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Biosensors, Volume 14, Issue 5 (May 2024) – 51 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Legionella pneumophila bacterium accounts for more than 95% of the cases of Legionnaires’ disease. Bacterium detection by classical microbiology may take more than 10 days. Therefore, methods for its rapid and point-of-need detection are instrumental in preventing outbreaks. Α simple and compact chip is presented for the detection of L. pneumophila in water samples, integrating, for the first time, sample preparation and naked-eye qualitative or image analysis-based semiquantitative detection within 3 h. The achieved analysis time is reduced by 99% compared to that required by the gold-standard (bacteria culturing) method, while the simplified assay enables performing the test at the point of need. The method showed high sensitivity in drinking and drilling water. View this paper
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14 pages, 5622 KiB  
Article
Development of a DNA-Based Lateral Flow Strip Membrane Assay for Rapid Screening and Genotyping of Six High-Incidence STD Pathogens
by Gunho Choi, Keum-Soo Song, Satish Balasaheb Nimse and Taisun Kim
Biosensors 2024, 14(5), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14050260 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 455
Abstract
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are a global concern because approximately 1 million new cases emerge daily. Most STDs are curable, but if left untreated, they can cause severe long-term health implications, including infertility and even death. Therefore, a test enabling rapid and accurate [...] Read more.
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are a global concern because approximately 1 million new cases emerge daily. Most STDs are curable, but if left untreated, they can cause severe long-term health implications, including infertility and even death. Therefore, a test enabling rapid and accurate screening and genotyping of STD pathogens is highly awaited. Herein, we present the development of the DNA-based 6STD Genotyping 9G Membrane test, a lateral flow strip membrane assay, for the detection and genotyping of six STD pathogens, including Trichomonas vaginalis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis, and Mycoplasma genitalium. Here, we developed a multiplex PCR primer set that allows PCR amplification of genomic materials for these six STD pathogens. We also developed the six ssDNA probes that allow highly efficient detection of the six STD pathogens. The 6STD Genotyping 9G Membrane test lets us obtain the final detection and genotyping results in less than 30 m after PCR at 25 °C. The accuracy of the 6STD Genotyping 9G membrane test in STD genotyping was confirmed by its 100% concordance with the sequencing results of 120 clinical samples. Therefore, the 6STD Genotyping 9G Membrane test emerges as a promising diagnostic tool for precise STD genotyping, facilitating informed decision-making in clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarker Biosensing: Analysis and Detection)
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23 pages, 1025 KiB  
Article
Parkinson’s Disease Recognition Using Decorrelated Convolutional Neural Networks: Addressing Imbalance and Scanner Bias in rs-fMRI Data
by Pranita Patil and W. Randolph Ford
Biosensors 2024, 14(5), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14050259 - 19 May 2024
Viewed by 379
Abstract
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative and progressive disease that impacts the nerve cells in the brain and varies from person to person. The exact cause of PD is still unknown, and the diagnosis of PD does not include a specific objective test [...] Read more.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative and progressive disease that impacts the nerve cells in the brain and varies from person to person. The exact cause of PD is still unknown, and the diagnosis of PD does not include a specific objective test with certainty. Although deep learning has made great progress in medical neuroimaging analysis, these methods are very susceptible to biases present in neuroimaging datasets. An innovative decorrelated deep learning technique is introduced to mitigate class bias and scanner bias while simultaneously focusing on finding distinguishing characteristics in resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) data, which assists in recognizing PD with good accuracy. The decorrelation function reduces the nonlinear correlation between features and bias in order to learn bias-invariant features. The publicly available Parkinson’s Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) dataset, referred to as a single-scanner imbalanced dataset in this study, was used to validate our method. The imbalanced dataset problem affects the performance of the deep learning framework by overfitting to the majority class. To resolve this problem, we propose a new decorrelated convolutional neural network (DcCNN) framework by applying decorrelation-based optimization to convolutional neural networks (CNNs). An analysis of evaluation metrics comparisons shows that integrating the decorrelation function boosts the performance of PD recognition by removing class bias. Specifically, our DcCNN models perform significantly better than existing traditional approaches to tackle the imbalance problem. Finally, the same framework can be extended to create scanner-invariant features without significantly impacting the performance of a model. The obtained dataset is a multiscanner dataset, which leads to scanner bias due to the differences in acquisition protocols and scanners. The multiscanner dataset is a combination of two publicly available datasets, namely, PPMI and FTLDNI—the frontotemporal lobar degeneration neuroimaging initiative (NIFD) dataset. The results of t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding (t-SNE) and scanner classification accuracy of our proposed feature extraction–DcCNN (FE-DcCNN) model validated the effective removal of scanner bias. Our method achieves an average accuracy of 77.80% on a multiscanner dataset for differentiating PD from a healthy control, which is superior to the DcCNN model trained on a single-scanner imbalanced dataset. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensing and Imaging for Neurodegenerative Diseases)
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13 pages, 4288 KiB  
Article
Ti3C2 Nanosheets Functionalized with Ferritin–Biomimetic Platinum Nanoparticles for Electrochemical Biosensors of Nitrite
by Rongqiu Mu, Danzhu Zhu and Gang Wei
Biosensors 2024, 14(5), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14050258 - 19 May 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 433
Abstract
Nitrites widely exist in human life and the natural environment, but excessive contents of nitrites will result in adverse effects on the environment and human health; hence, sensitive and stable nitrite detection systems are needed. In this study, we report the synthesis of [...] Read more.
Nitrites widely exist in human life and the natural environment, but excessive contents of nitrites will result in adverse effects on the environment and human health; hence, sensitive and stable nitrite detection systems are needed. In this study, we report the synthesis of Ti3C2 nanosheets functionalized with apoferritin (ApoF)–biomimetic platinum (Pt) nanoparticle (Pt@ApoF/Ti3C2) composite materials, which were formed by using ApoF as a template and protein-inspired biomineralization. The formed nanohybrid exhibits excellent electrochemical sensing performance towards nitrite (NaNO2). Specifically, the Pt@ApoF catalyzes the conversion of nitrites into nitrates, converting the chemical signal into an electrical signal. The prepared Pt@ApoF/Ti3C2-based electrochemical NaNO2 biosensors demonstrate a wide detection range of 0.001–9 mM with a low detection limit of 0.425 μM. Additionally, the biosensors possess high selectivity and sensitivity while maintaining a relatively stable electrochemical sensing performance within 7 days, enabling the monitoring of NaNO2 in complex environments. The successful preparation of the Pt@ApoF/Ti3C2 nanohybrid materials provides a new approach for constructing efficient electrochemical biosensors, offering a simple and rapid method for detecting NaNO2 in complex environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterial-Based Biosensors to Support the One Health Concept)
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11 pages, 2334 KiB  
Article
Introducing Triplex Forming Oligonucleotide into Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Developing a Lateral Flow Biosensor for Streptococci Detection
by Wei Chang, Po-Hao Chou, Cai-Tong Wu, Jheng-Da Song, Kun-Nan Tsai and Chiuan-Chian Chiou
Biosensors 2024, 14(5), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14050257 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 505
Abstract
Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technology is extensively utilized for the detection of infectious diseases owing to its rapid processing and high sensitivity. Nevertheless, conventional LAMP signaling methods frequently suffer from a lack of sequence specificity. This study integrates a triplex-forming oligonucleotide (TFO) probe [...] Read more.
Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technology is extensively utilized for the detection of infectious diseases owing to its rapid processing and high sensitivity. Nevertheless, conventional LAMP signaling methods frequently suffer from a lack of sequence specificity. This study integrates a triplex-forming oligonucleotide (TFO) probe into the LAMP process to enhance sequence specificity. This TFO-LAMP technique was applied for the detection of Group B Streptococcus (GBS). The TFO probe is designed to recognize a specific DNA sequence, termed the TFO targeting sequence (TTS), within the amplified product, facilitating detection via fluorescent instrumentation or lateral flow biosensors. A screening method was developed to identify TFO sequences with high affinity to integrate TFO into LAMP, subsequently incorporating a selected TTS into an LAMP primer. In the TFO-LAMP assay, a FAM-labeled TFO is added to target the TTS. This TFO can be captured by an anti-FAM antibody on lateral flow test strips, thus creating a nucleic acid testing biosensor. The efficacy of the TFO-LAMP assay was confirmed through experiments with specimens spiked with varying concentrations of GBS, demonstrating 85% sensitivity at 300 copies and 100% sensitivity at 30,000 copies. In conclusion, this study has successfully developed a TFO-LAMP technology that offers applicability in lateral flow biosensors and potentially other biosensor platforms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Application of Novel Nucleic Acid Probe)
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17 pages, 4702 KiB  
Review
Microfluidic Mechanoporation: Current Progress and Applications in Stem Cells
by Rubing Wang, Ziqi Wang, Lingling Tong, Ruoming Wang, Shuo Yao, Di Chen and Huan Hu
Biosensors 2024, 14(5), 256; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14050256 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 531
Abstract
Intracellular delivery, the process of transporting substances into cells, is crucial for various applications, such as drug delivery, gene therapy, cell imaging, and regenerative medicine. Among the different approaches of intracellular delivery, mechanoporation stands out by utilizing mechanical forces to create temporary pores [...] Read more.
Intracellular delivery, the process of transporting substances into cells, is crucial for various applications, such as drug delivery, gene therapy, cell imaging, and regenerative medicine. Among the different approaches of intracellular delivery, mechanoporation stands out by utilizing mechanical forces to create temporary pores on cell membranes, enabling the entry of substances into cells. This method is promising due to its minimal contamination and is especially vital for stem cells intended for clinical therapy. In this review, we explore various mechanoporation technologies, including microinjection, micro–nano needle arrays, cell squeezing through physical confinement, and cell squeezing using hydrodynamic forces. Additionally, we highlight recent research efforts utilizing mechanoporation for stem cell studies. Furthermore, we discuss the integration of mechanoporation techniques into microfluidic platforms for high-throughput intracellular delivery with enhanced transfection efficiency. This advancement holds potential in addressing the challenge of low transfection efficiency, benefiting both basic research and clinical applications of stem cells. Ultimately, the combination of microfluidics and mechanoporation presents new opportunities for creating comprehensive systems for stem cell processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microfluidics for Biomedical Applications (Volume II))
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11 pages, 2161 KiB  
Article
Detection of Glutamate Decarboxylase Antibodies and Simultaneous Multi-Molecular Translocation Exploration by Glass Nanopores
by Chongxin Tao, Yun Bai, Jiang Chen, Jing Lu, Yan Bi and Jian Li
Biosensors 2024, 14(5), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14050255 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 469
Abstract
Glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody (GADAb) has emerged as a significant biomarker for clinical diagnosis and prognosis in type 1 diabetes (T1D). In this study, we investigated the potential utilization of glass capillary solid-state nanopores as a cost-effective and easily preparable platform for the [...] Read more.
Glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody (GADAb) has emerged as a significant biomarker for clinical diagnosis and prognosis in type 1 diabetes (T1D). In this study, we investigated the potential utilization of glass capillary solid-state nanopores as a cost-effective and easily preparable platform for the detection of individual antigens, antibodies, and antigen-antibody complexes without necessitating any modifications to the nanopores. Our findings revealed notable characteristic variations in the translocation events of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) through nanopores under different voltage conditions, discovered that anomalous phenomenon of protein translocation events increasing with voltage may potentially be caused by the crowding of multiple proteins in the nanopores, and demonstrated that there are multiple components in the polyclonal antibodies (GADAb-poly). Furthermore, we achieved successful differentiation between GAD65, GADAb, and GADAb-GAD65 complexes. These results offer promising prospects for the development of a rapid and reliable GADAb detection method, which holds the potential to be applied in patient serum samples, thereby facilitating a label-free, cost-effective, and early diagnosis of type I diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microfluidics for Biomedical Applications (Volume II))
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15 pages, 1221 KiB  
Review
Development of Non-Invasive Biosensors for Neonatal Jaundice Detection: A Review
by Chandan Jyoti Hazarika, Alee Borah, Poly Gogoi, Shrimanta S. Ramchiary, Bethuel Daurai, Manashjit Gogoi and Manob Jyoti Saikia
Biosensors 2024, 14(5), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14050254 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 517
Abstract
One of the most common problems many babies encounter is neonatal jaundice. The symptoms are yellowing of the skin or eyes because of bilirubin (from above 2.0 to 2.5 mg/dL in the blood). If left untreated, it can lead to serious neurological complications. [...] Read more.
One of the most common problems many babies encounter is neonatal jaundice. The symptoms are yellowing of the skin or eyes because of bilirubin (from above 2.0 to 2.5 mg/dL in the blood). If left untreated, it can lead to serious neurological complications. Traditionally, jaundice detection has relied on invasive blood tests, but developing non-invasive biosensors has provided an alternative approach. This systematic review aims to assess the advancement of these biosensors. This review discusses the many known invasive and non-invasive diagnostic modalities for detecting neonatal jaundice and their limitations. It also notes that the recent research and development on non-invasive biosensors for neonatal jaundice diagnosis is still in its early stages, with the majority of investigations being in vitro or at the pre-clinical level. Non-invasive biosensors could revolutionize neonatal jaundice detection; however, a number of issues still need to be solved before this can happen. These consist of in-depth validation studies, affordable and user-friendly gadgets, and regulatory authority approval. To create biosensors that meet regulatory requirements, additional research is required to make them more precise and affordable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors and Healthcare)
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12 pages, 3982 KiB  
Article
Development of a Flexible Sensor-Integrated Tissue Patch to Monitor Early Organ Rejection Processes Using Impedance Spectroscopy
by Peter Ertl, Tibor Wladimir, Drago Sticker, Patrick Schuller, Mario Rothbauer, Georg Wieselthaler and Martin Frauenlob
Biosensors 2024, 14(5), 253; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14050253 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 506
Abstract
Heart failure represents a primary cause of hospitalization and mortality in both developed and developing countries, often necessitating heart transplantation as the only viable recovery path. Despite advances in transplantation medicine, organ rejection remains a significant post-operative challenge, traditionally monitored through invasive endomyocardial [...] Read more.
Heart failure represents a primary cause of hospitalization and mortality in both developed and developing countries, often necessitating heart transplantation as the only viable recovery path. Despite advances in transplantation medicine, organ rejection remains a significant post-operative challenge, traditionally monitored through invasive endomyocardial biopsies (EMB). This study introduces a rapid prototyping approach to organ rejection monitoring via a sensor-integrated flexible patch, employing electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) for the non-invasive, continuous assessment of resistive and capacitive changes indicative of tissue rejection processes. Utilizing titanium-dioxide-coated electrodes for contactless impedance sensing, this method aims to mitigate the limitations associated with EMB, including procedural risks and the psychological burden on patients. The biosensor’s design features, including electrode passivation and three-dimensional microelectrode protrusions, facilitate effective monitoring of cardiac rejection by aligning with the heart’s curvature and responding to muscle contractions. Evaluation of sensor performance utilized SPICE simulations, scanning electron microscopy, and cyclic voltammetry, alongside experimental validation using chicken heart tissue to simulate healthy and rejected states. The study highlights the potential of EIS in reducing the need for invasive biopsy procedures and offering a promising avenue for early detection and monitoring of organ rejection, with implications for patient care and healthcare resource utilization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Biosensors in Cell or Tissue Analysis)
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12 pages, 4702 KiB  
Article
The Construction and Application of a New Screening Method for Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors
by Chunhua Gao, Zhe Wang, Xiaojing Liu, Rongzhen Sun, Shengyao Ma, Zongchen Ma, Qi Wang, Guoqiang Li and Han-Ting Zhang
Biosensors 2024, 14(5), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14050252 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 411
Abstract
Phosphodiesterases (PDEs), a superfamily of enzymes that hydrolyze cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), are recognized as a therapeutic target for various diseases. However, the current screening methods for PDE inhibitors usually experience problems due to complex operations and/or high [...] Read more.
Phosphodiesterases (PDEs), a superfamily of enzymes that hydrolyze cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), are recognized as a therapeutic target for various diseases. However, the current screening methods for PDE inhibitors usually experience problems due to complex operations and/or high costs, which are not conducive to drug development in respect of this target. In this study, a new method for screening PDE inhibitors based on GloSensor technology was successfully established and applied, resulting in the discovery of several novel compounds of different structural types with PDE inhibitory activity. Compared with traditional screening methods, this method is low-cost, capable of dynamically detecting changes in substrate concentration in live cells, and can be used to preliminarily determine the type of PDEs affected by the detected active compounds, making it more suitable for high-throughput screening for PDE inhibitors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors and Healthcare)
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19 pages, 11576 KiB  
Article
Validation of a New Ankle Brachial Index Measurement System Using Pulse Wave Velocity
by Juan David Romero-Ante, Esther Chicharro-Luna, Juliana Manrique-Córdoba, José María Vicente-Samper, Alba Gracia-Sánchez and José María Sabater-Navarro
Biosensors 2024, 14(5), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14050251 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 493
Abstract
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a common circulatory disorder characterized by the accumulation of fats, cholesterol, and other substances in the arteries that restrict blood flow to the extremities, especially the legs. The ankle brachial index (ABI) is a highly reliable and valid [...] Read more.
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a common circulatory disorder characterized by the accumulation of fats, cholesterol, and other substances in the arteries that restrict blood flow to the extremities, especially the legs. The ankle brachial index (ABI) is a highly reliable and valid non-invasive test for diagnosing PAD. However, the traditional method has limitations. These include the time required, the need for Doppler equipment, the training of clinical staff, and patient discomfort. PWV refers to the speed at which an arterial pressure wave propagates along the arteries, and this speed is conditioned by arterial elasticity and stiffness. To address these limitations, we have developed a system that uses electrocardiogram (ECG) and photoplethysmography (PPG) signals to calculate pulse wave velocity (PWV). We propose determining the ABI based on this calculation. Validation was performed on 22 diabetic patients, and the results demonstrate the accuracy of the system, maintaining a margin of ±0.1 compared with the traditional method. This confirms the correlation between PWV and ABI and positions this technique as a promising alternative to overcome some of the limitations of the conventional method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors and Healthcare)
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11 pages, 3189 KiB  
Article
Blood Coagulation-Inspired Fibrin Hydrogel for Portable Detection of Thrombin Based on Personal Glucometer
by Dan-Ni Yang, Shu-Yi Wu, Han-Yu Deng, Hao Zhang, Shan Shi and Shan Geng
Biosensors 2024, 14(5), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14050250 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 519
Abstract
As one of the biomarkers of coagulation system-related diseases, the detection of thrombin is of practical importance. Thus, this study developed a portable biosensor based on a personal glucometer for rapid detection of thrombin activity. Fibrinogen was used for the detection of thrombin, [...] Read more.
As one of the biomarkers of coagulation system-related diseases, the detection of thrombin is of practical importance. Thus, this study developed a portable biosensor based on a personal glucometer for rapid detection of thrombin activity. Fibrinogen was used for the detection of thrombin, and the assay principle was inspired by the blood coagulation process, where thrombin hydrolyzes fibrinogen to produce a fibrin hydrogel, and the amount of invertase encapsulated in the fibrin hydrogel fluctuates in accordance with the activity of thrombin in the sample solution. The quantitative assay is conducted by measuring the amount of unencapsulated invertase available to hydrolyze the substrate sucrose, and the signal readout is recorded using a personal glucometer. A linear detection range of 0–0.8 U/mL of thrombin with a limit of detection of 0.04 U/mL was obtained based on the personal glucometer sensing platform. The results of the selectivity and interference experiments showed that the developed personal glucometer sensing platform is highly selective and accurate for thrombin activity. Finally, the reliability of the portable glucometer method for rapid thrombin detection in serum samples was investigated by measuring the recovery rate, which ranged from 92.8% to 107.7%. In summary, the fibrin hydrogel sensing platform proposed in this study offers a portable and versatile means for detecting thrombin using a personal glucometer. This approach not only simplifies the detection process, but also eliminates the need for large instruments and skilled operators, and substantially reduces detection costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzyme Biosensors: Challenges and Future Perspectives)
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28 pages, 5574 KiB  
Review
Double-Sided Tape in Microfluidics: A Cost-Effective Method in Device Fabrication
by Savanah Smith, Marzhan Sypabekova and Seunghyun Kim
Biosensors 2024, 14(5), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14050249 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 622
Abstract
The demand for easy-to-use, affordable, accessible, and reliable technology is increasing in biological, chemical, and medical research. Microfluidic devices have the potential to meet these standards by offering cost-effective, highly sensitive, and highly specific diagnostic tests with rapid performance and minimal sample volumes. [...] Read more.
The demand for easy-to-use, affordable, accessible, and reliable technology is increasing in biological, chemical, and medical research. Microfluidic devices have the potential to meet these standards by offering cost-effective, highly sensitive, and highly specific diagnostic tests with rapid performance and minimal sample volumes. Traditional microfluidic device fabrication methods, such as photolithography and soft lithography, are time-consuming and require specialized equipment and expertise, making them costly and less accessible to researchers and clinicians and limiting the applicability and potential of microfluidic devices. To address this, researchers have turned to using new low-cost materials, such as double-sided tape for microfluidic device fabrication, which offers simple and low-cost processes. The innovation of low-cost and easy-to-make microfluidic devices improves the potential for more devices to be transitioned from laboratories to commercialized products found in stores, offices, and homes. This review serves as a comprehensive summary of the growing interest in and use of double-sided tape-based microfluidic devices in the last 20 years. It discusses the advantages of using double-sided tape, the fabrication techniques used to create and bond microfluidic devices, and the limitations of this approach in certain applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microfluidics and MEMS for Diagnostics and Biomedical Applications)
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6 pages, 188 KiB  
Editorial
Advanced Functional Materials for Electrochemical and Biosensors
by Khursheed Ahmad
Biosensors 2024, 14(5), 248; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14050248 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 664
Abstract
Modern science and technology are central to the smooth running of daily life [...] Full article
16 pages, 14064 KiB  
Article
A Copper-Selective Sensor and Its Inhibition of Copper-Amyloid Beta Aggregation
by Ngoc Kim Nguyen, Bella Poduska, Mia Franks, Manoranjan Bera, Ian MacCormack, Guoxing Lin, Alexander P. Petroff, Samir Das and Arundhati Nag
Biosensors 2024, 14(5), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14050247 - 14 May 2024
Viewed by 589
Abstract
Copper is an essential trace metal for biological processes in humans and animals. A low level of copper detection at physiological pH using fluorescent probes is very important for in vitro applications, such as the detection of copper in water or urine, and [...] Read more.
Copper is an essential trace metal for biological processes in humans and animals. A low level of copper detection at physiological pH using fluorescent probes is very important for in vitro applications, such as the detection of copper in water or urine, and in vivo applications, such as tracking the dynamic copper concentrations inside cells. Copper homeostasis is disrupted in neurological diseases like Alzheimer’s disease, and copper forms aggregates with amyloid beta (Ab42) peptide, resulting in senile plaques in Alzheimer’s brains. Therefore, a selective copper detector probe that can detect amyloid beta peptide-copper aggregates and decrease the aggregate size has potential uses in medicine. We have developed a series of Cu2+-selective low fluorescent to high fluorescent tri and tetradentate dentate ligands and conjugated them with a peptide ligand to amyloid-beta binding peptide to increase the solubility of the compounds and make the resultant compounds bind to Cu2+–amyloid aggregates. The copper selective compounds were developed using chemical scaffolds known to have high affinity and selectivity for Cu2+, and their conjugates with peptides were tested for affinity and selectivity towards Cu2+. The test results were used to inform further improvement of the next compound. The final Cu2+ chelator–peptide conjugate we developed showed high selectivity for Cu2+ and high fluorescence properties. The compound bound 1:1 to Cu2+ ion, as determined from its Job’s plot. Fluorescence of the ligand could be detected at nanomolar concentrations. The effect of this ligand on controlling Cu2+–Ab42 aggregation was studied using fluorescence assays and microscopy. It was found that the Cu2+–chelator–peptide conjugate efficiently reduced aggregate size and, therefore, acted as an inhibitor of Ab42-Cu2+ aggregation. Since high micromolar concentrations of Cu2+ are present in senile plaques, and Cu2+ accelerates the formation of toxic soluble aggregates of Ab42, which are precursors of insoluble plaques, the developed hybrid molecule can potentially serve as a therapeutic for Alzheimer’s disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorescent Sensors for Biological Applications)
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16 pages, 2224 KiB  
Article
Highly Sensitive Whole-Cell Mercury Biosensors for Environmental Monitoring
by Dahlin Zevallos-Aliaga, Stijn De Graeve, Pamela Obando-Chávez, Nicolás A. Vaccari, Yue Gao, Tom Peeters and Daniel G. Guerra
Biosensors 2024, 14(5), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14050246 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 805
Abstract
Whole-cell biosensors could serve as eco-friendly and cost-effective alternatives for detecting potentially toxic bioavailable heavy metals in aquatic environments. However, they often fail to meet practical requirements due to an insufficient limit of detection (LOD) and high background noise. In this study, we [...] Read more.
Whole-cell biosensors could serve as eco-friendly and cost-effective alternatives for detecting potentially toxic bioavailable heavy metals in aquatic environments. However, they often fail to meet practical requirements due to an insufficient limit of detection (LOD) and high background noise. In this study, we designed a synthetic genetic circuit specifically tailored for detecting ionic mercury, which we applied to environmental samples collected from artisanal gold mining sites in Peru. We developed two distinct versions of the biosensor, each utilizing a different reporter protein: a fluorescent biosensor (Mer-RFP) and a colorimetric biosensor (Mer-Blue). Mer-RFP enabled real-time monitoring of the culture’s response to mercury samples using a plate reader, whereas Mer-Blue was analysed for colour accumulation at the endpoint using a specially designed, low-cost camera setup for harvested cell pellets. Both biosensors exhibited negligible baseline expression of their respective reporter proteins and responded specifically to HgBr2 in pure water. Mer-RFP demonstrated a linear detection range from 1 nM to 1 μM, whereas Mer-Blue showed a linear range from 2 nM to 125 nM. Our biosensors successfully detected a high concentration of ionic mercury in the reaction bucket where artisanal miners produce a mercury–gold amalgam. However, they did not detect ionic mercury in the water from active mining ponds, indicating a concentration lower than 3.2 nM Hg2+—a result consistent with chemical analysis quantitation. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of Mer-Blue as a practical and affordable monitoring tool, highlighting its stability, reliance on simple visual colorimetry, and the possibility of sensitivity expansion to organic mercury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Biosensors for Food Safety and Environmental Monitoring)
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15 pages, 3756 KiB  
Article
A Fast and Sensitive One-Tube SARS-CoV-2 Detection Platform Based on RTX-PCR and Pyrococcus furiosus Argonaute
by Rui Han, Fei Wang, Wanping Chen and Lixin Ma
Biosensors 2024, 14(5), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14050245 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 607
Abstract
Since SARS-CoV-2 is a highly transmissible virus, alternative reliable, fast, and cost-effective methods are still needed to prevent virus spread that can be applied in the laboratory and for point-of-care testing. Reverse transcription real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is currently the gold criteria [...] Read more.
Since SARS-CoV-2 is a highly transmissible virus, alternative reliable, fast, and cost-effective methods are still needed to prevent virus spread that can be applied in the laboratory and for point-of-care testing. Reverse transcription real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is currently the gold criteria for detecting RNA viruses, which requires reverse transcriptase to reverse transcribe viral RNA into cDNA, and fluorescence quantitative PCR detection was subsequently performed. The frequently used reverse transcriptase is thermolabile; the detection process is composed of two steps: the reverse transcription reaction at a relatively low temperature, and the qPCR performed at a relatively high temperature, moreover, the RNA to be detected needs to pretreated if they had advanced structure. Here, we develop a fast and sensitive one-tube SARS-CoV-2 detection platform based on Ultra-fast RTX-PCR and Pyrococcus furiosus Argonaute-mediated Nucleic acid Detection (PAND) technology (URPAND). URPAND was achieved ultra-fast RTX-PCR process based on a thermostable RTX (exo-) with both reverse transcriptase and DNA polymerase activity. The URPAND can be completed RT-PCR and PAND to detect nucleic acid in one tube within 30 min. This method can specifically detect SARS-CoV-2 with a low detection limit of 100 copies/mL. The diagnostic results of clinical samples with one-tube URPAND displayed 100% consistence with RT-qPCR test. Moreover, URPAND was also applied to identify SARS-CoV-2 D614G mutant due to its single-nucleotide specificity. The URPAND platform is rapid, accurate, tube closed, one-tube, easy-to-operate and free of large instruments, which provides a new strategy to the detection of SARS-CoV-2 and other RNA viruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunoassays and Biosensing)
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11 pages, 5385 KiB  
Communication
A Novel Indolium-Based Fluorescent Probe for Fast Detection of Cyanide
by Mei Ding, Xiao Xiao, Chen Zhou, Mingxin Luo and Jing Sun
Biosensors 2024, 14(5), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14050244 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 514
Abstract
A novel indolium-based fluorescent probe for the detection of CN was developed based on the conjugation of 1, 2, 3, 3-Tetramethyl-3H-indolium iodide and 2-acetyl benzothiophene. The introduction of external CN caused a nucleophilic attack to the quaternary amine salt structure in [...] Read more.
A novel indolium-based fluorescent probe for the detection of CN was developed based on the conjugation of 1, 2, 3, 3-Tetramethyl-3H-indolium iodide and 2-acetyl benzothiophene. The introduction of external CN caused a nucleophilic attack to the quaternary amine salt structure in the probe and resulted in the departure of iodide ions and the steric rotation of the index salt group, which caused fluorescence quenching. The titration experiments showed that the probe had rapid qualitative and quantitative analysis capabilities for CN. Moreover, the relevant biocompatibility experiments also demonstrated the potential application value of the probe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-Biosensors for Detection and Monitoring (Volume II))
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21 pages, 7045 KiB  
Article
Fabrication of Multiple-Channel Electrochemical Microneedle Electrode Array via Separated Functionalization and Assembly Method
by Xin-Shuo Huang, Shuang Huang, Shan-Tao Zheng, Bao-Ming Liang, Tao Zhang, Wan Yue, Fan-Mao Liu, Peng Shi, Xi Xie and Hui-Jiuan Chen
Biosensors 2024, 14(5), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14050243 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 714
Abstract
Real-time monitoring of physiological indicators inside the body is pivotal for contemporary diagnostics and treatments. Implantable electrodes can not only track specific biomarkers but also facilitate therapeutic interventions. By modifying biometric components, implantable electrodes enable in situ metabolite detection in living tissues, notably [...] Read more.
Real-time monitoring of physiological indicators inside the body is pivotal for contemporary diagnostics and treatments. Implantable electrodes can not only track specific biomarkers but also facilitate therapeutic interventions. By modifying biometric components, implantable electrodes enable in situ metabolite detection in living tissues, notably beneficial in invasive glucose monitoring, which effectively alleviates the self-blood-glucose-managing burden for patients. However, the development of implantable electrochemical electrodes, especially multi-channel sensing devices, still faces challenges: (1) The complexity of direct preparation hinders functionalized or multi-parameter sensing on a small scale. (2) The fine structure of individual electrodes results in low spatial resolution for sensor functionalization. (3) There is limited conductivity due to simple device structures and weakly conductive electrode materials (such as silicon or polymers). To address these challenges, we developed multiple-channel electrochemical microneedle electrode arrays (MCEMEAs) via a separated functionalization and assembly process. Two-dimensional microneedle (2dMN)-based and one-dimensional microneedle (1dMN)-based electrodes were prepared by laser patterning, which were then modified as sensing electrodes by electrochemical deposition and glucose oxidase decoration to achieve separated functionalization and reduce mutual interference. The electrodes were then assembled into 2dMN- and 1dMN-based multi-channel electrochemical arrays (MCEAs), respectively, to avoid damaging functionalized coatings. In vitro and in vivo results demonstrated that the as-prepared MCEAs exhibit excellent transdermal capability, detection sensitivity, selectivity, and reproducibility, which was capable of real-time, in situ glucose concentration monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Microneedle Array Electrodes in Biomedicine)
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13 pages, 2097 KiB  
Article
Microfluidic Electroporation Arrays for Investigating Electroporation-Induced Cellular Rupture Dynamics
by Insu Park, Seungyeop Choi, Youngwoo Gwak, Jingwon Kim, Gyeongjun Min, Danyou Lim and Sang Woo Lee
Biosensors 2024, 14(5), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14050242 - 11 May 2024
Viewed by 601
Abstract
Electroporation is pivotal in bioelectrochemistry for cellular manipulation, with prominent applications in drug delivery and cell membrane studies. A comprehensive understanding of pore generation requires an in-depth analysis of the critical pore size and the corresponding energy barrier at the onset of cell [...] Read more.
Electroporation is pivotal in bioelectrochemistry for cellular manipulation, with prominent applications in drug delivery and cell membrane studies. A comprehensive understanding of pore generation requires an in-depth analysis of the critical pore size and the corresponding energy barrier at the onset of cell rupture. However, many studies have been limited to basic models such as artificial membranes or theoretical simulations. Challenging this paradigm, our study pioneers using a microfluidic electroporation chip array. This tool subjects live breast cancer cell species to a diverse spectrum of alternating current electric field conditions, driving electroporation-induced cell rupture. We conclusively determined the rupture voltages across varying applied voltage loading rates, enabling an unprecedented characterization of electric cell rupture dynamics encompassing critical pore radius and energy barrier. Further bolstering our investigation, we probed cells subjected to cholesterol depletion via methyl-β-cyclodextrin and revealed a strong correlation with electroporation. This work not only elucidates the dynamics of electric rupture in live cell membranes but also sets a robust foundation for future explorations into the mechanisms and energetics of live cell electroporation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensor and Bioelectronic Devices)
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19 pages, 7445 KiB  
Article
Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy for Ion Sensors with Interdigitated Electrodes: Capacitance Calculations, Equivalent Circuit Models and Design Optimizations
by Eva-Maria Korek, Reva Teotia, David Herbig and Ralf Brederlow
Biosensors 2024, 14(5), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14050241 - 10 May 2024
Viewed by 516
Abstract
Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is becoming more and more relevant for the characterization of biosensors employing interdigitated electrodes. We compare four different sensor topologies for an exemplary use case of ion sensing to extract recommendations for the design optimizations of impedimetric biosensors. Therefore, [...] Read more.
Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is becoming more and more relevant for the characterization of biosensors employing interdigitated electrodes. We compare four different sensor topologies for an exemplary use case of ion sensing to extract recommendations for the design optimizations of impedimetric biosensors. Therefore, we first extract how sensor design parameters affect the sensor capacitance using analytical calculations and finite element (FEM) simulations. Moreover, we develop equivalent circuit models for our sensor topologies and validate them using FEM simulations. As a result, the impedimetric sensor response is better understood, and sensitive and selective frequency ranges can be determined for a given sensor topology. From this, we extract design optimizations for different sensing principles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and Its Sensing Applications)
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12 pages, 2287 KiB  
Article
Highly Sensitive Qualitative and Quantitative Identification of Cashmere and Wool Based on Terahertz Electromagnetically Induced Transparent Metasurface Biosensor
by Dongpeng Luo, Limin Xu, Lifeng Jia, Lianglun Cheng, Ping Tang and Jinyun Zhou
Biosensors 2024, 14(5), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14050240 - 10 May 2024
Viewed by 554
Abstract
Cashmere and wool are both natural animal fibers used in the textile industry, but cashmere is of superior quality, is rarer, and more precious. It is therefore important to distinguish the two fibers accurately and effectively. However, challenges due to their similar appearance, [...] Read more.
Cashmere and wool are both natural animal fibers used in the textile industry, but cashmere is of superior quality, is rarer, and more precious. It is therefore important to distinguish the two fibers accurately and effectively. However, challenges due to their similar appearance, morphology, and physical and chemical properties remain. Herein, a terahertz electromagnetic inductive transparency (EIT) metasurface biosensor is introduced for qualitative and quantitative identification of cashmere and wool. The periodic unit structure of the metasurface consists of four rotationally symmetric resonators and two cross−arranged metal secants to form toroidal dipoles and electric dipoles, respectively, so that its effective sensing area can be greatly improved by 1075% compared to the traditional dipole mode, and the sensitivity will be up to 342 GHz/RIU. The amplitude and frequency shift changes of the terahertz transmission spectra caused by the different refractive indices of cashmere/wool can achieve highly sensitive label−free qualitative and quantitative identification of both. The experimental results show that the terahertz metasurface biosensor can work at a concentration of 0.02 mg/mL. It provides a new way to achieve high sensitivity, precision, and trace detection of cashmere/wool, and would be a valuable application for the cashmere industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials for Biosensing Applications)
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16 pages, 6741 KiB  
Article
Targeted Formation of Biofilms on the Surface of Graphite Electrodes as an Effective Approach to the Development of Biosensors for Early Warning Systems
by Anna Kharkova, Roman Perchikov, Saniyat Kurbanalieva, Kristina Osina, Nadezhda Popova, Andrey Machulin, Olga Kamanina, Evgeniya Saverina, Ivan Saltanov, Sergey Melenkov, Denis Butusov and Vyacheslav Arlyapov
Biosensors 2024, 14(5), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14050239 - 9 May 2024
Viewed by 1018
Abstract
Biofilms based on bacteria Pseudomonas veronii (Ps. veronii) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) and yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) were used for novel biosensor creation for rapid biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) monitoring. Based on the electrochemical measurement [...] Read more.
Biofilms based on bacteria Pseudomonas veronii (Ps. veronii) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) and yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) were used for novel biosensor creation for rapid biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) monitoring. Based on the electrochemical measurement results, it was shown that the endogenous mediator in the matrix of E. coli and Ps. veronii biofilms and ferrocene form a two-mediator system that improves electron transport in the system. Biofilms based on Ps. veronii and E. coli had a high biotechnological potential for BOD assessment; bioreceptors based on such biofilms had high sensitivity (the lower limits of detectable BOD5 concentrations were 0.61 (Ps. veronii) and 0.87 (E. coli) mg/dm3) and high efficiency of analysis (a measurement time 5–10 min). The maximum biosensor response based on bacterial biofilms has been observed in the pH range of 6.6–7.2. The greatest protective effect was found for biofilms based on E. coli, which has high long-term stability (151 days for Ps. veronii and 163 days for E. coli). The results of the BOD5 analysis of water samples obtained using the developed biosensors had a high correlation with the results of the standard 5-day method (R2 = 0.9820, number of tested samples is 10 for Ps. veronii, and R2 = 0.9862, number of tested samples is 10 for E. coli). Thus, biosensors based on Ps. veronii biofilms and E. coli biofilms could be a novel analytical system to give early warnings of pollution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell-Based Biosensors for Rapid Detection and Monitoring)
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31 pages, 19617 KiB  
Review
Nanostructured Metal Oxide-Based Electrochemical Biosensors in Medical Diagnosis
by Gulsu Keles, Elif Sifa Ataman, Sueda Betul Taskin, İlker Polatoglu and Sevinc Kurbanoglu
Biosensors 2024, 14(5), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14050238 - 9 May 2024
Viewed by 655
Abstract
Nanostructured metal oxides (NMOs) provide electrical properties such as high surface-to-volume ratio, reaction activity, and good adsorption strength. Furthermore, they serve as a conductive substrate for the immobilization of biomolecules, exhibiting notable biological activity. Capitalizing on these characteristics, they find utility in the [...] Read more.
Nanostructured metal oxides (NMOs) provide electrical properties such as high surface-to-volume ratio, reaction activity, and good adsorption strength. Furthermore, they serve as a conductive substrate for the immobilization of biomolecules, exhibiting notable biological activity. Capitalizing on these characteristics, they find utility in the development of various electrochemical biosensing devices, elevating the sensitivity and selectivity of such diagnostic platforms. In this review, different types of NMOs, including zinc oxide (ZnO), titanium dioxide (TiO2), iron (II, III) oxide (Fe3O4), nickel oxide (NiO), and copper oxide (CuO); their synthesis methods; and how they can be integrated into biosensors used for medical diagnosis are examined. It also includes a detailed table for the last 10 years covering the morphologies, analysis techniques, analytes, and analytical performances of electrochemical biosensors developed for medical diagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Enzyme-Based Biosensors)
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18 pages, 10221 KiB  
Article
Development of a DC-Biased AC-Stimulated Microfluidic Device for the Electrokinetic Separation of Bacterial and Yeast Cells
by Nuzhet Nihaar Nasir Ahamed, Carlos A. Mendiola-Escobedo, Victor H. Perez-Gonzalez and Blanca H. Lapizco-Encinas
Biosensors 2024, 14(5), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14050237 - 9 May 2024
Viewed by 594
Abstract
Electrokinetic (EK) microsystems, which are capable of performing separations without the need for labeling analytes, are a rapidly growing area in microfluidics. The present work demonstrated three distinct binary microbial separations, computationally modeled and experimentally performed, in an insulator-based EK (iEK) system stimulated [...] Read more.
Electrokinetic (EK) microsystems, which are capable of performing separations without the need for labeling analytes, are a rapidly growing area in microfluidics. The present work demonstrated three distinct binary microbial separations, computationally modeled and experimentally performed, in an insulator-based EK (iEK) system stimulated by DC-biased AC potentials. The separations had an increasing order of difficulty. First, a separation between cells of two distinct domains (Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was demonstrated. The second separation was for cells from the same domain but different species (Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus). The last separation included cells from two closely related microbial strains of the same domain and the same species (two distinct S. cerevisiae strains). For each separation, a novel computational model, employing a continuous spatial and temporal function for predicting the particle velocity, was used to predict the retention time (tR,p) of each cell type, which aided the experimentation. All three cases resulted in separation resolution values Rs>1.5, indicating complete separation between the two cell species, with good reproducibility between the experimental repetitions (deviations < 6%) and good agreement (deviations < 18%) between the predicted tR,p and experimental (tR,e) retention time values. This study demonstrated the potential of DC-biased AC iEK systems for performing challenging microbial separations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Microfluidic Devices and Lab-on-Chip (Bio)sensors)
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24 pages, 13029 KiB  
Review
DNA-Based Molecular Machines: Controlling Mechanisms and Biosensing Applications
by Chunran Ma, Shiquan Li, Yuqi Zeng and Yifan Lyu
Biosensors 2024, 14(5), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14050236 - 8 May 2024
Viewed by 574
Abstract
The rise of DNA nanotechnology has driven the development of DNA-based molecular machines, which are capable of performing specific operations and tasks at the nanoscale. Benefitting from the programmability of DNA molecules and the predictability of DNA hybridization and strand displacement, DNA-based molecular [...] Read more.
The rise of DNA nanotechnology has driven the development of DNA-based molecular machines, which are capable of performing specific operations and tasks at the nanoscale. Benefitting from the programmability of DNA molecules and the predictability of DNA hybridization and strand displacement, DNA-based molecular machines can be designed with various structures and dynamic behaviors and have been implemented for wide applications in the field of biosensing due to their unique advantages. This review summarizes the reported controlling mechanisms of DNA-based molecular machines and introduces biosensing applications of DNA-based molecular machines in amplified detection, multiplex detection, real-time monitoring, spatial recognition detection, and single-molecule detection of biomarkers. The challenges and future directions of DNA-based molecular machines in biosensing are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA Molecular Engineering-Based Biosensors)
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20 pages, 34758 KiB  
Review
Biosensing of Alpha-Fetoprotein: A Key Direction toward the Early Detection and Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
by Lohit Ramachandran, Farah Abul Rub, Amro Hajja, Ibrahim Alodhaibi, Momo Arai, Mohammed Alfuwais, Tariq Makhzoum, Ahmed Yaqinuddin, Khaled Al-Kattan, Abdullah M. Assiri, Dieter C. Broering, Raja Chinnappan, Tanveer Ahmad Mir and Naresh Kumar Mani
Biosensors 2024, 14(5), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14050235 - 8 May 2024
Viewed by 820
Abstract
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is currently one of the most prevalent cancers worldwide. Associated risk factors include, but are not limited to, cirrhosis and underlying liver diseases, including chronic hepatitis B or C infections, excessive alcohol consumption, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and exposure [...] Read more.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is currently one of the most prevalent cancers worldwide. Associated risk factors include, but are not limited to, cirrhosis and underlying liver diseases, including chronic hepatitis B or C infections, excessive alcohol consumption, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and exposure to chemical carcinogens. It is crucial to detect this disease early on before it metastasizes to adjoining parts of the body, worsening the prognosis. Serum biomarkers have proven to be a more accurate diagnostic tool compared to imaging. Among various markers such as nucleic acids, circulating genetic material, proteins, enzymes, and other metabolites, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a protein marker primarily used to diagnose HCC. However, current methods need a large sample and carry a high cost, among other challenges, which can be improved using biosensing technology. Early and accurate detection of AFP can prevent severe progression of the disease and ensure better management of HCC patients. This review sheds light on HCC development in the human body. Afterward, we outline various types of biosensors (optical, electrochemical, and mass-based), as well as the most relevant studies of biosensing modalities for non-invasive monitoring of AFP. The review also explains these sensing platforms, detection substrates, surface modification agents, and fluorescent probes used to develop such biosensors. Finally, the challenges and future trends in routine clinical analysis are discussed to motivate further developments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors for Determination of Protein Biomarkers)
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12 pages, 2570 KiB  
Communication
The Development of a Specific Nanofiber Bioreceptor for Detection of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus from Air
by Leontýna Varvařovská, Petr Kudrna, Bruno Sopko and Taťána Jarošíková
Biosensors 2024, 14(5), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14050234 - 8 May 2024
Viewed by 576
Abstract
Polluted air and the presence of numerous airborne pathogens affect our daily lives. The sensitive and fast detection of pollutants and pathogens is crucial for environmental monitoring and effective medical diagnostics. Compared to conventional detection methods (PCR, ELISA, metabolic tests, etc.), biosensors bring [...] Read more.
Polluted air and the presence of numerous airborne pathogens affect our daily lives. The sensitive and fast detection of pollutants and pathogens is crucial for environmental monitoring and effective medical diagnostics. Compared to conventional detection methods (PCR, ELISA, metabolic tests, etc.), biosensors bring a very attractive possibility to detect chemicals and organic particles with the mentioned reliability and sensitivity in real time. Moreover, by integrating nanomaterials into the biosensor structure, it is possible to increase the sensitivity and specificity of the device significantly. However, air quality monitoring could be more problematic even with such devices. The greatest challenge with conservative and sensing methods for detecting organic matter such as bacteria is the need to use liquid samples, which slows down the detection procedure and makes it more difficult. In this work, we present the development of a polyacrylonitrile nanofiber bioreceptor functionalized with antibodies against bacterial antigens for the specific interception of bacterial cells directly from the air. We tested the presented novel nanofiber bioreceptor using a unique air filtration system we had previously created. The prepared antibody-functionalized nanofiber membranes for air filtration and pathogen detection (with model organisms E. coli and S. aureus) show a statistically significant increase in bacterial interception compared to unmodified nanofibers. Creating such a bioreceptor could lead to the development of an inexpensive, fast, sensitive, and incredibly selective bionanosensor for detecting bacterial polluted air in commercial premises or medical facilities. Full article
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15 pages, 2447 KiB  
Article
APPROACH: Sensitive Detection of Exosomal Biomarkers by Aptamer-Mediated Proximity Ligation Assay and Time-Resolved Förster Resonance Energy Transfer
by Ying Li, Meiqi Qian, Yongpeng Liu and Xue Qiu
Biosensors 2024, 14(5), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14050233 - 8 May 2024
Viewed by 751
Abstract
Exosomal biomarker detection holds great importance in the field of in vitro diagnostics, offering a non-invasive and highly sensitive approach for early disease detection and personalized treatment. Here, we proposed an “APPROACH” strategy, combining aptamer-mediated proximity ligation assay (PLA) with rolling circle amplification [...] Read more.
Exosomal biomarker detection holds great importance in the field of in vitro diagnostics, offering a non-invasive and highly sensitive approach for early disease detection and personalized treatment. Here, we proposed an “APPROACH” strategy, combining aptamer-mediated proximity ligation assay (PLA) with rolling circle amplification (RCA) and time-resolved Förster resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) for the sensitive and semi-homogenous detection of exosomal biomarkers. PLA probes consisted of a cholesterol-conjugated oligonucleotide, which anchored to the membrane of an exosome, and a specific aptamer oligonucleotide that recognized a target protein of the exosome; the proximal binding of pairs of PLA probes to the same exosome positioned the oligonucleotides in the vicinity of each other, guiding the hybridization and ligation of two subsequently added backbone and connector oligonucleotides to form a circular DNA molecule. Circular DNA formed from PLA underwent rolling circle amplification (RCA) for signal amplification, and the resulting RCA products were subsequently quantified by TR-FRET. The limits of detection provided by APPROACH for the exosomal biomarkers CD63, PD-L1, and HER2 were 0.46 ng∙μL−1, 0.77 ng∙μL−1, and 1.1 ng∙μL−1, respectively, demonstrating excellent analytical performance with high sensitivity and quantification accuracy. Furthermore, the strategy afforded sensitive detection of exosomal CD63 with a LOD of 1.56 ng∙μL−1 in complex biological matrices, which underscored its anti-interference capability and potential for in vitro detection. The proposed strategy demonstrates wide-ranging applicability in quantifying diverse exosomal biomarkers while exhibiting robust analytical characteristics, including high sensitivity and accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Single-Molecule Biosensing: Recent Advances and Future Challenges)
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10 pages, 1838 KiB  
Communication
Catalytic Hairpin Assembly-Based Self-Ratiometric Gel Electrophoresis Detection Platform for Reliable Nucleic Acid Analysis
by Qiang Xi, Si-Yi Wang, Xiao-Bing Deng and Chong-Hua Zhang
Biosensors 2024, 14(5), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14050232 - 7 May 2024
Viewed by 573
Abstract
The development of gel electrophoresis-based biodetection assays for point-of-care analysis are highly demanding. In this work, we proposed a ratiometric gel electrophoresis-based biosensing platform by employing catalytic hairpin assembly (CHA) process functions as both the signal output and the signal amplification module. Two [...] Read more.
The development of gel electrophoresis-based biodetection assays for point-of-care analysis are highly demanding. In this work, we proposed a ratiometric gel electrophoresis-based biosensing platform by employing catalytic hairpin assembly (CHA) process functions as both the signal output and the signal amplification module. Two types of nucleic acids, DNA and miRNA, are chosen for demonstration. The proposed strategy indeed provides a new paradigm for the design of a portable detection platform and may hold great potential for sensitive diagnoses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarker Biosensing: Analysis and Detection)
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17 pages, 3253 KiB  
Article
Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 Virus via Fiber-Optic and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Based Aptasensors
by Can Xiao, Nan Wang, Yuechao Zhao, Xuemei Liu, Hui Li, Aixue Huang, Lin Wang, Xinhui Lou, Bo Gao and Ningsheng Shao
Biosensors 2024, 14(5), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14050231 - 7 May 2024
Viewed by 628
Abstract
The development of rapid detection tools for viruses is vital for the prevention of pandemics and biothreats. Aptamers that target inactivated viruses are attractive for sensors due to their improved biosafety. Here, we evaluated a DNA aptamer (named as 6.9) that specifically binds [...] Read more.
The development of rapid detection tools for viruses is vital for the prevention of pandemics and biothreats. Aptamers that target inactivated viruses are attractive for sensors due to their improved biosafety. Here, we evaluated a DNA aptamer (named as 6.9) that specifically binds to the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 virus with a low dissociation constant (KD = 9.6 nM) for the first time. Based on aptamer 6.9, we developed a fiber-optic evanescent wave (FOEW) biosensor. Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 and the Cy5.5-tagged short complementary strand competitively bound with the aptamer immobilized on the surface of the sensor. The detection of the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 virus was realized within six minutes with a limit of detection (LOD, S/N = 3) of 740 fg/mL. We also developed an electrochemical impedance aptasensor which exhibited an LOD of 5.1 fg/mL and high specificity. We further demonstrated that the LODs of the FOEW and electrochemical impedance aptasensors were, respectively, more than 1000 and 100,000 times lower than those of commercial colloidal gold test strips. We foresee that the facile aptamer isolation process and sensor design can be easily extended for the detection of other inactivated viruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors and Healthcare)
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