A scattering process can be a natural process or a process carried out in a laboratory. The scattering of particles from targets has resulted in important discoveries in physics. We discuss various scattering theories of electrons and positrons and their applications to elastic scattering, resonances, photoabsorption, excitation, and solar and stellar atmospheres. Among the most commonly employed approaches are the Kohn variational principle, close-coupling approximation, method of polarized orbitals, R
-matrix formulation, and hybrid theory. In every formulation, an attempt is made to include exchange, long-range and short-range correlations, and to make the approach variationally correct. The present formulation, namely, hybrid theory, which is discussed in greater detail compared to other approximations, includes exchange, long-range correlations, and short-range correlations at the same time, and is variationally correct. It was applied to calculate the phase shifts for elastic scattering, the resonance parameters of two-electron systems, photoabsorption in two-electron systems, excitation of atomic hydrogen by an electron and positron impact, and to study the opacity of the Sun’s atmosphere. Calculations of polarizabilities, Rydberg states, and bound states of atoms are also discussed.