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Biosensors 2019, 9(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9010044

Continuous Monitoring of pH and Blood Gases Using Ion-Sensitive and Gas-Sensitive Field Effect Transistors Operating in the Amperometric Mode in Presence of Drift

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Hamedan University of Technology, Hamedan 65169-13733, Iran
Received: 31 December 2018 / Revised: 24 February 2019 / Accepted: 4 March 2019 / Published: 18 March 2019
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Abstract

Accurate and cost-effective integrated sensor systems for continuous monitoring of pH and blood gases continue to be in high demand. The capacity of ion-selective and Gas-sensitive field effect transistors (FETs) to serve as low-power sensors for accurate continuous monitoring of pH and blood gases is evaluated in the amperometric or current mode of operation. A stand-alone current-mode topology is employed in which a constant bias is applied to the gate with the drain current serving as the measuring signal. Compared with voltage-mode operation (e.g., in the feedback mode in ion-selective FETs), current-mode topologies offer the advantages of small size and low power consumption. However, the ion-selective FET (ISFET) and the Gas-sensitive FET (GasFET) exhibit a similar drift behavior, imposing a serious limitation on the accuracy of these sensors for continuous monitoring applications irrespective of the mode of operation. Given the slow temporal variation associated with the drift characteristics in both devices, a common post-processing technique that involves monitoring the variation of the drain current over short intervals of time can potentially allow extraction of the measuring signal in presence of drift in both sensor types. Furthermore, in the amperometric mode the static sensitivity of a FET-based sensor, given by the product of the FET transconductance and the sensitivity of the device threshold voltage to the measurand concentration, can be increased by adjusting the device design parameters. Increasing the sensitivity, while of interest in its own right, also enhances the accuracy of the proposed method. Rigorous analytical validation of the method is presented for GasFET operation in the amperometric mode. Moreover, the correction algorithm is verified experimentally using a Si3N4-gate ISFET operating in the amperometric mode to monitor pH variations ranging from 3.5 to 10. View Full-Text
Keywords: amperometric; continuous monitoring; current mode; drift; GasFET; ISFET; Instability; pH amperometric; continuous monitoring; current mode; drift; GasFET; ISFET; Instability; pH
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Jamasb, S. Continuous Monitoring of pH and Blood Gases Using Ion-Sensitive and Gas-Sensitive Field Effect Transistors Operating in the Amperometric Mode in Presence of Drift. Biosensors 2019, 9, 44.

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