# Database NORAD-Atomic-Data for Atomic Processes in Plasma

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction: NORAD-ATOMIC-DATA

#### 1.1. Photoexcitation and De-Excitation

- Line strength (S),
- Oscillator strength (f),
- Radiative decay rate (A-value)
- Lifetimes

#### 1.2. Photoionization

- Total photoionization cross-section (${\sigma}_{PI}$) of each bound state of the ion, from ground to various excited states, typically with $n\le $ 10. Total ${\sigma}_{PI}$ corresponds to the summed contribution of all ionization channels leaving the residual ion in the ground and various excited states.
- Partial photoionization cross-section (${\sigma}_{PI}$) for all bound states of the ion for leaving the residual ion in the ground state only.
- Partial photoionization cross-sections (${\sigma}_{PI}$) corresponding to leaving the residual ion in the ground and various excited states. NORAD-Atomic-Data provides these cross-sections only for the ground level of the ion. Photoionization resonances are often dissolved by plasma density and temperature, resulting in an enhanced continuum background. However, the strong and isolated resonances can be seen in the absorption spectra. Large quantities photoionization cross-section for all possible bound states with a wide range of photon energies are needed to determine the opacity in astrophysical plasmas.

#### 1.3. Electron–Ion Recombination

- Level-specific total recombination (includes both RR and DR) rate coefficients (${\alpha}_{RC}\left(i\right)$) of all bound levels with $n\le $ 10.
- Total recombination rate coefficient (${\alpha}_{RC}\left(T\right)$), summed contributions of all levels with $n\le $ 10 and of levels with 10 $<n\le \infty $ as function of electron temperature T.
- Total recombination cross sections (${\sigma}_{RC}\left(E\right)$) and total recombination rate coefficient (${\alpha}_{RC}\left(E\right)$) with respect to photoelectron energy E. Recombination resonances can be seen in emission spectra as dielectronic recombination lines. Total ${\alpha}_{RC}\left(T\right)$ is needed for the determination of ionization fractions in photoionized or collisional plasmas.

#### 1.4. Electron–Impact Excitation (EIE)

- Collision strength ($\mathsf{\Omega}$),
- Effective collision strengths ($\gamma $),
- Collision rate coefficients (${q}_{ij}$).

#### 1.5. The Opacity Project and atomic database TOPbase

#### 1.6. The Iron Project and atomic database TIPbase

#### 1.7. NORAD-ATOMIC-DATA and Atomic Astrophysics and Spectroscopy

- -
- Significant part of the data corresponds to new and/or improved results over those in TOPbase,
- -
- The data are of higher accuracy than those in TOPbase,
- -
- Includes fine structure oscillator strengths of many ions,
- -
- Contains forbidden transitions, lifetimes,
- -
- Includes data of the additional atomic process of electron–ion recombination,
- -
- Contains larger sets (typically up to n = 10 and $l\le $ 9) of energy levels, photoionization cross-sections, recombination cross sections and rate coefficients needed for complete modeling of astrophysical objects,
- -
- Contains X-ray transition data for heavier elements (beyond Ni) which are of great interest for various astronomical, biomedical, fusion plasma applications.

## 2. Theoretical Approximations

#### 2.1. Photoexcitations/ Deexcitations

#### 2.2. Photoionization (PI)

#### 2.3. Electron–Ion Recombination

#### 2.4. Electron Impact Excitation (EIE)

## 3. Data Description of NORAD-Atomic-Data

## 4. Accuracy of Data and Benchmarking

- (i)
- from less than 1 to 20% in $LS$ coupling approximation,
- (ii)
- from less than 1 to 50% for fine-structure splitting of LS multiplets using algebraic transformation,
- (iii)
- from less than 1 to 15% for relativistic Breit–Pauli approximations.

- (1)
- (2)
- (3)
- (4)
- (5)
- with pulsed-laser excitation and ionization atoms in an atomic beam at University of Nebraska [124].

- Engineering: Adeneh et al. [129] who studied thermodynamic and radiative properties of electrical discharge machining (EDM) plasmas for temperature up to 10,000 K and pressure range 0.1–1 MPa using atomic data from NORAD-Atomic-Data, find an increase in net emission coefficient (NEC) with different amount of iron contamination in nitrogen and sharp cooling of the plasma by iron contamination as shown in Figure 7 taken from [129].

## 5. Conclusions

- (i)
- include more data with publications,
- (ii)
- include computer programs that can read the data files and process the data to calculate the quantities of interest,
- (iii)
- introduce a plotting feature,
- (iv)
- an option for selection of partial data, such as, for a particular wavelength range.

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 2.**Flowchart of different stages, e.g., STG1, STG2, RECUPD, of computation in the Breit–Pauli R-matrix (BPRM) method. The final product parameters are energy levels, oscillator strengths, photoionization cross sections, electron–ion recombination cross sections, collision strengths which are applied in astrophysical applications.

**Figure 3.**Screenshot of the table that gives access to various atomic data. The leftmost column gives the atom/ion name and the right columns give the names of the data files for various atomic processes.

**Figure 4.**Screenshot of a transition table, with transitions in Fe XV as example [28], with full spectroscopic designation.

**Figure 5.**Comparison of photoionization cross sections of N IV measured at BESSY II setup in Germany by Simon et al. [122] (upper panel) with those by Nahar and Pradhan [123] available at the NORAD-Atomic-Data (blue) and MCDF calculations (orange drop [122]) in the lower panel (Figure from [122] is used with permission).

**Figure 7.**Net emission coefficient (NEC) with temperature at different percentage of contamination of iron in nitrogen molecule in EDM plasmas. (Figure from [129] is used with permission).

${\mathit{C}}_{\mathit{t}}\left({\mathit{S}}_{\mathit{t}}{\mathit{L}}_{\mathit{t}}{\mathit{\pi}}_{\mathit{t}}\right)$ | ${\mathit{J}}_{\mathit{t}}$ | $\mathit{nl}$ | $2\mathit{J}$ | E(Ry) | $\mathit{\nu}$ | $\mathit{SL}\mathit{\pi}$ |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Nlv = 2, ${}^{2}{L}^{o}$:P ( 3 1 )/2 | ||||||

2p63s2 (1Se) | 0 | 3p | 1 | −2.88230$\times {10}^{1}$ | 2.64 | 2P o |

2p63s2 (1Se) | 0 | 3p | 3 | −2.86520$\times {10}^{1}$ | 2.62 | 2P o |

Nlv(c) = 2 : set complete | ||||||

Eqv electron/unidentified levels, parity: e | ||||||

3s3p2 | 1 | −2.68030$\times {10}^{1}$ | 2.70 | 4P e | ||

3s3p2 | 3 | −2.67330$\times {10}^{1}$ | 2.71 | 4P e | ||

3s3p2 | 5 | −2.66410$\times {10}^{1}$ | 2.71 | 4P e | ||

Nlv(c) = 3 : set complete | ||||||

Nlv = 9, ${}^{2}{L}^{e}$: S ( 1 )/2 P ( 3 1 )/2 D ( 5 3 )/2 F ( 7 5 )/2 G ( 9 7 )/2 | ||||||

3p2 (1De) | 2 | 3d | 5 | −1.96549$\times {10}^{1}$ | 2.84 | 2DF e |

3p2 (1De) | 2 | 3d | 7 | −1.95955$\times {10}^{1}$ | 2.83 | 2FG e |

3p2 (1De) | 2 | 3d | 7 | −1.94588$\times {10}^{1}$ | 2.85 | 2FG e |

3p2 (1De) | 2 | 3d | 9 | −1.94215$\times {10}^{1}$ | 2.84 | 2G e |

3p2 (1De) | 2 | 3d | 3 | −1.94120$\times {10}^{1}$ | 2.83 | 2D e |

3p2 (1De) | 2 | 3d | 5 | −1.93740$\times {10}^{1}$ | 2.85 | 2D e |

3p2 (1De) | 2 | 3d | 1 | −1.88526$\times {10}^{1}$ | 2.85 | 2SP e |

3p2 (1De) | 2 | 3d | 1 | −1.87559$\times {10}^{1}$ | 2.86 | 2SP e |

3p2 (1De) | 2 | 3d | 3 | −1.87283$\times {10}^{1}$ | 2.88 | 2PD e |

Nlv(c) = 9 : set complete |

26 | 13 | ||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

I${}_{\mathit{i}}$ | I${}_{\mathit{k}}$ | $\mathit{\lambda}\mathbf{(}\mathbf{\AA}\mathbf{)}$ | ${\mathit{E}}_{\mathit{i}}$(Ry) | ${\mathit{E}}_{\mathit{k}}$(Ry) | $\mathit{f}$ | $\mathit{S}$ | ${\mathit{A}}_{\mathit{ki}}\mathbf{\left(}{\mathit{s}}^{\mathbf{-}\mathbf{1}}\mathbf{\right)}$ |

2 0 2 1 79 82 6478 = gi Pi gk Pk Ni Nk NN | |||||||

1 | 1 | 451.12 | −2.6803$\times {10}^{1}$ | −2.8823$\times {10}^{1}$ | 5.777$\times {10}^{-4}$ | 1.716$\times {10}^{-3}$ | 1.893$\times {10}^{7}$ |

1 | 2 | 237.74 | −2.6803$\times {10}^{1}$ | −2.2970$\times {10}^{1}$ | −1.231$\times {10}^{-4}$ | 1.927$\times {10}^{-4}$ | 1.453$\times {10}^{7}$ |

1 | 3 | 211.68 | −2.6803$\times {10}^{1}$ | −2.2498$\times {10}^{1}$ | −2.819$\times {10}^{-1}$ | 3.929$\times {10}^{-1}$ | 4.197$\times {10}^{10}$ |

1 | 4 | 207.44 | −2.6803$\times {10}^{1}$ | −2.2410$\times {10}^{1}$ | −1.458$\times {10}^{-3}$ | 1.991$\times {10}^{-3}$ | 2.259$\times {10}^{8}$ |

1 | 5 | 161.86 | −2.6803$\times {10}^{1}$ | −2.1173$\times {10}^{1}$ | −4.713$\times {10}^{-4}$ | 5.023$\times {10}^{-4}$ | 1.200$\times {10}^{8}$ |

1 | 6 | 19.07 | −2.6803$\times {10}^{1}$ | −2.0978$\times {10}^{1}$ | −4.846$\times {10}^{-7}$ | 6.086$\times {10}^{-8}$ | 8.890$\times {10}^{6}$ |

1 | 7 | 82.85 | −2.6803$\times {10}^{1}$ | −1.5804$\times {10}^{1}$ | −5.076$\times {10}^{-5}$ | 2.769$\times {10}^{-5}$ | 4.931$\times {10}^{7}$ |

1 | 8 | 82.65 | −2.6803$\times {10}^{1}$ | −1.5777$\times {10}^{1}$ | −1.231$\times {10}^{-5}$ | 6.699$\times {10}^{-6}$ | 1.202$\times {10}^{7}$ |

1 | 9 | 81.13 | −2.6803$\times {10}^{1}$ | −1.5571$\times {10}^{1}$ | −1.757$\times {10}^{-5}$ | 9.386$\times {10}^{-6}$ | 1.780$\times {10}^{7}$ |

1 | 10 | 79.57 | −2.6803$\times {10}^{1}$ | −1.5351$\times {10}^{1}$ | −1.716$\times {10}^{-5}$ | 8.989$\times {10}^{-6}$ | 1.807$\times {10}^{7}$ |

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Nahar, S. Database NORAD-Atomic-Data for Atomic Processes in Plasma. *Atoms* **2020**, *8*, 68.
https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms8040068

**AMA Style**

Nahar S. Database NORAD-Atomic-Data for Atomic Processes in Plasma. *Atoms*. 2020; 8(4):68.
https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms8040068

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Nahar, Sultana. 2020. "Database NORAD-Atomic-Data for Atomic Processes in Plasma" *Atoms* 8, no. 4: 68.
https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms8040068