Special Issue "20 Years of OGC: Open Geo-Data, Software, and Standards"

A special issue of ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information (ISSN 2220-9964).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2015)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Steve H.L. Liang

Chair of ISPRS Working Group IV/6 “Sensor Web and Internet of Things”
Department of Geomatics Engineering, Schulich School of Enginering, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4, Canada
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Internet of Things; web mapping; interoperability; open geospatial software; sensor networks
Guest Editor
Dr. Mohamed Bakillah

Department of Geomatics Engineering, Schulich School of Enginering, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4, Canada
Interdisciplinary Center for Scientific Computing (IWR), Department of Geography, University of Heidelberg, Germany
Website | E-Mail

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The year 2014 marks the 20th anniversary of the creation of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). After two decades, OGC standards have become a key enabler of geospatial interoperability, delivering significant societal, economic and scientific benefits by integrating digital location resources into commercial and institutional processes worldwide. Emerging technologies such as cloud computing, smartphones, UAVs, sensor networks and the Internet of Things offer new ways of collecting, accessing, and analyzing geospatial information, generating an ever increasing interest in the diffusion, usage, and processing of geo-referenced data. This rapidly expanding technology domain brings exciting new challenges and opportunities to many scientific disciplines and to the geospatial interoperability research community.

You are invited to contribute to this Special Issue of ISPRS International Journal for Geo-Information, which will focus on research in the development and application of geospatial interoperability standards. This special issue will present the progress and future directions of geospatial interoperability as it applies to computer science and to sciences in which geoprocessing has become an essential tool.

Dr. Steve Liang
Dr. Mohamed Bakillah
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


Keywords

  • Ÿ  Open Geospatial Consortium
  • Ÿ  interoperability
  • Ÿ  open data
  • Ÿ  open standards
  • Ÿ  web mapping
  • Ÿ  web processing
  • Ÿ  sensor web
  • Ÿ  Internet of Things

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Open AccessArticle OGC Consensus: How Successful Standards Are Made
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(3), 1693-1706; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4031693
Received: 1 May 2015 / Accepted: 20 July 2015 / Published: 7 September 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (335 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper describes the history, background, and current status of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards development consensus process. The roots of the formation of the OGC lie in the early 1990s when a very strong market requirement for exchanging GIS data content [...] Read more.
This paper describes the history, background, and current status of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards development consensus process. The roots of the formation of the OGC lie in the early 1990s when a very strong market requirement for exchanging GIS data content was clearly stated. At that time, each GIS vendor had their own formats for publishing and/or exchanging their GIS data. There was no mechanism or organization that provided a forum for the GIS vendors and GIS data users to collaborate and agree on how to share GIS data. That requirement, along with the vision of a few individuals, led to the formation of the OGC. This paper describes the early development of the consensus process in the OGC, how this process has evolved over time, why consensus is so important for defining open standards that are implemented in the marketplace, and the future of the OGC consensus process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 20 Years of OGC: Open Geo-Data, Software, and Standards)
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Open AccessArticle An Investigation into the Completeness of, and the Updates to, OpenStreetMap Data in a Heterogeneous Area in Brazil
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(3), 1366-1388; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4031366
Received: 2 April 2015 / Accepted: 20 July 2015 / Published: 12 August 2015
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (1462 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The integration of user-generated content made in a collaborative environment is being increasingly considered a valuable input to reference maps, even from official map agencies such as USGS and Ordnance Survey. In Brazil, decades of lack of investment has resulted in a topographic [...] Read more.
The integration of user-generated content made in a collaborative environment is being increasingly considered a valuable input to reference maps, even from official map agencies such as USGS and Ordnance Survey. In Brazil, decades of lack of investment has resulted in a topographic map coverage that is both outdated and unequally distributed throughout the territory. This paper aims to analyze the spatial distribution of updates of OpenStreetMap in rural and urban areas in the country to understand the patterns of user updates and its correlation with other economic and developmental variables. This analysis will contribute to generating the knowledge needed in order to consider the use of this data as part of a reference layer of the National Spatial Database Infrastructure as well to design strategies to encourage user action in specific areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 20 Years of OGC: Open Geo-Data, Software, and Standards)
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Open AccessArticle Architecture of a Process Broker for Interoperable Geospatial Modeling on the Web
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(2), 647-660; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4020647
Received: 16 December 2014 / Revised: 24 February 2015 / Accepted: 27 March 2015 / Published: 20 April 2015
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (2388 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The identification of appropriate mechanisms for process sharing and reuse by means of composition is considered a key enabler for the effective uptake of a global Earth Observation infrastructure, currently pursued by the international geospatial research community. Modelers in need of running complex [...] Read more.
The identification of appropriate mechanisms for process sharing and reuse by means of composition is considered a key enabler for the effective uptake of a global Earth Observation infrastructure, currently pursued by the international geospatial research community. Modelers in need of running complex workflows may benefit from outsourcing process composition to a dedicated external service, according to the brokering approach. This work introduces our architecture of a process broker, as a distributed information system for creating, validating, editing, storing, publishing and executing geospatial-modeling workflows. The broker provides a service framework for adaptation, reuse and complementation of existing processing resources (including models and geospatial services in general) in the form of interoperable, executable workflows. The described solution has been experimentally applied in several use scenarios in the context of EU-funded projects and the Global Earth Observation System of Systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 20 Years of OGC: Open Geo-Data, Software, and Standards)
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Open AccessArticle Moving Point Density Estimation Algorithm Based on a Generated Bayesian Prior
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(2), 515-534; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4020515
Received: 11 December 2014 / Revised: 28 February 2015 / Accepted: 27 March 2015 / Published: 7 April 2015
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Abstract
To improve decision making, real-time population density must be known. However, calculating the point density of a huge dataset in real time is impractical in terms of processing time. Accordingly, a fast algorithm for estimating the distribution of the density of moving points [...] Read more.
To improve decision making, real-time population density must be known. However, calculating the point density of a huge dataset in real time is impractical in terms of processing time. Accordingly, a fast algorithm for estimating the distribution of the density of moving points is proposed. The algorithm, which is based on variational Bayesian estimation, takes a parametric approach to speed up the estimation process. Although the parametric approach has a drawback, that is the processes to be carried out on the server are very slow, the proposed algorithm overcomes the drawback by using the result of an estimation of an adjacent past density distribution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 20 Years of OGC: Open Geo-Data, Software, and Standards)
Open AccessArticle Categorization and Conversions for Indexing Methods of Discrete Global Grid Systems
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(1), 320-336; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4010320
Received: 29 October 2014 / Revised: 29 December 2014 / Accepted: 4 February 2015 / Published: 25 February 2015
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (1156 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Digital Earth frameworks provide a tool to receive, send and interact with large location-based datasets, organized usually according to Discrete Global Grid Systems (DGGS). In DGGS, an indexing method is used to assign a unique index to each cell of a global grid, [...] Read more.
Digital Earth frameworks provide a tool to receive, send and interact with large location-based datasets, organized usually according to Discrete Global Grid Systems (DGGS). In DGGS, an indexing method is used to assign a unique index to each cell of a global grid, and the datasets corresponding to these cells are retrieved or allocated using this unique index. There exist many methods to index cells of DGGS. Toward facility, interoperability and also defining a “standard” for DGGS, a conversion is needed to translate a dataset from one DGGS to another. In this paper, we first propose a categorization of indexing methods of DGGS and then define a general conversion method from one indexing to another. Several examples are presented to describe the method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 20 Years of OGC: Open Geo-Data, Software, and Standards)
Open AccessArticle The RichWPS Environment for Orchestration
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2014, 3(4), 1334-1351; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi3041334
Received: 5 September 2014 / Revised: 20 October 2014 / Accepted: 24 November 2014 / Published: 5 December 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1238 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Web service (WS) orchestration can be considered as a fundamental concept in service-oriented architectures (SOA), as well as in spatial data infrastructures (SDI). In recent years in SOA, advanced solutions were developed, such as realizing orchestrated web services on the basis of already [...] Read more.
Web service (WS) orchestration can be considered as a fundamental concept in service-oriented architectures (SOA), as well as in spatial data infrastructures (SDI). In recent years in SOA, advanced solutions were developed, such as realizing orchestrated web services on the basis of already existing more fine-granular web services by using standardized notations and existing orchestration engines. Even if the concepts can be mapped to the field of SDI, on a conceptual level the implementations target different goals. As a specialized form of a common web service, an Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) web service (OWS) is optimized for a specific purpose. On the technological level, web services depend on standards like the Web Service Description Language (WSDL) or the Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP). However OWS are different. Consequently, a new concept for OWS orchestration is needed that works on the interface provided by OWS. Such a concept is presented in this work. The major component is an orchestration engine integrated in a Web Processing Service (WPS) server that uses a domain specific language (DSL) for workflow description. The developed concept is the base for the realization of new functionality, such as workflow testing, and workflow optimization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 20 Years of OGC: Open Geo-Data, Software, and Standards)
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Open AccessProject Report Innovation in OGC: The Interoperability Program
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(4), 2362-2378; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4042362
Received: 23 May 2015 / Revised: 25 September 2015 / Accepted: 14 October 2015 / Published: 30 October 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (771 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The OGC Interoperability Program is a source of innovation in the development of open standards. The approach to innovation is based on hands-on; collaborative engineering leading to more mature standards and implementations. The process of the Interoperability Program engages a community of sponsors [...] Read more.
The OGC Interoperability Program is a source of innovation in the development of open standards. The approach to innovation is based on hands-on; collaborative engineering leading to more mature standards and implementations. The process of the Interoperability Program engages a community of sponsors and participants based on an economic model that benefits all involved. Each initiative begins with an innovative approach to identify interoperability needs followed by agile software development to advance the state of technology to the benefit of society. Over eighty initiatives have been conducted in the Interoperability Program since the breakthrough Web Mapping Testbed began the program in 1999. OGC standards that were initiated in Interoperability Program are the basis of two thirds of the certified compliant products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 20 Years of OGC: Open Geo-Data, Software, and Standards)
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