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Systems, Volume 11, Issue 3 (March 2023) – 54 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Aviation is characterized by many stakeholders, long lifespans, and high requirements for safety, security, and documentation. To meet these as well as customer needs, aircraft are regularly retrofitted with new cabins. During the planning and execution of this cabin retrofit, handling the required data poses a challenge. While many of them are available in some form, there is a lack of a digitally usable dataset of the specific aircraft. To support the overall process of retrofitting aircraft, an approach to model-driven data handling tailored to the unique circumstances of aviation is introduced. It combines systems engineering and data science techniques framed by an iterative procedure that creates and enhances a digitally accessible dataset and eases access to needed information. View this paper
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17 pages, 3082 KiB  
Article
Exploring Hype in Metaverse: Topic Modeling Analysis of Korean Twitter User Data
by Seungjong Sun, Jang-Hyun Kim, Hae-Sun Jung, Minwoo Kim, Xiangying Zhao and Pim Kamphuis
Systems 2023, 11(3), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11030164 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2411
Abstract
Growing expectations and interest in the metaverse have increased the need to explore the public hype. This study measured the hype in the South Korean metaverse context and analyzed its temporal pattern. To this end, 129,032 tweets from Korean users who used the [...] Read more.
Growing expectations and interest in the metaverse have increased the need to explore the public hype. This study measured the hype in the South Korean metaverse context and analyzed its temporal pattern. To this end, 129,032 tweets from Korean users who used the “metaverse” keyword were collected, and 86,901 tweets were analyzed. Using BERT-based topic modeling, a content analysis was performed. The extracted topics were classified into three expectation frameworks: specific expectations, generalized expectations, and frames. Our results imply that the pre-emptive inflation of expectations by the Korean government caused the public’s excessive expectations of the metaverse. Additionally, by using Twitter as a source for analyzing user-perceived hype, it was confirmed that the public responds to the expectations of other actors about the technology rather than expecting the technology itself. Furthermore, pronounced hype dynamics were observed by analyzing the distribution of topics over time. Full article
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20 pages, 3569 KiB  
Article
Using a System Dynamics Simulation Model to Identify Leverage Points for Reducing Youth Homelessness in Connecticut
by Gary B. Hirsch and Heather I. Mosher
Systems 2023, 11(3), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11030163 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2309
Abstract
Youth homelessness is a significant problem in most United States communities. Health problems are both a contributor to and a consequence of homelessness. Responses to youth homelessness are typically fragmentary. Different agencies deal with various causes and consequences of the problem. Stakeholders in [...] Read more.
Youth homelessness is a significant problem in most United States communities. Health problems are both a contributor to and a consequence of homelessness. Responses to youth homelessness are typically fragmentary. Different agencies deal with various causes and consequences of the problem. Stakeholders in Connecticut sought a more coherent approach. This article describes the development and use of a system dynamics simulation model as a decision-support tool that: (1) brings stakeholders together from diverse service sectors and allows them to see the system as a whole, (2) enables them to explore how delivery systems interact to affect homeless and unstably housed youth, (3) lets them test the impact of different intervention alternatives on reducing the problem, and (4) helps develop insights about coherent approaches to youth homelessness. The model’s development is described as a phased process including stakeholder engagement, causal mapping, and creation of the quantitative simulation model. The resulting model is presented along with an interface that enables stakeholders to use the model in a Learning Lab setting. Results of an initial set of Learning Labs are presented, including types of insights gained by participants from using the simulation model. Conclusions include limitations of the model and plans for its future use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue System Dynamics Models for Public Health and Health Care Policy)
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23 pages, 1151 KiB  
Article
An Integrated EDAS Model for Fermatean Fuzzy Multi-Attribute Group Decision Making and Its Application in Green-Supplier Selection
by Shouzhen Zeng, Wendi Chen, Jiaxing Gu and Erhua Zhang
Systems 2023, 11(3), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11030162 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1664
Abstract
The environment and economy benefit from the sustained growth of a high-quality green supplier. During a supplier evaluation and selection process, DMs tend to use fuzzy tools to express evaluation information due to complex practical problems. Therefore, this study explores the green-supplier evaluation [...] Read more.
The environment and economy benefit from the sustained growth of a high-quality green supplier. During a supplier evaluation and selection process, DMs tend to use fuzzy tools to express evaluation information due to complex practical problems. Therefore, this study explores the green-supplier evaluation method in a complex Fermatean fuzzy (FF) environment. First, a group of indicators was created to evaluate the green capabilities and the social impact of suppliers. Second, by combining the merits of the Heronian mean and power average approaches, a FF power Heronian mean and its weighted framework were developed, and their related properties and special families were then presented. Third, to acquire the relative importance of indicators, a marvelous unification of the best–worst method (BWM) and FF entropy is then introduced. The challenge of choosing a green supplier was finally solved using an integrated evaluation based on distance from the average solution (EDAS) evaluation framework in the FF environment. Finally, the presented tool’s viability and robustness were confirmed by actual case analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Data Driven Decision-Making for Complex Production Systems)
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17 pages, 19637 KiB  
Article
Can the Greening of Financial Markets Be Transmitted to the Real Economy as Desired in China?
by Jingxian Zhang, Xuhui Ding, Lingyan Bao and Yidi Zhang
Systems 2023, 11(3), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11030161 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1474
Abstract
The greening of financial markets can effectively guide the flow of capital to green and environmental industries, prompt the upgrading and transformation of the green industry, and help China achieve its dual carbon goals. This paper adopts China’s inter-provincial panel data from 2011 [...] Read more.
The greening of financial markets can effectively guide the flow of capital to green and environmental industries, prompt the upgrading and transformation of the green industry, and help China achieve its dual carbon goals. This paper adopts China’s inter-provincial panel data from 2011 to 2020, measures the development level of the real economy in terms of innovation, coordination, green, openness, and sharing using principal component analysis, and selects core indicators such as green credit, green insurance, green investment, and financial market size. In addition, the fixed panel model and differences-in-differences model are used to carry out the research. The results show that: 1. China’s high-quality green development shows an upward trend in general, the real economy tends to be green, and the development in the east, middle, and west is gradually balanced; 2. Green credit and green insurance have a significant inhibitory effect on the development of the real economy, and this inhibitory effect is more evident in the middle and western regions; green investment has a significant positive promotion effect on promoting the development of the real economy; 3. The promulgation and implementation of policies such as the Guidance on Building a Green Financial System can significantly promote the greening of the financial market to the real economy and promote sustainable development. It should continue to promote the greening of the financial market, improve the green financial service system, smooth the transformation path of green finance to the real economy, strengthen the green guidance of the government on the development of the virtual and real economy, promote the green synergistic development of the financial market in the east and west, and promote the high-quality green sustainable development of the region. Full article
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21 pages, 2223 KiB  
Article
A Novel Picture Fuzzy Set-Based Decision Approach for Consumer Trust Project Risk Assessment
by Liying Yu, Haijie Fang, Yuan Rong, Jingye Min and Yuanzhi Xing
Systems 2023, 11(3), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11030160 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1271
Abstract
Consumer trust projects have formed as a novel business idea to achieve industrial transformation and upgrade Chinese trust companies (consumer trust projects), and it is of great significance to identify risks and evaluate their ranking order based on risk priorities. Considering the complexity [...] Read more.
Consumer trust projects have formed as a novel business idea to achieve industrial transformation and upgrade Chinese trust companies (consumer trust projects), and it is of great significance to identify risks and evaluate their ranking order based on risk priorities. Considering the complexity and uncertainty brought by the multiple stages and multiple subjects, an innovative decision system framework was proposed, integrating criteria interaction through inter-criteria correlation (CRITIC) and the decision-making method additive ratio assessment (ARAS) based on prospect theory (PT) under a picture fuzzy environment. The proposed decision system framework not only determines the weights of criteria by considering the correlation and conflict among them but also determines the risk priority and ranking order by considering the bounded rationality of decision makers (DMs). Subsequently, to demonstrate the efficiency and practicability of the proposed framework, this paper constructs a consumer trust project risk evaluation model that includes a risk evaluation index system consisting of twenty-two risk factors and four relevant criteria in a case study. Then, the established model is used in a specific consumer trust project to demonstrate the application of the proposed framework. After that, a sensitivity discussion and a comparative analysis are provided to demonstrate the introduced methodology’s feasibility and necessity. The risk priority and ranking order calculated by the framework will give a reference for risk management of consumer trust projects. Full article
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22 pages, 2201 KiB  
Article
An Integrated Fuzzy Structured Methodology for Performance Evaluation of High Schools in a Group Decision-Making Problem
by Pengfei Li, Seyyed Ahmad Edalatpanah, Ali Sorourkhah, Saziye Yaman and Nasreen Kausar
Systems 2023, 11(3), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11030159 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1728
Abstract
Evaluating and ranking schools are noteworthy for parents of students and upstream institutions (in Iran, the Ministry of Education). In this process, quantitative criteria, including educational activities, human resources, space and equipment, and administrative-financial indicators, are commonly investigated. This process is carried out [...] Read more.
Evaluating and ranking schools are noteworthy for parents of students and upstream institutions (in Iran, the Ministry of Education). In this process, quantitative criteria, including educational activities, human resources, space and equipment, and administrative-financial indicators, are commonly investigated. This process is carried out only by the upstream institutions and the view of the system from the perspective of another stakeholder, namely, the students’ parents, are ignored and qualitative-judgmental indicators do not involve the school evaluation results. Consequently, in this study, we used the opinions of five parents of students and five experienced school administrators to capture the perspectives of both key system stakeholders. In addition, to perform a more comprehensive analysis, we added three qualitative criteria that are less noticed within the problem (social environment, health, and students), along with their sub-criteria to the criteria obtained from the research background. We eliminated the less influential sub-criteria using the Delphi technique and continued the study with 10 criteria and 53 sub-criteria. Then, using two widely used methods in this field, AHP and TOPSIS, we determined the weight of the sub-criteria and the ranking based on the experts’ views. In addition, to deal with the ambiguity in experts’ judgments, we transformed the crisp data into fuzzy data. We applied the proposed methodology to rank 15 schools in Tehran, Iran. The results showed that the proposed quantitative criteria significantly impact the schools ranking. In addition, according to the sensitivity analysis results, it was found that ignoring the views of the system from another stakeholder can distort the results. Finally, directions for future research were suggested based on current research limitations. Full article
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22 pages, 7924 KiB  
Article
The Adjustment of Pressure Perception in E-Government Response: A Perspective of the Political System Theory
by Zipeng Li, Wenquan Wu and Qingguo Meng
Systems 2023, 11(3), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11030158 - 20 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1720
Abstract
Pressures sensed by the political system may lead to output failure, which can damage the effectiveness of government response but have rarely been analyzed in the literature of Chinese Internet studies. This research asks the following question: Why does the political system produce [...] Read more.
Pressures sensed by the political system may lead to output failure, which can damage the effectiveness of government response but have rarely been analyzed in the literature of Chinese Internet studies. This research asks the following question: Why does the political system produce output failure in the online response process, in which the topic of government response does not align with the topic of the corresponding public message? Which factors can influence the possibility that the political system will produce an unmatched response? Engaging with the political system theory, we used topic modeling and sentiment analysis to analyze the online response data. The paper argues that the application of technology in government response adjusts the sensitivity of the political system to pressures. Factors including topic, emotion, and time can generate pressure on the political system. However, the political system is unable to detect a significant volume of stress, with digital technology expanding channel capacity. Full article
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28 pages, 1125 KiB  
Article
Engineering IoT-Based Open MAS for Large-Scale V2G/G2V
by Nikolaos I. Spanoudakis, Charilaos Akasiadis, Georgios Iatrakis and Georgios Chalkiadakis
Systems 2023, 11(3), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11030157 - 19 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2236
Abstract
In this paper, we aimed to demonstrate how to engineer Internet of Things (IoT)-based open multiagent systems (MASs). Specifically, we put forward an IoT/MAS architectural framework, along with a case study within the important and challenging-to-engineer vehicle-to-grid (V2G) and grid-to-vehicle (G2V) energy transfer [...] Read more.
In this paper, we aimed to demonstrate how to engineer Internet of Things (IoT)-based open multiagent systems (MASs). Specifically, we put forward an IoT/MAS architectural framework, along with a case study within the important and challenging-to-engineer vehicle-to-grid (V2G) and grid-to-vehicle (G2V) energy transfer problem domain. The proposed solution addresses the important non-functional requirement of scalability. To this end, we employed an open multiagent systems architecture, arranging agents as modular microservices that were interconnected via a multi-protocol Internet of Things platform. Our approach allows agents to view, offer, interconnect, and re-use their various strategies, mechanisms, or other algorithms as modular smart grid services, thus enabling their seamless integration into our MAS architecture, and enabling the solution of the challenging V2G/G2V problem. At the same time, our IoT-based implementation offers both direct applicability in real-world settings and advanced analytics capabilities via enabling digital twin models for smart grid ecosystems. We have described our MAS/IoT-based architecture in detail; validated its applicability via simulation experiments involving large numbers of heterogeneous agents, operating and interacting towards effective V2G/G2V; and studied the performance of various electric vehicle charging scheduling and V2G/G2V-incentivising electricity pricing algorithms. To engineer our solution, we used ASEME, a state-of-the-art methodology for multiagent systems using the Internet of Things. Our solution can be employed for the implementation of real-world prototypes to deliver large-scale V2G/G2V services, as well as for the testing of various schemes in simulation mode. Full article
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26 pages, 8040 KiB  
Article
A Framework for Service-Oriented Digital Twin Systems for Discrete Workshops and Its Practical Case Study
by Qinglei Zhang, Yang Wei, Zhen Liu, Jianguo Duan and Jiyun Qin
Systems 2023, 11(3), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11030156 - 19 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2246
Abstract
To address issues in discrete manufacturing workshops, such as the difficulty for management personnel to coordinate workshop production and the challenge of visualizing and supervising a massive amount of temporary data, this paper proposes a service-oriented digital-twin-system framework for discrete workshops using the [...] Read more.
To address issues in discrete manufacturing workshops, such as the difficulty for management personnel to coordinate workshop production and the challenge of visualizing and supervising a massive amount of temporary data, this paper proposes a service-oriented digital-twin-system framework for discrete workshops using the industrial IoT platform as the system-service platform to solve the problems of the opaque monitoring of operators in discrete workshops, the low interactivity of 2D monitoring systems, and the difficulty of the visual monitoring of workshop data. Firstly, the current situation of intelligent manufacturing workshop-monitoring demand in the context of new-generation information technology is analyzed, and a six-dimensional digital-twin-workshop-monitoring architecture is proposed, whereby a discrete workshop monitoring system based on the digital twin is constructed with IoT as the service platform. We will conduct research on the construction of virtual workshops for the system development process, twin data collection based on edge computing gateways, and dynamic monitoring of the production process. Finally, through the application of this system framework in a movable-arm-production workshop, the more intelligent human–machine interaction process of browsing and controlling workshop information, such as the equipment layout and production processes in the virtual workshop, has been realized. This includes data acquisition based on edge-computing gateways, dynamic real-time monitoring of the production process, etc., which provides a reference for realizing the visual monitoring of the discrete workshop. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Manufacturing Systems for Industry 5.0)
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22 pages, 4816 KiB  
Article
Pricing Decisions and Game Analysis on Advanced Delivery and Cross-Channel Return in a Dual-Channel Supply Chain System
by Rong Zhang, Yuhao Lu and Bin Liu
Systems 2023, 11(3), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11030155 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1643
Abstract
Advanced delivery and cross-channel return are new phenomena in Omni-channel marketing. This paper studies a dual-channel supply chain system composed of one online retailer, one physical store, and their ordinary manufacturer. It intends to explore the pricing decisions of retailers under four scenarios [...] Read more.
Advanced delivery and cross-channel return are new phenomena in Omni-channel marketing. This paper studies a dual-channel supply chain system composed of one online retailer, one physical store, and their ordinary manufacturer. It intends to explore the pricing decisions of retailers under four scenarios concerning the question whether deliver goods in advance and use cross-channel return. We analyze the impact of the operation costs of physical stores and the transportation costs of the online retailer on the above strategies, and with numerical examples, analyze the impact of consumers’ perceived value on the profits of each scenario. The results show that the default rate of consumers’ unpaid balance and the cross-channel return rate directly influences the online retailer’s strategy choice. The pricing of the physical store is related to the proportion of unpaid balance and return rate of the online retailer. Customers’ perceived value brought by advanced delivery leads to profit changes in supply chain members and is influenced by the online retailer’s cross-channel return strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enablers and Capabilities for the Digital Supply Chain)
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27 pages, 5455 KiB  
Article
Methodology for Certification-Compliant Effect-Chain Modeling
by Iris Gräßler, Dominik Wiechel, Anna-Sophie Koch, Tim Sturm and Thomas Markfelder
Systems 2023, 11(3), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11030154 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1795
Abstract
The success of engineering complex technical systems is determined by meeting customer requirements and institutional regulations. One example relevant to the automobile industry is the United Nations Economic Commission of Europe (UN ECE), which specifies the homologation of automobile series and requires proof [...] Read more.
The success of engineering complex technical systems is determined by meeting customer requirements and institutional regulations. One example relevant to the automobile industry is the United Nations Economic Commission of Europe (UN ECE), which specifies the homologation of automobile series and requires proof of traceability. The required traceability can be achieved by modeling system artifacts and their relations in a consistent, seamless model—an effect-chain model. Currently, no in-depth methodology exists to support engineers in developing certification-compliant effect-chain models. For this purpose, a new methodology for certification-compliant effect-chain modeling was developed, which includes extensions of an existing method, suitable models, and tools to support engineers in the modeling process. For evaluation purposes, applicability is proven based on the experience of more than 300 workshops at an automotive OEM and an automotive supplier. The following case example is chosen to demonstrate applicability: the development of a window lifter that has to meet the demands of UN ECE Regulations R156 and R21. Results indicate multiple benefits in supporting engineers with the certification-compliant modeling of effect chains. Three benefits are goal-oriented modeling to reduce the necessary modeling capacity, increasing model quality by applying information quality criteria, and the potential to reduce costs through automatable effect-chain analyses for technical changes. Further, companies in the automotive and other industries will benefit from increased modeling capabilities that can be used for architecture modeling and to comply with other regulations such as ASPICE or ISO 26262. Full article
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23 pages, 5027 KiB  
Article
Time and Frequency Spillovers between the Green Economy and Traditional Energy Markets
by Lili Zhao, Wenke He, Anwen Wang and Fangfei Zhu
Systems 2023, 11(3), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11030153 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2035
Abstract
The green economy is aimed at decreasing the dependence of the global economy on traditional fossil energy, thereby resolving conflicts between economic development and environmental issues and achieving sustainable economic development. Thus, the relation between the green economy and traditional energy markets is [...] Read more.
The green economy is aimed at decreasing the dependence of the global economy on traditional fossil energy, thereby resolving conflicts between economic development and environmental issues and achieving sustainable economic development. Thus, the relation between the green economy and traditional energy markets is of great importance for both policymakers and portfolio managers. In this study, we investigate the dynamic spillover effects between the green economy and traditional energy markets by applying time and frequency spillover measures based on the TVP-VAR model. The results reveal a strong spillover relationship between the green economy and traditional energy system, and the spillover direction is mainly from green economy markets to traditional energy markets. Our analysis further reveals the heterogeneity of these spillover effects, both within green economy markets and between these markets and traditional energy markets. The performance of the U.S. green economy market is similar to that of Europe, whereas the Asian green economy market is more complex. The frequency domain results demonstrate that the spillover effects are mainly dominated by short-term (1–5 days) components, whereas medium- and long-term components have less of an effect. In addition, we find a sharp increase in the level of spillover effects during the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
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23 pages, 1093 KiB  
Review
From Industry 4.0 to Construction 5.0: Exploring the Path towards Human–Robot Collaboration in Construction
by Marina Marinelli
Systems 2023, 11(3), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11030152 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 5610
Abstract
Industry 4.0 is a recent trend representing the vision for the integration of information, objects and people in cyber-physical scenarios in order to transform factories into intelligent environments. Although this transition is still ongoing, the corresponding vision of Industry 5.0 has already emerged. [...] Read more.
Industry 4.0 is a recent trend representing the vision for the integration of information, objects and people in cyber-physical scenarios in order to transform factories into intelligent environments. Although this transition is still ongoing, the corresponding vision of Industry 5.0 has already emerged. Industry 5.0 aims to bring the human factor back into the production system, with the collaborative work paradigm of human–robot collaboration (HRC) at its core. This paper first discusses how Industry 4.0 has conceptually evolved and is being implemented in the context of construction, through the lens of a literature review and bibliometric analysis. Additionally, it clarifies the scope of Industry 5.0 and assesses its momentum as a literature trend, drawing on bibliometric comparisons with the Industry 4.0/Construction 4.0 vision. Furthermore, it makes a realistic assessment of the potential of the Industry 5.0 paradigm to evolve into Construction 5.0. In this context, it reviews the prospects of HRC use in construction, highlights its distinct challenges and proposes new directions. This paper is, to the author’s best knowledge, the first consideration of ‘Construction 5.0’ and the first bibliometric analysis comparing data from Industry 4.0, Construction 4.0 and Industry 5.0 literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systems, Infrastructure, and Industry 5.0)
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22 pages, 2159 KiB  
Article
The Strategic Weight Manipulation Model in Uncertain Environment: A Robust Risk Optimization Approach
by Shaojian Qu, Lun Wang, Ying Ji, Lulu Zuo and Zheng Wang
Systems 2023, 11(3), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11030151 - 15 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1246
Abstract
Due to the complexity and uncertainty of decision-making circumstances, it is difficult to provide an accurate compensation cost in strategic weight manipulation, making the compensation cost uncertain. Simultaneously, the change in the attribute weight is also accompanied by risk, which brings a greater [...] Read more.
Due to the complexity and uncertainty of decision-making circumstances, it is difficult to provide an accurate compensation cost in strategic weight manipulation, making the compensation cost uncertain. Simultaneously, the change in the attribute weight is also accompanied by risk, which brings a greater challenge to manipulators’ decision making. However, few studies have investigated the risk aversion behavior of manipulators in uncertain circumstances. To address this research gap, a robust risk strategic weight manipulation approach is proposed in this paper. Firstly, mean-variance theory (MVT) was used to characterize manipulators’ risk preference behavior, and a risk strategic weight manipulation model was constructed. Secondly, the novel robust risk strategic weight manipulation model was developed based on the uncertainty caused by the estimation error of the mean and covariance matrix of the unit compensation cost. Finally, a case of emergency facility location was studied to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. The results of the sensitivity analysis and comparative analysis show that the proposed method can more accurately reflect manipulators’ risk preference behavior than the deterministic model. Meanwhile, some interesting conclusions are revealed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Data-Driven Group Decision-Making)
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19 pages, 443 KiB  
Article
Two Due-Date Assignment Scheduling with Location-Dependent Weights and a Deteriorating Maintenance Activity
by Wei Wu, Dan-Yang Lv and Ji-Bo Wang
Systems 2023, 11(3), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11030150 - 15 Mar 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1161
Abstract
This paper investigates single-machine scheduling with a deteriorating maintenance activity, where the processing time of a job depends on whether it is handled before or after the maintenance activity. Under common and slack due date assignments, the aim is to find the optimal [...] Read more.
This paper investigates single-machine scheduling with a deteriorating maintenance activity, where the processing time of a job depends on whether it is handled before or after the maintenance activity. Under common and slack due date assignments, the aim is to find the optimal job schedule, position of the maintenance activity, and optimal value of the common due date (flow-allowance) so that the linear weighted sum of earliness, tardiness and common due date (flow-allowance) value is minimized, where the weights are location-dependent (position-dependent) weights. Through a series of optimal properties, a polynomial time algorithm is proposed and it is then proven that the problem is polynomially solvable. Full article
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12 pages, 1680 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Urban Electric Vehicle Adoption Based on Operating Costs in Urban Transportation Network
by Jie Ma, Yu Zhu, Dawei Chen, Chenhao Zhang, Maocan Song, Honggang Zhang, Jingxu Chen and Kai Zhang
Systems 2023, 11(3), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11030149 - 13 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2768
Abstract
Electric vehicles (EVs) are one of the most promising applications that are reshaping the future urban mobility market and benefitting the urban environment. Analyzing the adoption of EVs helps both vehicle sales market management and urban transportation-related environmental cost estimation. Previous studies have [...] Read more.
Electric vehicles (EVs) are one of the most promising applications that are reshaping the future urban mobility market and benefitting the urban environment. Analyzing the adoption of EVs helps both vehicle sales market management and urban transportation-related environmental cost estimation. Previous studies have shown that EV adoption is mostly affected by the economic environment and users’ psychological factors; however, both factors vary among specific urban transportation networks. This paper thus proposes network-related vehicle operating cost functions and a logit-based choice model, which considers both the economic environment and users’ psychological factors at a network level. The model can thus estimate the vehicle adoption for specific networks. Numerical experiments and sensitivity analyses were conducted to illustrate the proposed method and provide practical insights in estimating EV adoption, respectively. The results suggest that EV adoption greatly varies among different cities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Complex Network Theory and Its Applications)
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19 pages, 2487 KiB  
Article
Online-Review-Driven Products Ranking: A Hybrid Approach
by Shaojian Qu, Yang Zhang, Ying Ji, Zheng Wang and Ruijuan Geng
Systems 2023, 11(3), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11030148 - 12 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1716
Abstract
Online customer reviews (OCRs) are the real feelings of customers in the process of using products, which have great reference value for potential customers’ purchase decisions. However, it is difficult for consumers to extract helpful information from very large numbers of OCRs. To [...] Read more.
Online customer reviews (OCRs) are the real feelings of customers in the process of using products, which have great reference value for potential customers’ purchase decisions. However, it is difficult for consumers to extract helpful information from very large numbers of OCRs. To support consumers’ purchase decisions, this paper proposes a hybrid method to rank alternative products through OCRs. In this method, we use the fine-grained Bidirectional Encoder Representation from Transformers (BERT) model for aspect-level sentiment analysis (SA) and convert SA results of sub-criteria into a corresponding interval intuitionistic fuzzy number, accurately extracting customer satisfaction in OCRs and reducing the errors caused by different amounts of OCRs. Furthermore, in order to obtain the ranking results of products, the subjective and objective weights are combined to determine weight of feature. Subsequently, an improved interval intuitionistic fuzzy VIKOR method is proposed to rank mobile games. Finally, we conduct a case study and make some comparisons, which show that our method can reduce the complexity of accurately obtaining consumers’ personal preferences and help consumers make more accurate decisions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Data-Driven Group Decision-Making)
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36 pages, 5692 KiB  
Article
The Intersectoral Systemic Risk Shock of Emergency Crisis Events in China’s Financial Market: Nonparametric Methods and Panel Event Study Analyses
by Ao Lei, Hui Zhao and Yixiang Tian
Systems 2023, 11(3), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11030147 - 12 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1732
Abstract
By employing two systemic risk methods, the marginal expected shortfall (MES) and the component expected shortfall (CES), this paper measures the systemic risk level of all sectors in China’s financial market from 2014 to 2022; thereby, it researches the [...] Read more.
By employing two systemic risk methods, the marginal expected shortfall (MES) and the component expected shortfall (CES), this paper measures the systemic risk level of all sectors in China’s financial market from 2014 to 2022; thereby, it researches the total effect of sectoral systemic risk using a panel event study model during the three main emergency crisis events. Moreover, two nonparametric methods are utilized, the Wilcoxon signed rank sum test and the bootstrap Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, in order to investigate the changes in individual effects and the dominant ranks of sectoral systemic risk. The empirical results show that (1) the mean values and volatilities of CES and MES of all sectors have a higher level of magnitude in the extreme risk status than those in the normal risk status; (2) by comparing the total effects of three crisis events, we find that different from the continuous shock effect caused by two other events, sectoral systemic risk has a hysteresis effect on the entire market after the outbreak of COVID-19; (3) the long-term and short-term individual effects of sectoral systemic risk in all sectors are different from each other during three events; and (4) the dominance tests of MES are more sensitive and thus better demonstrate the changes in the rankings of sectoral systemic risk than the dominant tests of CES during the emergency crisis events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Systems Practice in Social Science)
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28 pages, 2351 KiB  
Article
Factors Influencing Investment Decisions in Financial Investment Companies
by Ahmed Amer Abdul kareem, Zaki T. Fayed, Sherine Rady, Salsabil Amin El-Regaily and Bashar M. Nema
Systems 2023, 11(3), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11030146 - 10 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 33906
Abstract
For making the most favorable financial decisions possible, it is essential to have an understanding of aspects and the factors which can play a role in the decision-making. In contrast to previous research on the subject, which has only examined a single factor [...] Read more.
For making the most favorable financial decisions possible, it is essential to have an understanding of aspects and the factors which can play a role in the decision-making. In contrast to previous research on the subject, which has only examined a single factor in making investment decisions, our study takes a more holistic approach by looking at several factors. The purpose of this study was to discover the elements that influence investment decisions made by financial organizations that are listed on Iraqi stock exchanges (ISX). The research was carried out on the six companies that made up the study’s sample size. For the purpose of data collection, the researcher utilized a structured questionnaire that was delivered to the respondents in an individual capacity. The questionnaire contained eight items. The factors of the questionnaire were analyzed with respect to normal distribution, the problem of linear multiplicity, the validity of the questionnaire in terms of content and appearance, the stability of the questionnaire by the split-half method, and the test and re-test method. In addition, the research hypotheses were tested on both the independent variables and the dependent variables. We calculated the mean, standard deviation, weight percentile, and coefficient of variance from the collected data. The significance of the connection between the dimensions of the decision-making factors was clarified through the use of Spearman’s correlation coefficient and the t test. We concluded that in the last step of the proposed model there is an increase in coefficients of determination and it reaches a value of (0.98), which is a very excellent and almost complete interpretation of the impact of dimensions extracted in the model and their impact on investment decision. As is noted, a slight decline in the value of the regression coefficient for all variables occurred, and also we noticed that the signs for the coefficients for the five variables are positive, meaning that they reflect the extent of the direct effect of those variables in making the investment decision. The response rate for the questionnaire was 97.7%. Full article
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24 pages, 1056 KiB  
Article
The Multifaceted Sensemaking Theory: A Systematic Literature Review and Content Analysis on Sensemaking
by John R. Turner, Jeff Allen, Suliman Hawamdeh and Gujjula Mastanamma
Systems 2023, 11(3), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11030145 - 10 Mar 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 11257
Abstract
There are several key sensemaking models and theories that have attracted a lot of attention among researchers and practitioners in the last few decades. The adaptation and application of sensemaking has varied by field of study, organizational type, and industry. This study explored [...] Read more.
There are several key sensemaking models and theories that have attracted a lot of attention among researchers and practitioners in the last few decades. The adaptation and application of sensemaking has varied by field of study, organizational type, and industry. This study explored these sensemaking models and theories to better answer the following questions: what is sense-making/sensemaking? How is sensemaking practiced today compared to the original sensemaking frameworks, models, and theories? To answer these questions, the current study conducted a systematic literature review and content analysis of current research involving sensemaking methods, practices, and techniques. As a result, topic modeling and data analytic techniques were used to construct a multifaceted conceptual framework that has been contrasted and compared with previous sensemaking frameworks, models, and theories to show its coverage and coherence. The new multifaceted sensemaking (MSM) theory consists of nine stages with defining characteristics for each stage that were either derived from the data analysis or conceptualized by the researcher based on the literature review. The new theory presented demonstrates how previous sensemaking theories evolved and have influenced both practice and research today. The multifaceted sensemaking theory is influenced by previous sensemaking theories while also representing sensemaking in current practice. The multifaceted sensemaking theory contributes to the sensemaking field of study a new theory with nine stages and defining characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Managing Complexity: A Practitioner's Guide)
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26 pages, 7722 KiB  
Article
A New Lagrangian Problem Crossover—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Crossover Standards
by Aso M. Aladdin and Tarik A. Rashid
Systems 2023, 11(3), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11030144 - 9 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2144
Abstract
The performance of most evolutionary metaheuristic algorithms relies on various operators. The crossover operator is a standard based on population-based algorithms, which is divided into two types: application-dependent and application-independent crossover operators. In the process of optimization, these standards always help to select [...] Read more.
The performance of most evolutionary metaheuristic algorithms relies on various operators. The crossover operator is a standard based on population-based algorithms, which is divided into two types: application-dependent and application-independent crossover operators. In the process of optimization, these standards always help to select the best-fit point. The high efficiency of crossover operators allows engineers to minimize errors in engineering application optimization while saving time and avoiding overpricing. There are two crucial objectives behind this paper; first, we provide an overview of the crossover standards classification that has been used by researchers for solving engineering operations and problem representation. This paper proposes a novel standard crossover based on the Lagrangian Dual Function (LDF) to enhance the formulation of the Lagrangian Problem Crossover (LPX). The LPX for 100 generations of different pairs parent chromosomes is compared to Simulated Binary Crossover (SBX) standards and Blended Crossover (BX) for real-coded crossovers. Three unimodal test functions with various random values show that LPX has better performance in most cases and comparative results in other cases. Moreover, the LPB algorithm is used to compare LPX with SBX, BX, and Qubit Crossover (Qubit-X) operators to demonstrate accuracy and performance during exploitation evaluations. Finally, the proposed crossover stand operator results are demonstrated, proved, and analyzed statistically by the Wilcoxon signed-rank sum test. Full article
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18 pages, 1387 KiB  
Article
Project Management Methodology in Regional Self-Government Units
by Ljudevit Krpan, Ivan Cvitković, Ante Klečina and Drago Pupavac
Systems 2023, 11(3), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11030143 - 9 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2161
Abstract
Project implementation is one of the key activities in the process of ensuring development. In public institutions, the challenges in project management are particularly evident. Organizational inflexibility and an inability to adequately evaluate work are particularly emphasized, often creating problems during project implementation. [...] Read more.
Project implementation is one of the key activities in the process of ensuring development. In public institutions, the challenges in project management are particularly evident. Organizational inflexibility and an inability to adequately evaluate work are particularly emphasized, often creating problems during project implementation. These challenges become even greater if the financing of the project is planned with EU grants or other financial instruments that require great precision and thus exceptional project management skills. This document will present an effective project management model, as well as programs and portfolios in regional self-government units. A methodology has been developed to encourage the transformation of public systems from rigidly functional to project systems. The methodology was tested in Primorje-Gorski Kotar County, Republic of Croatia. An analysis of the quality of implementation of twenty projects has been carried out: an analysis of the final results of ten projects in which the methodology has been applied and of ten projects in which the methodology has not been applied. After conducting empirical research and analysis, the quality of the proposed model was proven at all levels of governance within the public sector. By applying this methodology, significant advances can be made in the quality of realized projects while ensuring the realistic dynamics of this realization and rational financial costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Systems Engineering)
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20 pages, 7950 KiB  
Article
Supporting Digital Twins for the Retrofit in Aviation by a Model-Driven Data Handling
by Fabian Niklas Laukotka and Dieter Krause
Systems 2023, 11(3), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11030142 - 8 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2214
Abstract
Aviation is characterized by many stakeholders, long lifespans of its assets, and high requirements regarding safety, security, and documentation. To meet these requirements as well as customer needs, aircraft are regularly retrofitted with new cabins. During the planning and execution of this cabin [...] Read more.
Aviation is characterized by many stakeholders, long lifespans of its assets, and high requirements regarding safety, security, and documentation. To meet these requirements as well as customer needs, aircraft are regularly retrofitted with new cabins. During the planning and execution of this cabin retrofit, handling the needed and available data poses a challenge to the engineers. While much of the required data is available in some form, generally there is a lack of a digitally usable dataset of the specific aircraft—a virtual representation of the physical asset is missing. To support the implementation of such a digital twin and, thus, the overall process of retrofitting aircraft, an approach to model-driven data handling tailored to the unique circumstances and requirements of aviation is introduced. The methodology consists of a combination of systems engineering and data science techniques framed by an overarching procedure that iteratively creates and enhances a digitally accessible dataset of the relevant data, hence supporting the retrofit engineers by easing access to needed information. Besides the presentation of the research background and the methodology, a simplified example is shown, demonstrating the approach using abstracted but realistic information provided by partners from the industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Twin with Model Driven Systems Engineering)
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23 pages, 649 KiB  
Article
Research on Credit Evaluation Indicator System of High-Tech SMEs: From the Social Capital Perspective
by Zhihao Liang, Jinming Du, Ying Hua, Yanbo Si and Miao Li
Systems 2023, 11(3), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11030141 - 7 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1909
Abstract
High-tech small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play an important role in the high-quality economic development in a country. Nevertheless, due to the difficulties banks or other financial institutions have in accurately assessing their credit levels, financing difficulties have become the biggest bottleneck restricting [...] Read more.
High-tech small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play an important role in the high-quality economic development in a country. Nevertheless, due to the difficulties banks or other financial institutions have in accurately assessing their credit levels, financing difficulties have become the biggest bottleneck restricting the progress of high-tech SMEs, and therefore, this paper aims to construct a credit evaluation indicator system of high-tech SMEs. Based on prior studies and the characteristics of high-tech SMEs, this paper constructs an indicator system from financial and nonfinancial dimensions, including 22 measurement indicators reflecting the operation status, development potential, quality, and competitiveness of an enterprise. Principal component analysis (PCA) and a Delphi-analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method are employed for the evaluation. This indicator system innovates from the social capital perspective, and by setting more novel nonfinancial indicators, the system achieves a more comprehensive evaluation of credit level. This paper also performs an empirical application using the data from 125 enterprises in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region of China, and further performs an empirical study on the external environment’s impact on the credit level. The empirical results all show consistency with existing studies, verifying the workability and validity of the indicator system we constructed. Full article
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21 pages, 4455 KiB  
Article
Promoting the Application of Off-Site Construction in China’s Residential Building Industry from the Angle of Ecosystem
by Fangyun Xie, Xinyue Fu and Ruopeng Huang
Systems 2023, 11(3), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11030140 - 5 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1913
Abstract
Off-site construction (OSC) is an innovative construction method. However, OSC is not widely applied in residential buildings due to many barriers. Therefore, this paper aims to unravel this puzzle and interpret the slow development of OSC. The paper develops a new analytical lens [...] Read more.
Off-site construction (OSC) is an innovative construction method. However, OSC is not widely applied in residential buildings due to many barriers. Therefore, this paper aims to unravel this puzzle and interpret the slow development of OSC. The paper develops a new analytical lens based on the ecosystem concept. By deconstructing some ecosystem concepts, the paper conceptualizes China’s residential building industry ecosystem (RBI-ECO) and proposes three hypotheses. The results show that the current structure of RBI-ECO does not support OSC development. Firstly, the performance of different types of enterprises is imbalanced. Secondly, there is a lack of cooperation between enterprises except for daily communication of projects. Moral risks, competition, and a fragmented supply chain are the primary causes. These barriers in RBI-ECO limit the implementation of OSC. In order to promote the application of OSC, the government can implement mandatory policies and concrete measures, establish a designer-led mechanism, motivate enterprises to transform into comprehensive enterprises, and enhance learning and education for OSC enterprise managers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systems, Infrastructure, and Industry 5.0)
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16 pages, 3661 KiB  
Article
Ramp Spacing Evaluation of Expressway Based on Entropy-Weighted TOPSIS Estimation Method
by Jie Ma, Yilei Zeng and Dawei Chen
Systems 2023, 11(3), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11030139 - 4 Mar 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1705
Abstract
The main objective of this study is to design a method for evaluating the reasonability of ramp spacing of the expressway in a specific district. The study proposes an entropy-weighted Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) estimation method, [...] Read more.
The main objective of this study is to design a method for evaluating the reasonability of ramp spacing of the expressway in a specific district. The study proposes an entropy-weighted Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) estimation method, in which the entropy weight method determines the indicator weights, and TOPSIS is employed to compare different alternatives of ramp spacing. Four patterns of evaluation indicators are taken into account representing traffic efficiency, safety, traffic accessibility, and economy, respectively. Using the Beijing–Hong Kong–Macao Expressway in Henan Province as a case study, the validity of the method is verified, and the optimal ramp spacing is obtained as 14 km for the given scenario. The results of the study show: (1) extreme spacing values are not conducive to the overall benefits of the expressway; (2) ramp spacing settings that allow for coordinated sharing of traffic demand along the route (TDAR) are a prerequisite for an expressway to have great overall benefits; and (3) appropriately shortening ramp spacing will allow the expressway to effectively respond to increased TDAR. The estimation method proposed in this study provides a theoretical reference for the local authority to plan ramp spacing that can satisfy regional traffic demand and ensure the overall benefits of expressways in a sustainable urban context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Decision Making and Policy Analysis in Transportation Planning)
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11 pages, 315 KiB  
Review
Two Theorists on Work Systems: Murray Bowen and Barry Oshry
by Katherine Kott
Systems 2023, 11(3), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11030138 - 4 Mar 2023
Viewed by 2796
Abstract
This paper explores the development of two theories of human behavior as they relate to work systems. Both Murray Bowen and Barry Oshry formulated theories of how people operate in groups. Bowen developed his theory through observation of families and extended his thinking [...] Read more.
This paper explores the development of two theories of human behavior as they relate to work systems. Both Murray Bowen and Barry Oshry formulated theories of how people operate in groups. Bowen developed his theory through observation of families and extended his thinking to apply more broadly. Oshry observed work systems in his lab and thought what he saw there could also be true in families and society at large. Practitioners have applied both theories in their work with groups. However, neither theory has received much attention in terms of the theoretical concepts they contain or the processes the theoreticians used to generate them. The purpose of this paper is to examine the methods these two theorists use to create their frameworks, compare and contrast the theories they posited as a result, and consider the possible future development for them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Systems Theory and Methodology)
22 pages, 2206 KiB  
Article
Impact of Trade, FDI, and Urbanization on Female Employment System in SAARC: GMM and Quantile Regression Approach
by Elvira Nica, Milos Poliak, Cristina Alpopi, Tomas Kliestik, Cristina Manole and Sorin Burlacu
Systems 2023, 11(3), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11030137 - 3 Mar 2023
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2682
Abstract
The fundamental objective of this research is to learn how trade liberalization, male employment, urbanization, and foreign direct investment (FDI) affect women’s participation in the labor force. To continue, this study aims to determine the effects of trade and other factors on women’s [...] Read more.
The fundamental objective of this research is to learn how trade liberalization, male employment, urbanization, and foreign direct investment (FDI) affect women’s participation in the labor force. To continue, this study aims to determine the effects of trade and other factors on women’s employment in three distinct sectors (i.e., agriculture, industry, and service). From 1991 to 2021, we analyzed data from eight SAARC countries. The study’s theoretical foundation was the Cobb–Douglas production function. To better understand the connections between trade liberalization and the SAARC labor market, this paper used panel quantile regression (QR) and generalized method of moments (GMM) to empirically explore the key determinants of female employment in total and three sub-sectors. The QR method was used in the study because it looks at how variables affect each other beyond the data mean. Additionally, our data set does not follow a normal distribution, and the connection between the explained and explanatory factors is non-linear. Trade openness has a beneficial effect on total female employment throughout system GMM and all quartiles. Total female employment also benefits from an increase in GDP and FDI. However, women’s access to the workforce is hampered by urbanization. Many strategies for increasing women’s participation in the workforce across three sectors are addressed in this article. The major finding of this study is the rate of change in female employment across three industries. Women’s participation in the service and manufacturing sectors increases, whereas their participation in agriculture decreases, as a result of increased trade openness. Although these studies can assist policymakers in choosing the best feasible trade adjustments, they will also add to diverse academic and policy discussions on trade liberalization and its gender consequences. Since trade has become more accessible, more and more women are entering the workforce. Therefore, workers should acquire industrial and service-sector-related competencies. Full article
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20 pages, 3218 KiB  
Article
Multi-Agent Optimal Control for Central Chiller Plants Using Reinforcement Learning and Game Theory
by Shunian Qiu, Zhenhai Li, Zhihong Pang, Zhengwei Li and Yinying Tao
Systems 2023, 11(3), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11030136 - 3 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2327
Abstract
To conserve building energy, optimal operation of a building’s energy systems, especially heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems, is important. This study focuses on the optimization of the central chiller plant, which accounts for a large portion of the HVAC system’s energy consumption. [...] Read more.
To conserve building energy, optimal operation of a building’s energy systems, especially heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems, is important. This study focuses on the optimization of the central chiller plant, which accounts for a large portion of the HVAC system’s energy consumption. Classic optimal control methods for central chiller plants are mostly based on system performance models which takes much effort and cost to establish. In addition, inevitable model error could cause control risk to the applied system. To mitigate the model dependency of HVAC optimal control, reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms have been drawing attention in the HVAC control domain due to its model-free feature. Currently, the RL-based optimization of central chiller plants faces several challenges: (1) existing model-free control methods based on RL typically adopt single-agent scheme, which brings high training cost and long training period when optimizing multiple controllable variables for large-scaled systems; (2) multi-agent scheme could overcome the former problem, but it also requires a proper coordination mechanism to harmonize the potential conflicts among all involved RL agents; (3) previous agent coordination frameworks (identified by distributed control or decentralized control) are mainly designed for model-based control methods instead of model-free controllers. To tackle the problems above, this article proposes a multi-agent, model-free optimal control approach for central chiller plants. This approach utilizes game theory and the RL algorithm SARSA for agent coordination and learning, respectively. A data-driven system model is set up using measured field data of a real HVAC system for simulation. The simulation case study results suggest that the energy saving performance (both short- and long-term) of the proposed approach (over 10% in a cooling season compared to the rule-based baseline controller) is close to the classic multi-agent reinforcement learning (MARL) algorithm WoLF-PHC; moreover, the proposed approach’s nature of few pending parameters makes it more feasible and robust for engineering practices than the WoLF-PHC algorithm. Full article
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16 pages, 7771 KiB  
Article
AI-Based Environmental Color System in Achieving Sustainable Urban Development
by Pohsun Wang, Wu Song, Junling Zhou, Yongsheng Tan and Hongkong Wang
Systems 2023, 11(3), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11030135 - 2 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2481
Abstract
Confronting the age of artificial intelligence, exploring art through technology has become one of the directions of interdisciplinary development. Not only does artificial intelligence technology explore sustainability on a technical level; it can also take advantage of itself to focus on the visual [...] Read more.
Confronting the age of artificial intelligence, exploring art through technology has become one of the directions of interdisciplinary development. Not only does artificial intelligence technology explore sustainability on a technical level; it can also take advantage of itself to focus on the visual perception of the living environment. People frequently interpret environmental features through their eyes, and the use of intuitive eye-tracking can provide effective data that can contribute to environmental sustainability in managing the environment and color planning to enhance the image of cities. This research investigates the visual responses of people viewing the historic city of Macau through an eye movement experiment to understand how the color characteristics of the physical environment are perceived. The research reveals that the buildings and plantings in the historic district of Macau are the most visible objects in the environment, while the smaller scale of St. Dominic’s Square, the Company of Jesus Square, and St. Augustine’s Square, which have a sense of spatial extension, have also become iconic environmental landscapes. This also draws visual attention and guides the direction of travel. The overall impressions of the Historic Centre of Macau, as expressed by the participants after the eye movement experiment, were mainly described as “multiculturalism”, “architectural style”, “traditional architecture”, “color scheme”, and “garden planting”. The 60 colors representing the urban color of Macau are then organized around these deep feelings about the environment. Therefore, for future inspiration, the 60 colors can be applied through design practice to create color expressions that fit the local characteristics, and thereby enhance the overall visual image of the city. Full article
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