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Biosensors, Volume 9, Issue 1 (March 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Diabetes mellitus, commonly known as diabetes, is a serious and chronic disease that affects around [...] Read more.
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Open AccessReview A Review of the Construction of Nano-Hybrids for Electrochemical Biosensing of Glucose
Biosensors 2019, 9(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9010046
Received: 27 February 2019 / Revised: 15 March 2019 / Accepted: 22 March 2019 / Published: 25 March 2019
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Abstract
Continuous progress in the domain of nano and material science has led to modulation of the properties of nanomaterials in a controlled and desired fashion. In this sense, nanomaterials, including carbon-based materials, metals and metal oxides, and composite/hybrid materials have attracted extensive interest [...] Read more.
Continuous progress in the domain of nano and material science has led to modulation of the properties of nanomaterials in a controlled and desired fashion. In this sense, nanomaterials, including carbon-based materials, metals and metal oxides, and composite/hybrid materials have attracted extensive interest with regard to the construction of electrochemical biosensors. The modification of a working electrode with a combination of two or three nanomaterials in the form of nano-composite/nano-hybrids has revealed good results with very good reproducibility, stability, and improved sensitivity. This review paper is focused on discussing the possible constructs of nano-hybrids and their subsequent use in the construction of electrochemical glucose biosensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers: State-of-the-Art Biosensors Technology 2018)
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Open AccessArticle Electrochemical Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Corresponds to Cell Viability upon Exposure to Dioclea reflexa Seed Extracts and Antifungal Drugs
Biosensors 2019, 9(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9010045
Received: 10 January 2019 / Revised: 11 February 2019 / Accepted: 2 March 2019 / Published: 20 March 2019
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Abstract
Dioclea reflexa bioactive compounds have been shown to contain antioxidant properties. The extracts from the same plant are used in traditional medical practices to treat various diseases with impressive outcomes. In this study, ionic mobility in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells in the presence of [...] Read more.
Dioclea reflexa bioactive compounds have been shown to contain antioxidant properties. The extracts from the same plant are used in traditional medical practices to treat various diseases with impressive outcomes. In this study, ionic mobility in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells in the presence of D. reflexa seed extracts was monitored using electrochemical detection methods to link cell death to ionic imbalance. Cells treated with ethanol, methanol, and water extracts were studied using cyclic voltammetry and cell counting to correlate electrochemical behavior and cell viability, respectively. The results were compared with cells treated with pore-forming Amphotericin b (Amp b), as well as Fluconazole (Flu) and the antimicrobial drug Rifampicin (Rif). The D. reflexa seed water extract (SWE) revealed higher anodic peak current with 58% cell death. Seed methanol extract (SME) and seed ethanol extract (SEE) recorded 31% and 22% cell death, respectively. Among the three control drugs, Flu revealed the highest cell death of about 64%, whereas Amp b and Rif exhibited cell deaths of 35% and 16%, respectively, after 8 h of cell growth. It was observed that similar to SWE, there was an increase in the anodic peak current in the presence of different concentrations of Amp b, which also correlated with enhanced cell death. It was concluded from this observation that Amp b and SWE might follow similar mechanisms to inhibit cell growth. Thus, the individual bioactive compounds from the water extracts of D. reflexa seeds could further be purified and tested to validate their potential therapeutic application. The strategy to link electrochemical behavior to biochemical responses could be a simple, fast, and robust screening technique for new drug targets and to understand the mechanism of action of such drugs against disease models. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Continuous Monitoring of pH and Blood Gases Using Ion-Sensitive and Gas-Sensitive Field Effect Transistors Operating in the Amperometric Mode in Presence of Drift
Biosensors 2019, 9(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9010044
Received: 31 December 2018 / Revised: 24 February 2019 / Accepted: 4 March 2019 / Published: 18 March 2019
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Abstract
Accurate and cost-effective integrated sensor systems for continuous monitoring of pH and blood gases continue to be in high demand. The capacity of ion-selective and Gas-sensitive field effect transistors (FETs) to serve as low-power sensors for accurate continuous monitoring of pH and blood [...] Read more.
Accurate and cost-effective integrated sensor systems for continuous monitoring of pH and blood gases continue to be in high demand. The capacity of ion-selective and Gas-sensitive field effect transistors (FETs) to serve as low-power sensors for accurate continuous monitoring of pH and blood gases is evaluated in the amperometric or current mode of operation. A stand-alone current-mode topology is employed in which a constant bias is applied to the gate with the drain current serving as the measuring signal. Compared with voltage-mode operation (e.g., in the feedback mode in ion-selective FETs), current-mode topologies offer the advantages of small size and low power consumption. However, the ion-selective FET (ISFET) and the Gas-sensitive FET (GasFET) exhibit a similar drift behavior, imposing a serious limitation on the accuracy of these sensors for continuous monitoring applications irrespective of the mode of operation. Given the slow temporal variation associated with the drift characteristics in both devices, a common post-processing technique that involves monitoring the variation of the drain current over short intervals of time can potentially allow extraction of the measuring signal in presence of drift in both sensor types. Furthermore, in the amperometric mode the static sensitivity of a FET-based sensor, given by the product of the FET transconductance and the sensitivity of the device threshold voltage to the measurand concentration, can be increased by adjusting the device design parameters. Increasing the sensitivity, while of interest in its own right, also enhances the accuracy of the proposed method. Rigorous analytical validation of the method is presented for GasFET operation in the amperometric mode. Moreover, the correction algorithm is verified experimentally using a Si3N4-gate ISFET operating in the amperometric mode to monitor pH variations ranging from 3.5 to 10. Full article
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Open AccessReview Nanostructured Gas Sensors for Medical and Health Applications: Low to High Dimensional Materials
Biosensors 2019, 9(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9010043
Received: 17 February 2019 / Revised: 10 March 2019 / Accepted: 12 March 2019 / Published: 17 March 2019
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Abstract
Human breath has long been known as a system that can be used to diagnose diseases. With advancements in modern nanotechnology, gas sensors can now diagnose, predict, and monitor a wide range of diseases from human breath. From cancer to diabetes, the need [...] Read more.
Human breath has long been known as a system that can be used to diagnose diseases. With advancements in modern nanotechnology, gas sensors can now diagnose, predict, and monitor a wide range of diseases from human breath. From cancer to diabetes, the need to treat at the earliest stages of a disease to both increase patient outcomes and decrease treatment costs is vital. Therefore, it is the promising candidate of rapid and non-invasive human breath gas sensors over traditional methods that will fulfill this need. In this review, we focus on the nano-dimensional design of current state-of-the-art gas sensors, which have achieved records in selectivity, specificity, and sensitivity. We highlight the methods of fabrication for these devices and relate their nano-dimensional materials to their record performance to provide a pathway for the gas sensors that will supersede. Full article
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Open AccessReview Integration of Nanomaterials and Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer Techniques for Sensing Biomolecules
Biosensors 2019, 9(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9010042
Received: 3 February 2019 / Revised: 9 March 2019 / Accepted: 12 March 2019 / Published: 16 March 2019
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Abstract
Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) techniques offer a high degree of sensitivity, reliability and ease of use for their application to sensing biomolecules. BRET is a distance dependent, non-radiative energy transfer, which uses a bioluminescent protein to excite an acceptor through the resonance [...] Read more.
Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) techniques offer a high degree of sensitivity, reliability and ease of use for their application to sensing biomolecules. BRET is a distance dependent, non-radiative energy transfer, which uses a bioluminescent protein to excite an acceptor through the resonance energy transfer. A BRET sensor can quickly detect the change of a target biomolecule quantitatively without an external electromagnetic field, e.g., UV light, which normally can damage tissue. Having been developed quite recently, this technique has evolved rapidly. Here, different bioluminescent proteins have been reviewed. In addition to a multitude of bioluminescent proteins, this manuscript focuses on the recent development of BRET sensors by utilizing quantum dots. The special size-dependent properties of quantum dots have made the BRET sensing technique attractive for the real-time monitoring of the changes of target molecules and bioimaging in vivo. This review offers a look into the basis of the technique, donor/acceptor pairs, experimental applications and prospects. Full article
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Open AccessReview Enzyme-Based Electrochemical Biosensors for Microfluidic Platforms to Detect Pharmaceutical Residues in Wastewater
Biosensors 2019, 9(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9010041
Received: 12 February 2019 / Revised: 6 March 2019 / Accepted: 8 March 2019 / Published: 15 March 2019
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Abstract
Emerging water pollutants such as pharmaceutical contaminants are suspected to induce adverse effects to human health. These molecules became worrisome due to their increasingly high concentrations in surface waters. Despite this alarming situation, available data about actual concentrations in the environment is rather [...] Read more.
Emerging water pollutants such as pharmaceutical contaminants are suspected to induce adverse effects to human health. These molecules became worrisome due to their increasingly high concentrations in surface waters. Despite this alarming situation, available data about actual concentrations in the environment is rather scarce, as it is not commonly monitored or regulated. This is aggravated even further by the absence of portable and reliable methods for their determination in the field. A promising way to tackle these issues is the use of enzyme-based and miniaturized biosensors for their electrochemical detection. Here, we present an overview of the latest developments in amperometric microfluidic biosensors that include, modeling and multiphysics simulation, design, manufacture, testing, and operation methods. Different types of biosensors are described, highlighting those based on oxidases/peroxidases and the integration with microfluidic platforms. Finally, issues regarding the stability of the biosensors and the enzyme molecules are discussed, as well as the most relevant approaches to address these obstacles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors for Environmental Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Separation and Detection of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Using a Microfluidic Device Integrated with an Optical Fibre
Biosensors 2019, 9(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9010040
Received: 26 December 2018 / Revised: 3 March 2019 / Accepted: 5 March 2019 / Published: 14 March 2019
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Abstract
This paper describes the development of an integrated system using a dry film resistant (DFR) microfluidic channel consisting of pulsed field dielectrophoretic field-flow-fractionation (DEP-FFF) separation and optical detection. The prototype chip employs the pulse DEP-FFF concept to separate the cells (Escherichia coli [...] Read more.
This paper describes the development of an integrated system using a dry film resistant (DFR) microfluidic channel consisting of pulsed field dielectrophoretic field-flow-fractionation (DEP-FFF) separation and optical detection. The prototype chip employs the pulse DEP-FFF concept to separate the cells (Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) from a continuous flow, and the rate of release of the cells was measured. The separation experiments were conducted by changing the pulsing time over a pulsing time range of 2–24 s and a flow rate range of 1.2–9.6 μ L min 1 . The frequency and voltage were set to a constant value of 1 M Hz and 14 V pk-pk, respectively. After cell sorting, the particles pass the optical fibre, and the incident light is scattered (or absorbed), thus, reducing the intensity of the transmitted light. The change in light level is measured by a spectrophotometer and recorded as an absorbance spectrum. The results revealed that, generally, the flow rate and pulsing time influenced the separation of E. coli and S. cerevisiae. It was found that E. coli had the highest rate of release, followed by S. cerevisiae. In this investigation, the developed integrated chip-in-a lab has enabled two microorganisms of different cell dielectric properties and particle size to be separated and subsequently detected using unique optical properties. Optimum separation between these two microorganisms could be obtained using a longer pulsing time of 12 s and a faster flow rate of 9.6 μ L min 1 at a constant frequency, voltage, and a low conductivity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Exfoliated Graphite-Based Electrochemical Immunosensor on a Dendrimer/Carbon Nanodot Platform for the Detection of Carcinoembryonic Antigen Cancer Biomarker
Biosensors 2019, 9(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9010039
Received: 4 January 2019 / Revised: 1 March 2019 / Accepted: 3 March 2019 / Published: 8 March 2019
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Abstract
An electrochemical immunosensor for the quantification of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) using a nanocomposite of polypropylene imine dendrimer (PPI) and carbon nanodots (CNDTs) on an exfoliated graphite electrode (EG) is reported. The carbon nanodots were prepared by pyrolysis of oats. The nanocomposites (PPI and [...] Read more.
An electrochemical immunosensor for the quantification of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) using a nanocomposite of polypropylene imine dendrimer (PPI) and carbon nanodots (CNDTs) on an exfoliated graphite electrode (EG) is reported. The carbon nanodots were prepared by pyrolysis of oats. The nanocomposites (PPI and CNDTs) were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The proposed immunosensor was prepared on an exfoliated graphite electrode sequentially by drop coating CNDTs, the electrodeposition of G2-PPI (generation 2 poly (propylene imine) dendrimer), the immobilization of anti-CEA on the modified electrode for 80 min at 35 °C, and dropping of bovine serum albumin (BSA) to minimize non-specific binding sites. Cyclic voltammetry was used to characterize each stage of the fabrication of the immunosensor. The proposed immunosensor detected CEA within a concentration range of 0.005 to 300 ng/mL with a detection limit of 0.00145 ng/mL by using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The immunosensor displayed good stability and was also selective in the presence of some interference species such as ascorbic acid, glucose, alpha-fetoprotein, prostate-specific antigen and human immunoglobulin. Furthermore, the fabricated immunosensor was applied in the quantification of CEA in a human serum sample, indicating its potential for real sample analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Immunosensor)
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Open AccessReview Electrochemical Biosensors as Potential Diagnostic Devices for Autoimmune Diseases
Biosensors 2019, 9(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9010038
Received: 18 December 2018 / Revised: 17 February 2019 / Accepted: 27 February 2019 / Published: 4 March 2019
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Abstract
An important class of biosensors is immunosensors, affinity biosensors that are based on the specific interaction between antibodies and antigens. They are classified in four classes based on the type of employed transducer: electrochemical, optical, microgravimetric, and thermometric and depending on the type [...] Read more.
An important class of biosensors is immunosensors, affinity biosensors that are based on the specific interaction between antibodies and antigens. They are classified in four classes based on the type of employed transducer: electrochemical, optical, microgravimetric, and thermometric and depending on the type of recognition elements, antibodies, aptamers, microRNAs and recently peptides are integrating parts. Those analytical devices are able to detect peptides, antibodies and proteins in various sample matrices, without many steps of sample pretreatment. Their high sensitivity, low cost and the easy integration in point of care devices assuring portability are attracting features that justify the increasing interest in their development. The use of nanomaterials, simultaneous multianalyte detection and integration on platforms to form point-of-care devices are promising tools that can be used in clinical analysis for early diagnosis and therapy monitoring in several pathologies. Taking into account the growing incidence of autoimmune disease and the importance of early diagnosis, electrochemical biosensors could represent a viable alternative to currently used diagnosis methods. Some relevant examples of electrochemical assays for autoimmune disease diagnosis developed in the last several years based on antigens, antibodies and peptides as receptors were gathered and will be discussed further. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Immunosensor)
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Open AccessArticle Waveguiding and SERS Simplified Raman Spectroscopy on Biological Samples
Biosensors 2019, 9(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9010037
Received: 21 December 2018 / Revised: 19 February 2019 / Accepted: 21 February 2019 / Published: 3 March 2019
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Abstract
Biomarkers detection at an ultra-low concentration in biofluids (blood, serum, saliva, etc.) is a key point for the early diagnosis success and the development of personalized therapies. However, it remains a challenge due to limiting factors like (i) the complexity of [...] Read more.
Biomarkers detection at an ultra-low concentration in biofluids (blood, serum, saliva, etc.) is a key point for the early diagnosis success and the development of personalized therapies. However, it remains a challenge due to limiting factors like (i) the complexity of analyzed media, and (ii) the aspecificity detection and the poor sensitivity of the conventional methods. In addition, several applications require the integration of the primary sensors with other devices (microfluidic devices, capillaries, flasks, vials, etc.) where transducing the signal might be difficult, reducing performances and applicability. In the present work, we demonstrate a new class of optical biosensor we have developed integrating an optical waveguide (OWG) with specific plasmonic surfaces. Exploiting the plasmonic resonance, the devices give consistent results in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for continuous and label-free detection of biological compounds. The OWG allows driving optical signals in the proximity of SERS surfaces (detection area) overcoming spatial constraints, in order to reach places previously optically inaccessible. A rutile prism couples the remote laser source to the OWG, while a Raman spectrometer collects the SERS far field scattering. The present biosensors were implemented by a simple fabrication process, which includes photolithography and nanofabrication. By using such devices, it was possible to detect cell metabolites like Phenylalanine (Phe), Adenosine 5-triphosphate sodium hydrate (ATP), Sodium Lactate, Human Interleukin 6 (IL6), and relate them to possible metabolic pathway variation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Raman Techniques in Biosensing)
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Open AccessArticle Solid-State rGO-PEDOT:PSS Transducing Material for Cost-Effective Enzymatic Sensing
Biosensors 2019, 9(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9010036
Received: 2 January 2019 / Revised: 14 February 2019 / Accepted: 21 February 2019 / Published: 1 March 2019
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Abstract
Performance of a sensing device is dependent on its construction material, especially for components that are directly involved in transporting and translating signals across the device. Understanding the morphology and characteristics of the material components is therefore crucial in the development of any [...] Read more.
Performance of a sensing device is dependent on its construction material, especially for components that are directly involved in transporting and translating signals across the device. Understanding the morphology and characteristics of the material components is therefore crucial in the development of any sensing device. This work examines the morphological and electrochemical characteristics of reduced graphene oxide interspersed with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (rGO-PEDOT:PSS) used as a transducer material deposited on a commercially available screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE). Electron microscopy shows that PEDOT:PSS is interspersed between rGO layers. Raman and XRD analyses suggest that the graphene crystallinity in GO-PEDOT:PSS and rGO-PEDOT:PSS remains intact. Instead, PEDOT:PSS undergoes a change in structure to allow PEDOT to blend into the graphene structure and partake in the π-π interaction with the surface of the rGO layers. Incorporation of PEDOT:PSS also appears to improve the electrochemical behavior of the composite, leading to a higher peak current of 1.184 mA, as measured by cyclic voltammetry, compared to 0.522 mA when rGO is used alone. The rGO-PEDOT:PSS transducing material blended with glucose oxidase was tested for glucose detection. The sensitivity of glucose detection was shown to be 57.3 µA/(mM·cm2) with a detection limit of 86.8 µM. Full article
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Open AccessReview Use of Electronic Noses for Diagnosis of Digestive and Respiratory Diseases through the Breath
Biosensors 2019, 9(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9010035
Received: 12 January 2019 / Revised: 18 February 2019 / Accepted: 21 February 2019 / Published: 28 February 2019
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Abstract
The increased occurrence of chronic diseases related to lifestyle or environmental conditions may have a detrimental effect on long-term health if not diagnosed and controlled in time. For this reason, it is important to develop new noninvasive early diagnosis equipment that allows improvement [...] Read more.
The increased occurrence of chronic diseases related to lifestyle or environmental conditions may have a detrimental effect on long-term health if not diagnosed and controlled in time. For this reason, it is important to develop new noninvasive early diagnosis equipment that allows improvement of the current diagnostic methods. This, in turn, has led to an exponential development of technology applied to the medical sector, such as the electronic nose. In addition, the appearance of this type of technology has allowed the possibility of studying diseases from another point of view, such as through breath analysis. This paper presents a bibliographic review of past and recent studies, selecting those investigations in which a patient population was studied with electronic nose technology, in order to identify potential applications of this technology in the detection of respiratory and digestive diseases through the analysis of volatile organic compounds present in the breath. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy of Lactoferrin Adsorbed on Silvered Porous Silicon Covered with Graphene
Biosensors 2019, 9(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9010034
Received: 17 December 2018 / Revised: 17 February 2019 / Accepted: 20 February 2019 / Published: 28 February 2019
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Abstract
We registered surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of the human lactoferrin molecules adsorbed on a silvered porous silicon (por-Si) from 10−6–10−18 M solutions. It was found that the por-Si template causes a negative surface potential of [...] Read more.
We registered surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of the human lactoferrin molecules adsorbed on a silvered porous silicon (por-Si) from 10−6–10−18 M solutions. It was found that the por-Si template causes a negative surface potential of silver particles and their chemical resistivity to oxidation. These properties provided to attract positively charged lactoferrin molecules and prevent their interaction with metallic particles upon 473 nm laser excitation. The SERS spectra of lactoferrin adsorbed from 10−6 M solution were rather weak but a decrease of the concentration to 10−10 M led to an enormous growth of the SERS signal. This effect took place as oligomers of lactoferrin were broken down to monomeric units while its concentration was reduced. Oligomers are too large for a uniform overlap with electromagnetic field from silver particles. They cannot provide an intensive SERS signal from the top part of the molecules in contrast to monomers that can be completely covered by the electromagnetic field. The SERS spectra of lactoferrin at the 10−14 and 10−16 M concentrations were less intensive and started to change due to increasing contribution from the laser burned molecules. To prevent overheating the analyte molecules on the silvered por-Si were protected with graphene, which allowed the detection of lactoferrin adsorbed from the 10−18 M solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Raman Techniques in Biosensing)
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Open AccessArticle In-Vitro Characterization of mCerulean3_mRuby3 as a Novel FRET Pair with Favorable Bleed-Through Characteristics
Biosensors 2019, 9(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9010033
Received: 1 December 2018 / Revised: 12 February 2019 / Accepted: 19 February 2019 / Published: 28 February 2019
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Abstract
In previous studies, we encountered substantial problems using the CFP_YFP Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) pair to analyze protein proximity in the endoplasmic reticulum of live cells. Bleed-through of the donor emission into the FRET channel and overlap of the FRET emission wavelength [...] Read more.
In previous studies, we encountered substantial problems using the CFP_YFP Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) pair to analyze protein proximity in the endoplasmic reticulum of live cells. Bleed-through of the donor emission into the FRET channel and overlap of the FRET emission wavelength with highly variable cellular autofluorescence significantly compromised the sensitivity of our analyses. Here, we propose mCerulean3 and mRuby3 as a new FRET pair to potentially overcome these problems. Fusion of the two partners with a trypsin-cleavable linker allowed the direct comparison of the FRET signal characteristics of the associated partners with those of the completely dissociated partners. We compared our new FRET pair with the canonical CFP_YFP and the more recent mClover3_mRuby3 pairs and found that, despite a lower total FRET signal intensity, the novel pair had a significantly better signal to noise ratio due to lower donor emission bleed-through. This and the fact that the mRuby3 emission spectrum did not overlap with that of common cellular autofluorescence renders the mCerulean3_mRuby3 FRET pair a promising alternative to the common CFP_YFP FRET pair for the interaction analysis of membrane proteins in living cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue FRET-Based Biosensors)
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Open AccessArticle Plasma from Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Reduces Nitric Oxide Synthesis and Induces Reactive Oxygen Species in A Cell-Based Biosensor
Biosensors 2019, 9(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9010032
Received: 8 January 2019 / Revised: 8 February 2019 / Accepted: 13 February 2019 / Published: 27 February 2019
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Abstract
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been associated with a higher risk of developing cardiovascular (CV) diseases. It has been proposed that systemic inflammation plays a key role in premature atherosclerosis development, and is therefore crucial to determine whether systemic components from RA patients promotes [...] Read more.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been associated with a higher risk of developing cardiovascular (CV) diseases. It has been proposed that systemic inflammation plays a key role in premature atherosclerosis development, and is therefore crucial to determine whether systemic components from RA patients promotes endothelial cell-oxidative stress by affecting reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric-oxide (NO) production. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether plasma from RA patients impair NO synthesis and ROS production by using the cell-line ECV-304 as a biosensor. NO synthesis and ROS production were measured in cells incubated with plasma from 73 RA patients and 52 healthy volunteers by fluorimetry. In addition, traditional CV risk factors, inflammatory molecules and disease activity parameters were measured. Cells incubated with plasma from RA patients exhibited reduced NO synthesis and increased ROS production compared to healthy volunteers. Furthermore, the imbalance between NO synthesis and ROS generation in RA patients was not associated with traditional CV risk factors. Our data suggest that ECV-304 cells can be used as a biosensor of systemic inflammation-induced endothelial cell-oxidative stress. We propose that both NO and ROS production are potential biomarkers aimed at improving the current assessment of CV risk in RA. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Electrochemical Sensor Based on Molecularly Imprinted Polymer for the Detection of Cefalexin
Biosensors 2019, 9(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9010031
Received: 18 December 2018 / Revised: 5 February 2019 / Accepted: 22 February 2019 / Published: 27 February 2019
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Abstract
In this study, a new electrochemical sensor was developed for the detection of cefalexin (CFX), based on the use of a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) obtained by electro‒polymerization in an aqueous medium of indole-3-acetic acid (I3AA) on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and [...] Read more.
In this study, a new electrochemical sensor was developed for the detection of cefalexin (CFX), based on the use of a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) obtained by electro‒polymerization in an aqueous medium of indole-3-acetic acid (I3AA) on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and on boron-doped diamond electrode (BDDE). The two different electrodes were used in order to assess how their structural differences and the difference in the potential applied during electrogeneration of the MIP translate to the performances of the MIP sensor. The quantification of CFX was performed by using the electrochemical signal of a redox probe before and after the rebinding of the template. The modified electrode was characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The influence of different parameters on the fabrication of the sensor was tested, and the optimized method presented high selectivity and sensitivity. The MIP-based electrode presented a linear response for CFX concentration range of 10 to 1000 nM, and a limit of detection of 3.2 nM and 4.9 nM was obtained for the BDDE and the GCE, respectively. The activity of the sensor was successfully tested in the presence of some other cephalosporins and of other pharmaceutical compounds. The developed method was successfully applied to the detection of cefalexin from real environmental and pharmaceutical samples. Full article
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Open AccessReview Dielectrophoresis Manipulation: Versatile Lateral and Vertical Mechanisms
Biosensors 2019, 9(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9010030
Received: 24 December 2018 / Revised: 24 January 2019 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 26 February 2019
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Abstract
Discussing the topic of the capability of dielectrophoresis (DEP) devices in terms of the selective detection and rapid manipulation of particles based on the DEP force (FDEP) via contactless methods is challenging in medical research, drug discovery and delivery. Nonetheless, the [...] Read more.
Discussing the topic of the capability of dielectrophoresis (DEP) devices in terms of the selective detection and rapid manipulation of particles based on the DEP force (FDEP) via contactless methods is challenging in medical research, drug discovery and delivery. Nonetheless, the process of the selective detection and rapid manipulation of particles via contactless DEP based on dielectric particles and the surrounding medium can reduce the effects of major issues, including physical contact with the particles and medium contamination to overcome operational difficulties. In this review, DEP microelectromechanical system (MEMS) microelectrodes with a tapered profile for the selective detection and rapid manipulation of particles were studied and compared with those of conventional designs with a straight-cut profile. The main objective of this manuscript is to review the versatile mechanism of tapered DEP MEMS microelectrodes for the purpose of selective detection and rapid manipulation. Thus, this review provides a versatile filtration mechanism with the potential for a glomerular-based membrane in an artificial kidneys’ development solution for implementing engineered particles and cells by lateral attraction as well as vertical repulsion in the development of lab-on-a-chip applications. For tapered DEP MEMS microelectrodes, the scope of this study methodology involved the characterisation of DEP, modelling of the polarisation factor and the dynamic dielectric changes between the particles and medium. Comprehensive discussions are presented on the capability of tapered DEP microelectrodes to drive the selected particles and the simulation, fabrication and testing of the tapered profile. This study revealed an outstanding performance with the capability of producing two regions of high electric field intensity at the bottom and top edges of the side wall of tapered microelectrodes. Observations on particle separation mainly by the lateral attraction force of particles with positive DEP on the y-axis and vertical repulsion force of particles with negative DEP on the z-axis proved an efficient and uniform FDEP produced by tapered electrodes. In conclusion, this study confirmed the reliability and efficiency of the tapered DEP microelectrodes in the process of selective detection and rapid manipulation at a higher efficiency rate than straight-cut microelectrodes, which is significant in DEP technology applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Lab-on-Chip Devices II)
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Open AccessArticle Differentiation of Patients with Balance Insufficiency (Vestibular Hypofunction) versus Normal Subjects Using a Low-Cost Small Wireless Wearable Gait Sensor
Biosensors 2019, 9(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9010029
Received: 27 December 2018 / Revised: 2 February 2019 / Accepted: 21 February 2019 / Published: 26 February 2019
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Abstract
Balance disorders present a significant healthcare burden due to the potential for hospitalization or complications for the patient, especially among the elderly population when considering intangible losses such as quality of life, morbidities, and mortalities. This work is a continuation of our earlier [...] Read more.
Balance disorders present a significant healthcare burden due to the potential for hospitalization or complications for the patient, especially among the elderly population when considering intangible losses such as quality of life, morbidities, and mortalities. This work is a continuation of our earlier works where we now examine feature extraction methodology on Dynamic Gait Index (DGI) tests and machine learning classifiers to differentiate patients with balance problems versus normal subjects on an expanded cohort of 60 patients. All data was obtained using our custom designed low-cost wireless gait analysis sensor (WGAS) containing a basic inertial measurement unit (IMU) worn by each subject during the DGI tests. The raw gait data is wirelessly transmitted from the WGAS for real-time gait data collection and analysis. Here we demonstrate predictive classifiers that achieve high accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity in distinguishing abnormal from normal gaits. These results show that gait data collected from our very low-cost wearable wireless gait sensor can effectively differentiate patients with balance disorders from normal subjects in real-time using various classifiers. Our ultimate goal is to be able to use a remote sensor such as the WGAS to accurately stratify an individual’s risk for falls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers: State-of-the-Art Biosensors Technology 2018)
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Open AccessArticle Toward Highly Efficient Cancer Imaging and Therapy Using the Environment-Friendly Chitosan Nanoparticles and NIR Laser
Biosensors 2019, 9(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9010028
Received: 3 January 2019 / Revised: 27 January 2019 / Accepted: 13 February 2019 / Published: 18 February 2019
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Abstract
Chitosan-tripolyphosphate nanoparticles (C-TPP NPs) were synthesized to investigate their cytotoxicity against colon cancer cells (Caco2 cells) in the absence and the presence of a near-infrared (NIR) laser to evaluate their influence in cancer detection using the NIR laser and to evaluate the NIR [...] Read more.
Chitosan-tripolyphosphate nanoparticles (C-TPP NPs) were synthesized to investigate their cytotoxicity against colon cancer cells (Caco2 cells) in the absence and the presence of a near-infrared (NIR) laser to evaluate their influence in cancer detection using the NIR laser and to evaluate the NIR laser on cancer treatment. The synthesized NPs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential (ZP), and transmission electronic microscope (TEM). The cytotoxicity was analyzed by the MTT test and the cell viability was assessed using the Trypan blue method. C-TPP NPs showed increased cytotoxicity and decreased cell viability against Caco2 cells. Upon laser exposure only, the cell viability decreased. The C-TPP NPs appeared to have a shining light on the cancerous cells which were photographed under the inverted microscope. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Nanomaterials for Biosensing and Bioimaging)
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Open AccessReview Saliva, a Magic Biofluid Available for Multilevel Assessment and a Mirror of General Health—A Systematic Review
Biosensors 2019, 9(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9010027
Received: 7 January 2019 / Revised: 1 February 2019 / Accepted: 9 February 2019 / Published: 14 February 2019
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Abstract
Background: Saliva has been recently proposed as an alternative to classic biofluid analyses due to both availability and reliability regarding the evaluation of various biomarkers. Biosensors have been designed for the assessment of a wide spectrum of compounds, aiding in the screening, diagnosis, [...] Read more.
Background: Saliva has been recently proposed as an alternative to classic biofluid analyses due to both availability and reliability regarding the evaluation of various biomarkers. Biosensors have been designed for the assessment of a wide spectrum of compounds, aiding in the screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of pathologies and treatment efficiency. This literature review aims to present the development in the biosensors research and their utility using salivary assessment. Methods: a comprehensive literature search has been conducted in the PubMed database, using the keywords “saliva” and “sensor”. A two-step paper selection algorithm was devised and applied. Results: The 49 papers selected for the present review focused on assessing the salivary biomarkers used in general diseases, oral pathologies, and pharmacology. The biosensors proved to be reliable tools for measuring the salivary levels of biochemical metabolic compounds such as glucose, proteinases and proteins, heavy metals and various chemical compounds, microorganisms, oncology markers, drugs, and neurotransmitters. Conclusions: Saliva is a biofluid with a significant clinical applicability for the evaluation and monitoring of a patient’s general health. Biosensors designed for assessing a wide range of salivary biomarkers are emerging as promising diagnostic or screening tools for improving the patients’ quality of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Immunosensor)
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Open AccessArticle Response Surface Methodology for the Optimisation of Electrochemical Biosensors for Heavy Metals Detection
Biosensors 2019, 9(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9010026
Received: 11 January 2019 / Revised: 9 February 2019 / Accepted: 9 February 2019 / Published: 13 February 2019
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Abstract
Herein, we report the application of a chemometric tool for the optimisation of electrochemical biosensor performances. The experimental design was performed based on the responses of an amperometric biosensor developed for metal ions detection using the flow injection analysis. The electrode preparation and [...] Read more.
Herein, we report the application of a chemometric tool for the optimisation of electrochemical biosensor performances. The experimental design was performed based on the responses of an amperometric biosensor developed for metal ions detection using the flow injection analysis. The electrode preparation and the working conditions were selected as experimental parameters, and thus, were modelled by a response surface methodology (RSM). In particular, enzyme concentration, flow rates, and number of cycles were reported as continuous factors, while the sensitivities of the biosensor (S, µA·mM−1) towards metals, such as Bi3+ and Al3+ were collected as responses and optimised by a central composite design (CCD). Bi3+ and Al3+ inhibition on the Pt/PPD/GOx biosensor response is for the first time reported. The optimal enzyme concentration, scan cycles and flow rate were found to be 50 U·mL−1, 30 and, 0.3 mL·min−1, respectively. Descriptive/predictive performances are discussed: the sensitivities of the optimised biosensor agreed with the experimental design prediction. The responses under the optimised conditions were also tested towards Ni2+ and Ag+ ions. The multivariate approach used in this work allowed us to obtain a wide working range for the biosensor, coupled with a high reproducibility of the response (RSD = 0.72%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymatic Electrochemical Biosensors)
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Open AccessArticle The Recent Advances in Raman Microscopy and Imaging Techniques for Biosensors
Biosensors 2019, 9(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9010025
Received: 7 January 2019 / Revised: 30 January 2019 / Accepted: 6 February 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
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Abstract
Raman microspectroscopy is now well established as one of the most powerful analytical techniques for a diverse range of applications in physical (material) and biological sciences. Consequently, the technique provides exceptional analytical opportunities to the science and technology of biosensing due to its [...] Read more.
Raman microspectroscopy is now well established as one of the most powerful analytical techniques for a diverse range of applications in physical (material) and biological sciences. Consequently, the technique provides exceptional analytical opportunities to the science and technology of biosensing due to its capability to analyze both parts of a biosensor system—biologically sensitive components, and a variety of materials and systems used in physicochemical transducers. Recent technological developments in Raman spectral imaging have brought additional possibilities in two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) characterization of the biosensor’s constituents and their changes on a submicrometer scale in a label-free, real-time nondestructive method of detection. In this report, the essential components and features of a modern confocal Raman microscope are reviewed using the instance of Thermo Scientific DXRxi Raman imaging microscope, and examples of the potential applications of Raman microscopy and imaging for constituents of biosensors are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Raman Techniques in Biosensing)
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Open AccessCommunication Rapid Drop-Test for Lectin Binding with Glycopolymer-Coated Optical Ring Resonators
Biosensors 2019, 9(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9010024
Received: 21 December 2018 / Revised: 25 January 2019 / Accepted: 6 February 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
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Abstract
We fabricated a simple sensor system for qualitative analysis of glycan-mediated interactions. Our main aim was to establish a ronbbust system that allowes drop-tests without complex fluidics. The test system should be usable in routine analytics in the future and bear sufficient sensitivity [...] Read more.
We fabricated a simple sensor system for qualitative analysis of glycan-mediated interactions. Our main aim was to establish a ronbbust system that allowes drop-tests without complex fluidics. The test system should be usable in routine analytics in the future and bear sufficient sensitivity to detect binding events in the nanomolar range. For this, we employed optical ring resonators and coated them with high avidity glycopolymers based on N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). These hydrophilic polymers are also very feasible in preventing unspecific protein adsorption. Drop-on binding studies with suitable lectins showed that glycopolymers were specifically recognized by a lectin with GlcNAc-specificity and prevented unspecific protein interactions very well. The system could be elaborated in the future for detection of glycan-mediated interactions in the biomedical field and is promising in means of multiplexed analysis and usage in routine analysis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Fast Identification of Bacteria for Quality Control of Drinking Water through a Static Headspace Sampler Coupled to a Sensory Perception System
Biosensors 2019, 9(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9010023
Received: 17 December 2018 / Revised: 4 February 2019 / Accepted: 5 February 2019 / Published: 8 February 2019
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to develop and implement a methodology composed by a Static Head-Space-Sampler (SHS) coupled to a Sensory Perception System (SPS) for the extraction of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC’s) emitted by bacterial species in the water. The SPS was [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to develop and implement a methodology composed by a Static Head-Space-Sampler (SHS) coupled to a Sensory Perception System (SPS) for the extraction of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC’s) emitted by bacterial species in the water. The SPS was performed by means of a chamber of 16 Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) gas sensors and a software with pattern recognition methods for the detection and identification of bacteria. At first, the tests were conducted from the sterile and polluted water with the Escherichia coli bacteria and modifying the incubation temperatures (50 °C, 70 °C and 90 °C), with the objective to obtain an optimal temperature for the distinguishing of species. Furthermore, the capacity of the methodology to distinguish the important compounds was assessed, in this case, E. coli and other bacteria like Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella oxytoca, which formed similar analytes. The validation of the proposed methodology was done by acquiring water samples from different unitary operations of an aqueduct of the municipality of Toledo (North of Santander, Colombia), which were analyzed by the membrane filter technique in the laboratories of the University of Pamplona, along with the SHS-SPS system. The results showed that it was possible to distinguish polluted water samples in a fast way through the sensory measurement equipment using pattern recognition techniques such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) and a probabilistic neural network (PNN), where a 95% of differentiation was obtained through PCA and 100% of the classification with DFA. The PNN network achieved the 86.6% of success rate with the cross-validation technique “leave one out”. Full article
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Open AccessArticle SAM Composition and Electrode Roughness Affect Performance of a DNA Biosensor for Antibiotic Resistance
Biosensors 2019, 9(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9010022
Received: 11 December 2018 / Revised: 29 January 2019 / Accepted: 4 February 2019 / Published: 7 February 2019
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Abstract
Antibiotic resistance is a growing concern in the treatment of infectious disease worldwide. Point-of-care (PoC) assays which rapidly identify antibiotic resistance in a sample will allow for immediate targeted therapy which improves patient outcomes and helps maintain the effectiveness of current antibiotic stockpiles. [...] Read more.
Antibiotic resistance is a growing concern in the treatment of infectious disease worldwide. Point-of-care (PoC) assays which rapidly identify antibiotic resistance in a sample will allow for immediate targeted therapy which improves patient outcomes and helps maintain the effectiveness of current antibiotic stockpiles. Electrochemical assays offer many benefits, but translation from a benchtop measurement system to low-cost portable electrodes can be challenging. Using electrochemical and physical techniques, this study examines how different electrode surfaces and bio-recognition elements, i.e. the self-assembled monolayer (SAM), affect the performance of a biosensor measuring the hybridisation of a probe for antibiotic resistance to a target gene sequence in solution. We evaluate several commercially available electrodes which could be suitable for PoC testing with different SAM layers and show that electrode selection also plays an important role in overall biosensor performance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Development of Tin Oxide-Based Nanosensors for Electronic Nose Environmental Applications
Biosensors 2019, 9(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9010021
Received: 18 December 2018 / Revised: 21 January 2019 / Accepted: 28 January 2019 / Published: 5 February 2019
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Abstract
Tin oxide nanofibres (NFs) are used as nanosensors in electronic noses. Their performance is compared to that of oxide commercial chemical sensors for pollutant detection. NFs were grown by electrospinning and deposited onto silicon substrates with integrated micro-hotplates. NF morphology was characterized by [...] Read more.
Tin oxide nanofibres (NFs) are used as nanosensors in electronic noses. Their performance is compared to that of oxide commercial chemical sensors for pollutant detection. NFs were grown by electrospinning and deposited onto silicon substrates with integrated micro-hotplates. NF morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The NFs presented high sensitivity to NO2 at low temperature. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Trends and Perspectives in Immunosensors for Determination of Currently-Used Pesticides: The Case of Glyphosate, Organophosphates, and Neonicotinoids
Biosensors 2019, 9(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9010020
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 29 January 2019 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 4 February 2019
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Abstract
Pesticides, due to their intensive use and their peculiar chemical features, can persist in the environment and enter the trophic chain, thus representing an environmental risk for the ecosystems and human health. Although there are several robust and reliable standard analytical techniques for [...] Read more.
Pesticides, due to their intensive use and their peculiar chemical features, can persist in the environment and enter the trophic chain, thus representing an environmental risk for the ecosystems and human health. Although there are several robust and reliable standard analytical techniques for their monitoring, the high frequency of contamination caused by pesticides requires methods for massive monitoring campaigns that are capable of rapidly detecting these compounds in many samples of different origin. Immunosensors represent a potential tool for simple, rapid, and sensitive monitoring of pesticides. Antibodies coupled to electrochemical or optical transducers have resulted in effective detection devices. In this review, the new trends in immunosensor development and the application of immunosensors for the detection of pesticides of environmental concern—such as glyphosate, organophosphates, and neonicotinoids—are described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Immunosensor)
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Open AccessArticle Integrated Microfluidic Devices Fabricated in Poly (Methyl Methacrylate) (PMMA) for On-site Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Aminoglycosides in Whole Blood
Biosensors 2019, 9(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9010019
Received: 21 November 2018 / Revised: 18 December 2018 / Accepted: 19 December 2018 / Published: 30 January 2019
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Abstract
On-site therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is important for providing a quick and accurate dosing to patients in order to improve efficacy and minimize toxicity. Aminoglycosides such as amikacin, gentamicin, and tobramycin are important antibiotics that have been commonly used to treat infections of [...] Read more.
On-site therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is important for providing a quick and accurate dosing to patients in order to improve efficacy and minimize toxicity. Aminoglycosides such as amikacin, gentamicin, and tobramycin are important antibiotics that have been commonly used to treat infections of chronic bacterial infections in the urinary tract, lung, and heart. However, these aminoglycosides can lead to vestibular and auditory dysfunction. Therefore, TDM of aminoglycosides is important due to their ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Here, we have developed a hot embossed poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microfluidic device featuring an electrokinetic size and mobility trap (SMT) to purify, concentrate, and separate the aminoglycoside antibiotic drugs amikacin, gentamicin, and tobramycin. These drugs were separated successfully from whole blood within 3 min, with 30-fold lower detection limits compared to a standard pinched injection. The limit of detections (LOD) were 3.75 µg/mL for gentamicin, 8.53 µg/mL for amikacin, and 6.00 µg/mL for tobramycin. These are sufficient to cover the therapeutic range for treating sepsis of 6–10 μg/mL gentamicin and tobramycin and 12–20 μg/mL of amikacin. The device is simple and could be mass produced via embossing or injection molding approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microfluidics for Biosensing and Diagnostics)
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Open AccessArticle A Molecular Interaction Analysis Reveals the Possible Roles of Graphene Oxide in a Glucose Biosensor
Biosensors 2019, 9(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9010018
Received: 26 December 2018 / Revised: 22 January 2019 / Accepted: 24 January 2019 / Published: 28 January 2019
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Abstract
In this paper, we report the molecular docking study of graphene oxide and glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme for a potential glucose biosensing application. The large surface area and good electrical properties have made graphene oxide as one of the best candidates for an [...] Read more.
In this paper, we report the molecular docking study of graphene oxide and glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme for a potential glucose biosensing application. The large surface area and good electrical properties have made graphene oxide as one of the best candidates for an enzyme immobilizer and transducer in the biosensing system. Our molecular docking results revealed that graphene oxide plays a role as a GOx enzyme immobilizer in the glucose biosensor system since it can spontaneously bind with GOx at specific regions separated from the active sites of glucose and not interfering or blocking the glucose sensing by GOx in an enzyme-assisted biosensor system. The strongest binding affinity of GOx-graphene oxide interaction is −11.6 kCal/mol and dominated by hydrophobic interaction. Other modes of interactions with a lower binding affinity have shown the existence of some hydrogen bonds (H-bonds). A possibility of direct sensing (interaction) model of glucose by graphene oxide (non-enzymatic sensing mechanism) was also studied in this paper, and showed a possible direct glucose sensing by graphene oxide through the H-bond interaction, even though with a much lower binding affinity of −4.2 kCal/mol. It was also found that in a direct glucose sensing mechanism, the sensing interaction can take place anywhere on the graphene oxide surface with almost similar binding affinity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Wearable Device for Continuous Ambulatory ECG Recording: Proof of Concept and Assessment of Signal Quality
Biosensors 2019, 9(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9010017
Received: 11 November 2018 / Revised: 7 January 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 21 January 2019
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Abstract
Diagnosis of arrhythmic disorders is challenging because of their short-lasting, intermittent character. Conventional technologies of noninvasive ambulatory rhythm monitoring are limited by modest sensitivity. We present a novel form of wearable electrocardiogram (ECG) sensors providing an alternative tool for long-term rhythm monitoring with [...] Read more.
Diagnosis of arrhythmic disorders is challenging because of their short-lasting, intermittent character. Conventional technologies of noninvasive ambulatory rhythm monitoring are limited by modest sensitivity. We present a novel form of wearable electrocardiogram (ECG) sensors providing an alternative tool for long-term rhythm monitoring with the potential of increased sensitivity to detect intermittent or subclinical arrhythmia. The objective was to assess the signal quality and R-R coverage of a wearable ECG sensor system compared to a standard 3-lead Holter. In this phase-1 trial, healthy individuals underwent 24-h simultaneous rhythm monitoring using the OMsignal system together with a 3-lead Holter recording. The OMsignal system consists of a garment (bra or shirt) with integrated sensors recording a single-lead ECG and an acquisition module for data storage and processing. Head-to-head signal quality was assessed regarding adequate P-QRS-T distinction and was performed by three electrophysiologists blinded to the recording technology. The accuracy of signal coverage was assessed using Bland-Altman analysis. Fifteen individuals underwent simultaneous 24-h recording. Signal quality and accuracy of the OMgaments was equivalent to Holter-monitoring (84% vs. 93% electrophysiologists rating, p = 0.06). Signal coverage of R-R intervals showed a very close overlay between the OMsignal system and Holter signals, mean difference in heart rate of 2 ± 5 bpm. The noise level of OMgarments was comparable to Holter recording. OMgarments provide high signal quality for adequate rhythm analysis, representing a promising novel technology for long-term non-invasive ECG monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue In Vivo Physiological Monitoring)
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