). A harmonization method is firstly used to reclassify the land cover types between five classification schemes (International Geosphere Biosphere Programme (IGBP) global vegetation classification, University of Maryland (UMD), MODIS-derived Leaf Area Index and Fractional Photosynthetically Active Radiation (LAI/FPAR), MODIS-derived Net Primary Production (NPP), and Plant Functional Type (PFT)) of MCD12Q1 and ten classes of GlobeLand30, based on the knowledge rule (KR) and C4.5 decision tree (DT) classification algorithm. A total of five harmonized land cover types are derived including woodland, grassland, cropland, wetland and artificial surfaces, and four evaluation indicators are selected including the area consistency, spatial consistency, classification accuracy and landscape diversity in the three sub-regions of Wanbei, Wanzhong and Wannan. The results indicate that the consistency of IGBP is the best among the five schemes of MCD12Q1 according to the correlation coefficient (R). The “woodland” LAI/FPAR is the worst, with a spatial similarity (O) of 58.17% due to the misclassification between “woodland” and “others”. The consistency of NPP is the worst among the five schemes as the agreement varied from 1.61% to 56.23% in the three sub-regions. Furthermore, with the biggest difference of diversity indices between LAI/FPAR and GlobeLand30, the consistency of LAI/FPAR is the weakest. This study provides a methodological reference for evaluating the consistency of different GLC products derived from multi-source and multi-resolution remote sensing datasets on various spatial scales. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Spatio-Temporal Data Analysis and Mining)
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Open AccessArticle
Impacts of Species Misidentification on Species Distribution Modeling with Presence-Only Data
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(4), 2496-2518; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4042496 - 16 Nov 2015
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2495
Abstract
Spatial records of species are commonly misidentified, which can change the predicted distribution of a species obtained from a species distribution model (SDM). Experiments were undertaken to predict the distribution of real and simulated species using MaxEnt and presence-only data “contaminated” with varying [...] Read more.
Spatial records of species are commonly misidentified, which can change the predicted distribution of a species obtained from a species distribution model (SDM). Experiments were undertaken to predict the distribution of real and simulated species using MaxEnt and presence-only data “contaminated” with varying rates of misidentification error. Additionally, the difference between the niche of the target and contaminating species was varied. The results show that species misidentification errors may act to contract or expand the predicted distribution of a species while shifting the predicted distribution towards that of the contaminating species. Furthermore the magnitude of the effects was positively related to the ecological distance between the species’ niches and the size of the error rates. Critically, the magnitude of the effects was substantial even when using small error rates, smaller than common average rates reported in the literature, which may go unnoticed while using a standard evaluation method, such as the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Finally, the effects outlined were shown to impact negatively on practical applications that use SDMs to identify priority areas, commonly selected for various purposes such as management. The results highlight that species misidentification should not be neglected in species distribution modeling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spatial Ecology)
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Open AccessArticle
Towards a Standard Plant Species Spectral Library Protocol for Vegetation Mapping: A Case Study in the Shrubland of Doñana National Park
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(4), 2472-2495; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4042472 - 16 Nov 2015
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1994
Abstract
One of the main applications of field spectroscopy is the generation of spectral libraries of Earth’s surfaces or materials to support mapping activities using imaging spectroscopy. To enhance the reliability of these libraries, spectral signature acquisition should be carried out following standard procedures [...] Read more.
One of the main applications of field spectroscopy is the generation of spectral libraries of Earth’s surfaces or materials to support mapping activities using imaging spectroscopy. To enhance the reliability of these libraries, spectral signature acquisition should be carried out following standard procedures and controlled experimental approaches. This paper presents a standard protocol for the creation of a spectral library for plant species. The protocol is based on characterizing the reflectance spectral response of different species in the spatiotemporal domain, by accounting for intra-species variation and inter-species similarity. A practical case study was conducted on the shrubland located in Doñana National Park (SW Spain). Spectral libraries of the five dominant shrub species were built (Erica scoparia, Halimium halimifolium, Ulex australis, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Stauracanthus genistoides). An estimation was made of the separability between species: on one hand, the Student’s t-test evaluates significant intra-species variability (p < 0.05) and on the other hand, spectral similarity value (SSV) and spectral angle mapper (SAM) algorithms obtain significant separability values for dominant species, although it was not possible to discriminate the legume species Ulex australis and Stauracanthus genistoides. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Inferring Directed Road Networks from GPS Traces by Track Alignment
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(4), 2446-2471; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4042446 - 11 Nov 2015
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2369
Abstract
This paper proposes a method to infer road networks from GPS traces. These networks include intersections between roads, the connectivity between the intersections and the possible traffic directions between directly-connected intersections. These intersections are localized by detecting and clustering turning points, which are [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a method to infer road networks from GPS traces. These networks include intersections between roads, the connectivity between the intersections and the possible traffic directions between directly-connected intersections. These intersections are localized by detecting and clustering turning points, which are locations where the moving direction changes on GPS traces. We infer the structure of road networks by segmenting all of the GPS traces to identify these intersections. We can then form both a connectivity matrix of the intersections and a small representative GPS track for each road segment. The road segment between each pair of directly-connected intersections is represented using a series of geographical locations, which are averaged from all of the tracks on this road segment by aligning them using the dynamic time warping (DTW) algorithm. Our contribution is two-fold. First, we detect potential intersections by clustering the turning points on the GPS traces. Second, we infer the geometry of the road segments between intersections by aligning GPS tracks point by point using a “stretch and then compress” strategy based on the DTW algorithm. This approach not only allows road estimation by averaging the aligned tracks, but also a deeper statistical analysis based on the individual track’s time alignment, for example the variance of speed along a road segment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Optimized Route Selection Method based on the Turns of Road Intersections: A Case Study on Oversized Cargo Transportation
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(4), 2428-2445; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4042428 - 06 Nov 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2104
Abstract
For oversized cargo transportation, traditional transportation schemes only consider road length, road width, the transportation cost as weight values in analysis and calculation of route selection. However, for oversized trucks, turning direction at road intersections is also a factor worth considering. By introducing [...] Read more.
For oversized cargo transportation, traditional transportation schemes only consider road length, road width, the transportation cost as weight values in analysis and calculation of route selection. However, for oversized trucks, turning direction at road intersections is also a factor worth considering. By introducing the classical algorithm of Dijkstra into the model of road network, this research considers the size of turning angle at intersections as the weight value of the edge in the auxiliary network based on the weight values of road corners, upon which the shortest path analysis is performed. Then, an optimal path with minimum time cost was eventually obtained. The proposed algorithm was analyzed and compared with the traditional shortest path algorithm and it reported that our method could reduce the time for oversized trucks to pass through intersections. In addition, the proposed algorithm could be adapted to the complex and diverse road networks and provide a reliable scheme for route selection of oversized trucks. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Improving Post-Earthquake Insurance Claim Management: A Novel Approach to Prioritize Geospatial Data Collection
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(4), 2401-2427; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4042401 - 30 Oct 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2455
Abstract
With a population exceeding 14 million and a GDP of more than 300 billion USD, Istanbul dominates the Turkish economy. Unfortunately, this concentration of social and economic assets is permanently threatened by potentially devastating earthquakes, given the city’s close proximity to several well-known [...] Read more.
With a population exceeding 14 million and a GDP of more than 300 billion USD, Istanbul dominates the Turkish economy. Unfortunately, this concentration of social and economic assets is permanently threatened by potentially devastating earthquakes, given the city’s close proximity to several well-known fault systems. As a measure to mitigate the consequences of such events, and to increase the resilience of the exposed communities, the Turkish Catastrophe Insurance Pool (TCIP) has been set up to provide affordable and reliable earthquake insurance to households all over the country. In the aftermath of a damaging event, especially in Istanbul, the operational capacity of TCIP will be seriously challenged by the high number of claims whose settlement would have to be swift and fair in order to kick-start the recovery process. In this paper we explore an integrated approach based on mobile mapping and ad hoc prioritization techniques to streamline the data collection and analysis process, with application to both the pre-event and post-event phases. Preliminary results obtained in Besiktas, a populous district of Istanbul, are presented and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geoinformation for Disaster Risk Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Operational Monitoring of the Desert Locust Habitat with Earth Observation: An Assessment
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(4), 2379-2400; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4042379 - 30 Oct 2015
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2345
Abstract
Desert locust swarms intermittently damage crops and pastures in sixty countries from Africa to western Asia, threatening the food security of 10% of the world’s population. During the 20th century, desert locust control operations began organizing, and nowadays, they are coordinated by the [...] Read more.
Desert locust swarms intermittently damage crops and pastures in sixty countries from Africa to western Asia, threatening the food security of 10% of the world’s population. During the 20th century, desert locust control operations began organizing, and nowadays, they are coordinated by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), which promotes a preventative strategy based on early warning and rapid response. This strategy implies a constant monitoring of the populations and of the ecological conditions favorable to their development. Satellite remote sensing can provide a near real-time monitoring of these conditions at the continental scale. Thus, the desert locust control community needs a reliable detection of green vegetation in arid and semi-arid areas as an indicator of potential desert locust habitat. To meet this need, a colorimetric transformation has been developed on both SPOT-VEGETATION and MODIS data to produce dynamic greenness maps. After their integration in the daily locust control activities, this research aimed at assessing those dynamic greenness maps from the producers’ and the users’ points of view. Eight confusion matrices and Pareto boundaries were derived from high resolution reference maps representative of the temporal and spatial diversity of Mauritanian habitats. The dynamic greenness maps were found to be accurate in summer breeding areas (F-score = 0.64–0.87), but accuracy dropped in winter breeding areas (F-score = 0.28–0.40). Accuracy is related to landscape fragmentation (R2 = 0.9): the current spatial resolution remains too coarse to resolve complex fragmented patterns and accounts for a substantial (60%) part of the error. The exploitation of PROBA-V 100-m images at the finest resolution (100-m) would enhance by 20% the vegetation detection in fragmented habitat. A survey revealed that end-users are satisfied with the product and find it fit for monitoring, thanks to an intuitive interpretation, leading to more efficiency. Full article
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Open AccessProject Report
Innovation in OGC: The Interoperability Program
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(4), 2362-2378; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4042362 - 30 Oct 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2637
Abstract
The OGC Interoperability Program is a source of innovation in the development of open standards. The approach to innovation is based on hands-on; collaborative engineering leading to more mature standards and implementations. The process of the Interoperability Program engages a community of sponsors [...] Read more.
The OGC Interoperability Program is a source of innovation in the development of open standards. The approach to innovation is based on hands-on; collaborative engineering leading to more mature standards and implementations. The process of the Interoperability Program engages a community of sponsors and participants based on an economic model that benefits all involved. Each initiative begins with an innovative approach to identify interoperability needs followed by agile software development to advance the state of technology to the benefit of society. Over eighty initiatives have been conducted in the Interoperability Program since the breakthrough Web Mapping Testbed began the program in 1999. OGC standards that were initiated in Interoperability Program are the basis of two thirds of the certified compliant products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 20 Years of OGC: Open Geo-Data, Software, and Standards)
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Open AccessArticle
Bridge Performance Assessment Based on an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System with Wavelet Filter for the GPS Measurements
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(4), 2339-2361; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4042339 - 28 Oct 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2247
Abstract
This study describes the performance assessment of the Huangpu Bridge in Guangzhou, China based on long-term monitoring in real-time by the kinematic global positioning system (RTK-GPS) technique. Wavelet transformde-noising is applied to filter the GPS measurements, while the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) [...] Read more.
This study describes the performance assessment of the Huangpu Bridge in Guangzhou, China based on long-term monitoring in real-time by the kinematic global positioning system (RTK-GPS) technique. Wavelet transformde-noising is applied to filter the GPS measurements, while the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) time series output-only model is used to predict the deformations of GPS-bridge monitoring points. In addition, GPS and accelerometer monitoring systems are used to evaluate the bridge oscillation performance. The conclusions drawn from investigating the numerical results show that: (1)the wavelet de-noising of the GPS measurements of the different recording points on the bridge is a suitable tool to efficiently eliminate the signal noise and extract the different deformation components such as: semi-static and dynamic displacements; (2) the ANFIS method with two multi-input single output model is revealed to powerfully predict GPS movement measurements and assess the bridge deformations; and (3) The installed structural health monitoring system and the applied ANFIS movement prediction performance model are solely sufficient to assure bridge safety based on the analyses of the different filtered movement components. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Spatiotemporal Data Mining: A Computational Perspective
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(4), 2306-2338; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4042306 - 28 Oct 2015
Cited by 48 | Viewed by 4693
Abstract
Explosive growth in geospatial and temporal data as well as the emergence of new technologies emphasize the need for automated discovery of spatiotemporal knowledge. Spatiotemporal data mining studies the process of discovering interesting and previously unknown, but potentially useful patterns from large spatiotemporal [...] Read more.
Explosive growth in geospatial and temporal data as well as the emergence of new technologies emphasize the need for automated discovery of spatiotemporal knowledge. Spatiotemporal data mining studies the process of discovering interesting and previously unknown, but potentially useful patterns from large spatiotemporal databases. It has broad application domains including ecology and environmental management, public safety, transportation, earth science, epidemiology, and climatology. The complexity of spatiotemporal data and intrinsic relationships limits the usefulness of conventional data science techniques for extracting spatiotemporal patterns. In this survey, we review recent computational techniques and tools in spatiotemporal data mining, focusing on several major pattern families: spatiotemporal outlier, spatiotemporal coupling and tele-coupling, spatiotemporal prediction, spatiotemporal partitioning and summarization, spatiotemporal hotspots, and change detection. Compared with other surveys in the literature, this paper emphasizes the statistical foundations of spatiotemporal data mining and provides comprehensive coverage of computational approaches for various pattern families. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4 2307 We also list popular software tools for spatiotemporal data analysis. The survey concludes with a look at future research needs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Spatio-Temporal Data Analysis and Mining)
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Open AccessArticle
Image Segmentation Parameter Optimization Considering Within- and Between-Segment Heterogeneity at Multiple Scale Levels: Test Case for Mapping Residential Areas Using Landsat Imagery
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(4), 2292-2305; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4042292 - 27 Oct 2015
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 2694
Abstract
Multi-scale/multi-level geographic object-based image analysis (MS-GEOBIA) methods are becoming widely-used in remote sensing because single-scale/single-level (SS-GEOBIA) methods are often unable to obtain an accurate segmentation and classification of all land use/land cover (LULC) types in an image. However, there have been few comparisons [...] Read more.
Multi-scale/multi-level geographic object-based image analysis (MS-GEOBIA) methods are becoming widely-used in remote sensing because single-scale/single-level (SS-GEOBIA) methods are often unable to obtain an accurate segmentation and classification of all land use/land cover (LULC) types in an image. However, there have been few comparisons between SS-GEOBIA and MS-GEOBIA approaches for the purpose of mapping a specific LULC type, so it is not well understood which is more appropriate for this task. In addition, there are few methods for automating the selection of segmentation parameters for MS-GEOBIA, while manual selection (i.e., trial-and-error approach) of parameters can be quite challenging and time-consuming. In this study, we examined SS-GEOBIA and MS-GEOBIA approaches for extracting residential areas in Landsat 8 imagery, and compared naïve and parameter-optimized segmentation approaches to assess whether unsupervised segmentation parameter optimization (USPO) could improve the extraction of residential areas. Our main findings were: (i) the MS-GEOBIA approaches achieved higher classification accuracies than the SS-GEOBIA approach, and (ii) USPO resulted in more accurate MS-GEOBIA classification results while reducing the number of segmentation levels and classification variables considerably. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cloud-Based Geospatial 3D Image Spaces—A Powerful Urban Model for the Smart City
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(4), 2267-2291; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4042267 - 26 Oct 2015
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3196
Abstract
In this paper, we introduce the concept and an implementation of geospatial 3D image spaces as new type of native urban models. 3D image spaces are based on collections of georeferenced RGB-D imagery. This imagery is typically acquired using multi-view stereo mobile [...] Read more.
In this paper, we introduce the concept and an implementation of geospatial 3D image spaces as new type of native urban models. 3D image spaces are based on collections of georeferenced RGB-D imagery. This imagery is typically acquired using multi-view stereo mobile mapping systems capturing dense sequences of street level imagery. Ideally, image depth information is derived using dense image matching. This delivers a very dense depth representation and ensures the spatial and temporal coherence of radiometric and depth data. This results in a high-definition WYSIWYG (“what you see is what you get”) urban model, which is intuitive to interpret and easy to interact with, and which provides powerful augmentation and 3D measuring capabilities. Furthermore, we present a scalable cloud-based framework for generating 3D image spaces of entire cities or states and a client architecture for their web-based exploitation. The model and the framework strongly support the smart city notion of efficiently connecting the urban environment and its processes with experts and citizens alike. In the paper we particularly investigate quality aspects of the urban model, namely the obtainable georeferencing accuracy and the quality of the depth map extraction. We show that our image-based georeferencing approach is capable of improving the original direct georeferencing accuracy by an order of magnitude and that the presented new multi-image matching approach is capable of providing high accuracies along with a significantly improved completeness of the depth maps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geo-Information Fostering Innovative Solutions for Smart Cities)
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Open AccessArticle
Early Flood Detection for Rapid Humanitarian Response: Harnessing Near Real-Time Satellite and Twitter Signals
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(4), 2246-2266; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4042246 - 23 Oct 2015
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 3333
Abstract
Humanitarian organizations have a crucial role in response and relief efforts after floods. The effectiveness of disaster response is contingent on accurate and timely information regarding the location, timing and impacts of the event. Here we show how two near-real-time data sources, satellite [...] Read more.
Humanitarian organizations have a crucial role in response and relief efforts after floods. The effectiveness of disaster response is contingent on accurate and timely information regarding the location, timing and impacts of the event. Here we show how two near-real-time data sources, satellite observations of water coverage and flood-related social media activity from Twitter, can be used to support rapid disaster response, using case-studies in the Philippines and Pakistan. For these countries we analyze information from disaster response organizations, the Global Flood Detection System (GFDS) satellite flood signal, and flood-related Twitter activity analysis. The results demonstrate that these sources of near-real-time information can be used to gain a quicker understanding of the location, the timing, as well as the causes and impacts of floods. In terms of location, we produce daily impact maps based on both satellite information and social media, which can dynamically and rapidly outline the affected area during a disaster. In terms of timing, the results show that GFDS and/or Twitter signals flagging ongoing or upcoming flooding are regularly available one to several days before the event was reported to humanitarian organizations. In terms of event understanding, we show that both GFDS and social media can be used to detect and understand unexpected or controversial flood events, for example due to the sudden opening of hydropower dams or the breaching of flood protection. The performance of the GFDS and Twitter data for early detection and location mapping is mixed, depending on specific hydrological circumstances (GFDS) and social media penetration (Twitter). Further research is needed to improve the interpretation of the GFDS signal in different situations, and to improve the pre-processing of social media data for operational use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geoinformation for Disaster Risk Management)
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