The Building Blocks of User-Focused 3D City Models †, ‡
|1||Inter-building geometric shape||The 3D shape of the space between the buildings.|
|2||Roof geometric shape||The 3D shape of the building’s roof.|
|3||Complete building geometric shape||The 3D shape of the whole building.|
|4||Position and dimensions of doors and windows||Where the windows and doors are located in the building and their 3D shape.|
|5||Highest point of structure||The very highest point on the building (including roof fixtures, such as chimneys and aerials).|
|6||Maximum height of roof ridge||The maximum height of the ridge of the roof. This has been broadened to the maximum height of the main roof of the building.|
|7||Height of building to base of roof (eave height)||The height from the ground to the bottom of the roof structure (which is often slightly above the height of the eave).|
|8||Ground floor height||The height of the floor of the building’s ground floor.|
2. Research and Development of User-Focused 3D Data
2.1. Building Height Data
|Building Characteristic||Resulting Building Height Attribute (BHA)||BHA Description||Closest INSPIRE Elevation Reference Value|
|8: “Ground floor height” (the ground has been substituted for the floor height)||AbsHmin||The absolute minimum height of the intersection of the external building walls and the underlying ground surface||Lowest Ground Point|
|9: “Height of the base of the building” (can be above ground for non-obstructing detail, such as canopies and cantilevered buildings)||AbsH1||The absolute height of the base of the building||Bottom of Construction|
|Part of Characteristic 7: “Height of building to base of roof”||AbsH2||The absolute height of the base of the roof||General Eave|
|6: “Maximum height of roof ridge”||AbsH3||The absolute maximum height of the main roof||Top of Construction|
|5: “Highest point of structure”||AbsHmax||The absolute height of the highest point on the building||Highest Point|
|7: “Height of building to base of roof” (assuming that the bottom of the building and the ground are coincident)||RelH2||AbsH2 − AbsHmin||n/a|
|n/a||RelHmax||AbsHmax − AbsHmin||n/a|
A “simple” building is one which has planar vertical walls and for which the base of the most visually-significant roof portion can be well characterised using a single horizontal plane. If such a horizontal plane cannot be easily established, the building will be classified as “complex”.
2.2. Three-Dimensional Shape
2.3. Attribution Related to Building Geometry
Conflicts of Interest
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Sargent, I.; Holland, D.; Harding, J. The Building Blocks of User-Focused 3D City Models. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4, 2890-2904. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4042890
Sargent I, Holland D, Harding J. The Building Blocks of User-Focused 3D City Models. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information. 2015; 4(4):2890-2904. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4042890Chicago/Turabian Style
Sargent, Isabel, David Holland, and Jenny Harding. 2015. "The Building Blocks of User-Focused 3D City Models" ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information 4, no. 4: 2890-2904. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4042890