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Nanomaterials, Volume 9, Issue 10 (October 2019) – 160 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The luminescence of gold thiolate clusters brings about many potential applications, but its origin is still elusive because of its complexity. A strategy in understanding the structure–properties relationship is to study the closely related neutral gold thiolate coordination polymers (CPs). Here, a new CP is reported, [Au(m-SPhCO2H)]n. Its structure is lamellar with an inorganic layer made of Au–S–Au–S helical chains, separated by non-interpenetrated organic layers. It is a bright yellow phosphorescent emitter with a band at 615 nm and a quantum yield of 19 % at room temperature and in a solid state. In addition, crystallites of this CP were mixed with organic polymers to generate transparent and flexible luminescent thin films. The ability to tune the emission position with the appropriate contents makes these nontoxic polymer composites promising materials for lighting devices. View [...] Read more.
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Article
Synthesis of Green Recyclable Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanomaterials Coated by Hydrophobic Plant Extracts for Efficient Collection of Oil Spills
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(10), 1505; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101505 - 22 Oct 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1019
Abstract
A facile method for synthesis of environmentally friendly magnetite nanomaterials (MNMs) was applied using hydrophobic biocomponents as capping and stabilizing agents. The biocomponents were extracted from Matricaria aurea (MAE) and Ochradenus baccatus (OBE) and used for the surface modification of MNMs to increase [...] Read more.
A facile method for synthesis of environmentally friendly magnetite nanomaterials (MNMs) was applied using hydrophobic biocomponents as capping and stabilizing agents. The biocomponents were extracted from Matricaria aurea (MAE) and Ochradenus baccatus (OBE) and used for the surface modification of MNMs to increase their dispersion efficiency on the collection of heavy crude oil spills. Synthesized MNM samples (MAE-MNMs and OBE-MNMs) were verified using thermogravimetric analysis; Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy; transmission electron microscopy; dynamic light scattering, and vibrating-sample magnetometry. The application of these nanomaterials in the collection of oil spill showed that the MAE-MNMs and OBE-MNMs successfully collected 95% and 91% of the oil spill, respectively. These results support the potential use of these materials as eco-friendly composites for the successful collection of oil spills that might occur during offshore operations. Full article
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Article
Electrodeposition of Nanoparticles and Continuous Film of CdSe on n-Si (100)
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(10), 1504; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101504 - 22 Oct 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1339
Abstract
CdSe electrodeposition on n-Si (100) substrate was investigated in sulfuric acid solution. The behaviour and the deposition of the precursors (Cd and Se) were studied separately at first. Then, we explored both the alternated deposition, one layer by one, as well as the [...] Read more.
CdSe electrodeposition on n-Si (100) substrate was investigated in sulfuric acid solution. The behaviour and the deposition of the precursors (Cd and Se) were studied separately at first. Then, we explored both the alternated deposition, one layer by one, as well as the simultaneous co-deposition of the two elements to form the CdSe semiconductor. Varying the deposition conditions, we were able to obtain nanoparticles, or a thin film, on the surface of the electrode. The samples were then characterised microscopically and spectroscopically with SEM, XRD and XPS. Finally, we evaluated the induced photoemission of the deposit for the application in optoelectronics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials Based on IV-Group Semiconductors)
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Article
Core-Shell Heterostructured and Visible-Light-Driven Titanoniobate/TiO2 Composite for Boosting Photodegradation Performance
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(10), 1503; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101503 - 22 Oct 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1121
Abstract
Herein, we report a one-dimensional (1D) S-doped K3Ti5NbO14@TiO2 (STNT) core-shell heterostructured composite with an enhanced photocatalytic degradation activity under visible light, which was prepared by a simple reassembly-calcination method using thiourea as the S source. The [...] Read more.
Herein, we report a one-dimensional (1D) S-doped K3Ti5NbO14@TiO2 (STNT) core-shell heterostructured composite with an enhanced photocatalytic degradation activity under visible light, which was prepared by a simple reassembly-calcination method using thiourea as the S source. The anisotropically shaped rods are favorable for the rapid transport of photogenerated charge carriers. The substitution of Ti4+ by S6+ is primarily incorporated into the lattice of the TiO2 shell so as to create an intra-band-gap state below the conduction band (CB) position, giving rise to Ti−O−S bonds and thus the visible light response. The presence of electron-deficient S atoms is of benefit to the decreased recombination rate of photogenerated electrons and holes by capturing electrons (e). Meanwhile, a tight close interface between K3Ti5NbO14 and TiO2 was formed to achieve a nano-heterojunction structure, leading to the fostered separation of its interfacial photogenerated electrons and holes. The visible-light-driven photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) by STNT composites is higher than that by pure K3Ti5NbO14, owing to the synergistic effects of S doping and heterojunction. A possible photocatalytic mechanism was proposed with a reasonable discussion. This work may provide an insight into constructing highly efficient core-shell photocatalysts used toward sustainable environmental remediation and resource shortages. Full article
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Article
Mesoporous Tungsten Trioxide Photoanodes Modified with Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Quantum Dots for Enhanced Oxygen Evolution Photo-Reaction
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(10), 1502; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101502 - 22 Oct 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1289
Abstract
Nanostructured photoanodes are attractive materials for hydrogen production via water photo-electrolysis process. This study focused on the incorporation of carbon quantum dots doped with nitrogen as a photosensitizer into mesoporous tungsten trioxide photoanodes (N-CQD/meso-WO3) using a surfactant self-assembly [...] Read more.
Nanostructured photoanodes are attractive materials for hydrogen production via water photo-electrolysis process. This study focused on the incorporation of carbon quantum dots doped with nitrogen as a photosensitizer into mesoporous tungsten trioxide photoanodes (N-CQD/meso-WO3) using a surfactant self-assembly template approach. The crystal structure, composition, and morphology of pure and N-CQD- modified mesoporous WO3 photoanodes were investigated using scanning electron and transmission microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Due to their high surface area, enhanced optical absorption, and charge-carrier separation and transfer, the resulting N-CQD/meso-WO3 photoanodes exhibited a significantly enhanced photocurrent density of 1.45 mA cm−2 at 1.23 V vs. RHE under AM 1.5 G illumination in 0.5 M Na2SO4 without any co-catalysts or sacrificial reagent, which was about 2.23 times greater than its corresponding pure meso-WO3. Moreover, the oxygen evolution onset potential of the N-CQD/meso-WO3 photoanodes exhibited a negative shift of 95 mV, signifying that both the charge-carrier separation and transfer processes were promoted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructured Catalysts for Sustainable Applications)
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Review
Applications of Carbon Nanotubes in Bone Tissue Regeneration and Engineering: Superiority, Concerns, Current Advancements, and Prospects
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(10), 1501; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101501 - 22 Oct 2019
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 2364
Abstract
With advances in bone tissue regeneration and engineering technology, various biomaterials as artificial bone substitutes have been widely developed and innovated for the treatment of bone defects or diseases. However, there are no available natural and synthetic biomaterials replicating the natural bone structure [...] Read more.
With advances in bone tissue regeneration and engineering technology, various biomaterials as artificial bone substitutes have been widely developed and innovated for the treatment of bone defects or diseases. However, there are no available natural and synthetic biomaterials replicating the natural bone structure and properties under physiological conditions. The characteristic properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) make them an ideal candidate for developing innovative biomimetic materials in the bone biomedical field. Indeed, CNT-based materials and their composites possess the promising potential to revolutionize the design and integration of bone scaffolds or implants, as well as drug therapeutic systems. This review summarizes the unique physicochemical and biomedical properties of CNTs as structural biomaterials and reinforcing agents for bone repair as well as provides coverage of recent concerns and advancements in CNT-based materials and composites for bone tissue regeneration and engineering. Moreover, this review discusses the research progress in the design and development of novel CNT-based delivery systems in the field of bone tissue engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Nanomaterials for Bone Regeneration)
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Article
Facile Synthesis of Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Dots from Lignocellulosic Waste
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(10), 1500; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101500 - 22 Oct 2019
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 1705
Abstract
The current research mainly focuses on transforming low-quality waste into value-added nanomaterials and investigating various ways of utilising them. The hydrothermal preparation of highly fluorescent N-doped carbon dots (N–CDs) was obtained from the carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) of oil palm empty fruit bunches and linear-structured [...] Read more.
The current research mainly focuses on transforming low-quality waste into value-added nanomaterials and investigating various ways of utilising them. The hydrothermal preparation of highly fluorescent N-doped carbon dots (N–CDs) was obtained from the carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) of oil palm empty fruit bunches and linear-structured polyethyleneimines (LPEI). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis showed that the obtained N–CDs had an average size of 3.4 nm. The N–CDs were monodispersed in aqueous solution and were strongly fluorescent under the irradiation of ultra-violet light. A detailed description of the morphology and shape was established using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was shown that LPEI were successfully tuned the fluorescence (PL) properties of CDs in both the intrinsic and surface electronic structures, and enhanced the quantum yield (QY) up to 44%. The obtained N–CDs exhibited remarkable PL stability, long lifetime and pH-dependence behaviour, with the excitation/emission maxima of 350/465.5 nm. Impressively, PL enhancement and blue-shifted emission could be seen with the dilution of the original N–CDs solution. The obtained N–CDs were further applied as fluorescent probe for the identification of Cu2+ in aqueous media. The mechanism could be attributed to the particularly high thermodynamic affinity of Cu2+ for the N-chelate groups over the surface of N–CDs and the fast metal-to-ligand binding kinetics. The linear relationship between the relative quenching rate and the concentration of Cu2+ were applied between 1–30 µM, with a detection limit of 0.93 µM. The fluorescent probe was successfully applied for the detection of Cu2+ in real water. Moreover, a solid-state film of N–CDs was prepared in the presence of poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) polymer and found to be stable even after 72-h of continuous irradiation to UV-lamp. In contrast to the aqueous N–CDs, the composite film showed only an excitation independent property, with enhanced PL QY of around 47%. Due to the strong and stable emission nature of N–CDs in both aqueous and solid conditions, the obtained N–CDs are ideal for reducing the overall preparation costs and applying them for various biological and environmental applications in the future. Full article
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Article
A Way to Predict Gold Nanoparticles/Polymer Hybrid Microgel Agglomeration Based on Rheological Studies
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(10), 1499; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101499 - 21 Oct 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1083
Abstract
In this work, a detailed rheological study of hybrid poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) P(AAm-co-AAc) aqueous microgel dispersions is performed. Our intention is to understand how the presence of gold nanoparticles, AuNP, embedded within the microgel matrix, affects the viscoelastic properties, the [...] Read more.
In this work, a detailed rheological study of hybrid poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) P(AAm-co-AAc) aqueous microgel dispersions is performed. Our intention is to understand how the presence of gold nanoparticles, AuNP, embedded within the microgel matrix, affects the viscoelastic properties, the colloidal gel structure formation, and the structure recovery after cessation of the deformation of the aqueous microgel dispersions. Frequency sweep experiments confirmed that hybrid microgel dispersions present a gel-like behavior and that the presence of AuNP content within microgel matrix contributes to the elasticity of the microgel dispersions. Strain sweep test confirmed that hybrid microgels aqueous dispersion also form colloidal gel structures that break upon deformation but that can be recovered when the deformation decreases. The fractal analysis performed to hybrid microgels, by applying Shih et al. and Wu and Morbidelli’s scaling theories, evidenced that AuNP significantly affects the colloidal gel structure configuration ending up with the formation of agglomerates or microgel clusters with closer structures in comparison to the reference P(AAm-co-AAc) aqueous microgel dispersions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Biodegradable Nanocomposites)
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Article
The Preparation and Properties of Multilayer Cu-MTa2O5 Composite Coatings on Ti6Al4V for Biomedical Applications
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(10), 1498; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101498 - 21 Oct 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1086
Abstract
For the enhancement of the anticorrosion and antibacterial performance of the biomedical alloy Ti6Al4V, a novel Cu incorporated multilayer Ta2O5ceramic composite coating Cu-Ta2O5/Ta2O5/Ta2O5-TiO2/TiO2/Ti [...] Read more.
For the enhancement of the anticorrosion and antibacterial performance of the biomedical alloy Ti6Al4V, a novel Cu incorporated multilayer Ta2O5ceramic composite coating Cu-Ta2O5/Ta2O5/Ta2O5-TiO2/TiO2/Ti (coating codeCu-MTa2O5) was developed by radio frequency (RF) and direct current (DC) reactive magnetron sputtering. Meanwhile, to better display the multilayer Ta2O5 coating mentioned above, a monolayer Ta2O5 ceramic coating was deposited onto the surface of Ti6Al4V alloy as a reference. The surface morphology, microstructure, phase constituents, and elemental states of the coating were evaluated by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The adhesion strength, wettability, anticorrosion and antibacterial properties of the coating were examined by a scratch tester, contact angle measurement, electrochemical workstations, and plate counting method, respectively. The results showed that the deposited coatings were amorphous and hydrophobic. Cu doped into the Ta2O5 coating existed as CuO and Cu2O. A Ta2O5-TiO2/TiO2/Ti multi-interlayer massively enhanced the adhesion strength of the coating, which was 2.9 times stronger than that of the monolayer Ta2O5coating. The multilayer Cu-MTa2O5 coating revealed a higher corrosion potential and smaller corrosion current density as compared to the uncoated Ti6Al4V, indicating the better anticorrosion performance of Ti6Al4V. Moreover, a 99.8% antibacterial effect of Cu-MTa2O5 coated against Staphylococcus aureuswas obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Biocompatible Nanomaterials)
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Article
Experiment and Simulation of a Selective Subwavelength Filter with a Low Index Contrast
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(10), 1497; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101497 - 21 Oct 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1163
Abstract
Subwavelength gratings have been of great interest recently due to their ability to eliminate multiple orders. However, high index contrast (Δn3) is typically achieved using metals or high-index dielectrics surrounded by vacuum in order to maintain good optical [...] Read more.
Subwavelength gratings have been of great interest recently due to their ability to eliminate multiple orders. However, high index contrast ( Δ n 3 ) is typically achieved using metals or high-index dielectrics surrounded by vacuum in order to maintain good optical selectivity. Here, we theoretically propose and experimentally realize a selective subwavelength grating using an index contrast of Δ n 1.2 without vacuum. Despite its low index contrast, our simulation and experiments show that good optical selectivity is achieved using the same physics as subwavelength gratings made of high-index contrast. Such polymer-based encapsulated gratings are easier to scale up for use in large-area applications such as photovoltaics and lighting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design of Nanostructured Optic and Optoelectronic Devices)
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Article
Graphene-Based Biosensors for Detection of Composite Vibrational Fingerprints in the Mid-Infrared Region
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(10), 1496; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101496 - 20 Oct 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1260
Abstract
In this study, a label-free multi-resonant graphene-based biosensor with periodic graphene nanoribbons is proposed for detection of composite vibrational fingerprints in the mid-infrared range. The multiple vibrational signals of biomolecules are simultaneously enhanced and detected by different resonances in the transmission spectrum. Each [...] Read more.
In this study, a label-free multi-resonant graphene-based biosensor with periodic graphene nanoribbons is proposed for detection of composite vibrational fingerprints in the mid-infrared range. The multiple vibrational signals of biomolecules are simultaneously enhanced and detected by different resonances in the transmission spectrum. Each of the transmission dips can be independently tuned by altering the gating voltage applied on the corresponding graphene nanoribbon. Geometric parameters are investigated and optimized to obtain excellent sensing performance. Limit of detection is also evaluated in an approximation way. Besides, the biosensor can operate in a wide range of incident angles. Electric field intensity distributions are depicted to reveal the physical insight. Moreover, another biosensor based on periodic graphene nanodisks is further proposed, whose performance is insensitive to the polarization of incidence. Our research may have a potential for designing graphene-based biosensor used in many promising bioanalytical and pharmaceutical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasmonic Nanostructures and Related Applications)
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Article
Nanopillar Diffraction Gratings by Two-Photon Lithography
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(10), 1495; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101495 - 19 Oct 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1638
Abstract
Two-dimensional photonic structures such as nanostructured pillar gratings are useful for various applications including wave coupling, diffractive optics, and security features. Two-photon lithography facilitates the generation of such nanostructured surfaces with high precision and reproducibility. In this work, we report on nanopillar diffraction [...] Read more.
Two-dimensional photonic structures such as nanostructured pillar gratings are useful for various applications including wave coupling, diffractive optics, and security features. Two-photon lithography facilitates the generation of such nanostructured surfaces with high precision and reproducibility. In this work, we report on nanopillar diffraction gratings fabricated by two-photon lithography with various laser powers close to the polymerization threshold of the photoresist. As a result, defect-free arrays of pillars with diameters down to 184 nm were fabricated. The structure sizes were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and compared to theoretical predictions obtained from Monte Carlo simulations. The optical reflectivities of the nanopillar gratings were analyzed by optical microscopy and verified by rigorous coupled-wave simulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics and Applications of Photon-Nanostructured Systems)
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Review
(Bio)polymer/ZnO Nanocomposites for Packaging Applications: A Review of Gas Barrier and Mechanical Properties
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(10), 1494; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101494 - 19 Oct 2019
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 1750
Abstract
Nanotechnology is playing a pivotal role in improving quality of life due to its versatile applications in many areas of research. In this regard, nanoparticles have gained significant importance. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) amongst other nanoparticles are being used in producing nanocomposites. [...] Read more.
Nanotechnology is playing a pivotal role in improving quality of life due to its versatile applications in many areas of research. In this regard, nanoparticles have gained significant importance. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) amongst other nanoparticles are being used in producing nanocomposites. Methods like solvent casting, solution casting, solvent volatilization, twin-screw extrusion, melt compounding and extrusion blow molding have been applied to produce ZnO NPs based (bio)polymer composites. These composites are of great interest in the research area of food packaging materials due to their improved multifunctional characteristics like their mechanical, barrier and antimicrobial properties. This paper gives an overview of the main methods to synthesize ZnO NPs, methods to incorporate ZnO NPs in (bio)polymers, and finally, the gas barrier and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites. As a conclusion, a maximum decline in oxygen, carbon dioxide and water vapor permeability was reported as 66%, 17% and 38% respectively, while tensile strength and young’s modulus were observed to increase by 32% and 57% respectively, for different (bio)polymer/ZnO nanocomposites. Full article
Article
Laser-Patternable Graphene Field Emitters for Plasma Displays
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(10), 1493; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101493 - 19 Oct 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1142
Abstract
This paper presents a plasma display device (PDD) based on laser-induced graphene nanoribbons (LIGNs), which were directly fabricated on polyimide sheets. Superior field electron emission (FEE) characteristics, viz. a low turn-on field of 0.44 V/μm and a large field enhancement factor of 4578, [...] Read more.
This paper presents a plasma display device (PDD) based on laser-induced graphene nanoribbons (LIGNs), which were directly fabricated on polyimide sheets. Superior field electron emission (FEE) characteristics, viz. a low turn-on field of 0.44 V/μm and a large field enhancement factor of 4578, were achieved for the LIGNs. Utilizing LIGNs as a cathode in a PDD showed excellent plasma illumination characteristics with a prolonged plasma lifetime stability. Moreover, the LIGN cathodes were directly laser-patternable. Such superior plasma illumination performance of LIGN-based PDDs has the potential to make a significant impact on display technology. Full article
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Communication
Formation of Nanospikes on AISI 420 Martensitic Stainless Steel under Gallium Ion Bombardment
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(10), 1492; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101492 - 19 Oct 2019
Viewed by 1304
Abstract
The focused ion beam (FIB) has proven to be an extremely powerful tool for the nanometer-scale machining and patterning of nanostructures. In this work, we experimentally study the behavior of AISI 420 martensitic stainless steel when bombarded by Ga+ ions in a [...] Read more.
The focused ion beam (FIB) has proven to be an extremely powerful tool for the nanometer-scale machining and patterning of nanostructures. In this work, we experimentally study the behavior of AISI 420 martensitic stainless steel when bombarded by Ga+ ions in a FIB system. The results show the formation of nanometer sized spiky structures. Utilizing the nanospiking effect, we fabricated a single-tip needle with a measured 15.15 nanometer curvature radius and a microneedle with a nanometer sized spiky surface. The nanospikes can be made straight or angled, depending on the incident angle between the sample and the beam. We also show that the nanospiking effect is present in ferritic AISI 430 stainless steel. The weak occurrence of the nanospiking effect in between nano-rough regions (nano-cliffs) was also witnessed for austenitic AISI 316 and martensitic AISI 431 stainless steel samples. Full article
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Article
Modulating Catalytic Activity and Durability of PtFe Alloy Catalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction Through Controlled Carbon Shell Formation
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(10), 1491; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101491 - 19 Oct 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1503
Abstract
Demand on synthetic approaches to high performance electrocatalyst with enhanced durability is increasing for fuel cell applications. In this work, we present a facile synthesis of carbon shell-coated PtFe nanoparticles by using acetylacetonates in metal precursors as carbon sources without an additional polymer [...] Read more.
Demand on synthetic approaches to high performance electrocatalyst with enhanced durability is increasing for fuel cell applications. In this work, we present a facile synthesis of carbon shell-coated PtFe nanoparticles by using acetylacetonates in metal precursors as carbon sources without an additional polymer coating process for the carbon shell formation. The carbon shell structure is systematically controlled by changing the annealing conditions such as the temperature and gas atmosphere. PtFe catalysts annealed at 700 °C under H2-mixed N2 gas show much higher oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity and superior durability compared to a Pt catalyst due to the ultrathin and porous carbon shells. In addition, when increasing the annealing temperature, the carbon shells encapsulating the PtFe nanoparticles improves the durability of the catalysts due to the enhanced crystallinity of the carbon shells. Therefore, it is demonstrated that the developed hybrid catalyst structure with the carbon shells not only allows the access of reactant molecules to the active sites for oxygen reduction reaction but also prevents the agglomeration of metal nanoparticles on carbon supports, even under harsh operating conditions. The proposed synthetic approach and catalyst structure are expected to provide more insights into the development of highly active and durable catalysts for practical fuel cell applications. Full article
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Article
Using Pd-Doped γ-Graphyne to Detect Dissolved Gases in Transformer Oil: A Density Functional Theory Investigation
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(10), 1490; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101490 - 19 Oct 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1244
Abstract
To realize a high response and high selectivity gas sensor for the detection dissolved gases in transformer oil, in this study, the adsorption of four kinds of gases (H2, CO, C2H2, and CH4) on Pd-graphyne [...] Read more.
To realize a high response and high selectivity gas sensor for the detection dissolved gases in transformer oil, in this study, the adsorption of four kinds of gases (H2, CO, C2H2, and CH4) on Pd-graphyne was investigated, and the gas sensing properties were evaluated. The energetically-favorable structure of Pd-Doped γ-graphyne was first studied, including through a comparison of different adsorption sites and a discussion of the electronic properties. Then, the adsorption of these four molecules on Pd-graphyne was explored. The adsorption structure, adsorption energy, electron transfer, electron density distribution, band structure, and density of states were calculated and analyzed. The results show that Pd prefers to be adsorbed on the middle of three C≡C bonds, and that the band gap of γ-graphyne becomes smaller after adsorption. The CO adsorption exhibits the largest adsorption energy and electron transfer, and effects an obvious change to the structure and electronic properties to Pd-graphyne. Because of the conductance decrease after adsorption of CO and the acceptable recovery time at high temperatures, Pd-graphyne is a promising gas sensing material with which to detect CO with high selectivity. This work offers theoretical support for the design of a nanomaterial-based gas sensor using a novel structure for industrial applications. Full article
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Article
Hyperthermia, Cytotoxicity, and Cellular Uptake Properties of Manganese and Zinc Ferrite Magnetic Nanoparticles Synthesized by a Polyol-Mediated Process
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(10), 1489; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101489 - 18 Oct 2019
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 1435
Abstract
Manganese and zinc ferrite magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were successfully synthesized
using the polyol method in ethylene glycol and were found to have high saturation magnetization
values (90–95 emu/g at 4 K) when formed by ~30-nm crystallites assembled in an ~80-nm multicore
structure. Hyperthermia [...] Read more.
Manganese and zinc ferrite magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were successfully synthesized
using the polyol method in ethylene glycol and were found to have high saturation magnetization
values (90–95 emu/g at 4 K) when formed by ~30-nm crystallites assembled in an ~80-nm multicore
structure. Hyperthermia data revealed a sigmoidal dependence of the specific absorption rate (SAR)
on the alternating magnetic field (AMF) amplitude, with remarkable saturation SAR values in water
of ~1200 W/gFe+Mn and ~800 W/gFe+Zn for the Mn and Zn ferrites, respectively. The immobilization
of the MNPs in a solid matrix reduced the maximum SAR values by ~300 W/gFe+Mn, Zn for both
ferrites. The alignment of the MNPs in a uniform static magnetic field, before their immobilization
in a solid matrix, significantly increased their heating performance. Toxicity assays performed in
four cell lines revealed a lower toxicity for the Mn ferrites, while in the case of the Zn ferrites, only
~50% of cells were viable upon their incubation for 24 h with 0.2 mg/mL of MNPs. Cellular uptake
experiments revealed that both MNPs entered the cells in a time-dependent manner, as they were
found initially in endosomes and later in the cytosol. All of the studied cell lines were more sensitive
to the ZnFe2O4 MNPs. Full article
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Article
Aqueous Gold Nanoparticles Generated by AC and Pulse-Power-Driven Plasma Jet
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(10), 1488; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101488 - 18 Oct 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1460
Abstract
In this study, we developed a simple-to-use approach based on an atmospheric pressure plasma jet to synthesize aqueous Au nanoparticles (AuNP). Special attention was paid to the different reaction dynamics and AuNP properties under AC and pulse-power-driven plasma jets (A-Jet and P-Jet, respectively). [...] Read more.
In this study, we developed a simple-to-use approach based on an atmospheric pressure plasma jet to synthesize aqueous Au nanoparticles (AuNP). Special attention was paid to the different reaction dynamics and AuNP properties under AC and pulse-power-driven plasma jets (A-Jet and P-Jet, respectively). The morphology of the AuNP, optical emissions, and chemical reactions were analyzed. Further, a copper mesh was placed above the reaction cell to evaluate the role of electrons and neutral species reduction. A visible color change was observed after the A-Jet treatment for 30 s, while it took 3 min for the P-Jet. The A-Jet treatment presented a much higher AuNP growth rate and a smaller AuNP diameter compared with the P-Jet treatment. Further analysis revealed an increase in chemical concentrations (Cl and H2O2) and liquid conductivity after plasma treatment, with a higher increased amplitude for the A-Jet case. Moreover, the electrons alone had little effect on AuNP generation, while neutral species showed a clear Au+ reduction effect, and a unique coupling effect between both reactions was observed. The different reaction dynamics between the A-Jet and P-Jet were attributed to their different local heating effects and different discharge power during the reaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma for Energy and Catalytic Nanomaterials)
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Article
Thermal-Recoverable Tough Hydrogels Enhanced by Porphyrin Decorated Graphene Oxide
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(10), 1487; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101487 - 18 Oct 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1241
Abstract
Artificial tissue materials usually suffer properties and structure loss over time. As a usual strategy, a new substitution is required to replace the worn one to maintain the functions. Although several approaches have been developed to restore the mechanical properties of hydrogels, they [...] Read more.
Artificial tissue materials usually suffer properties and structure loss over time. As a usual strategy, a new substitution is required to replace the worn one to maintain the functions. Although several approaches have been developed to restore the mechanical properties of hydrogels, they require direct heating or touching, which cannot be processed within the body. In this manuscript, a photothermal method was developed to restore the mechanical properties of the tough hydrogels by using near infrared (NIR) laser irradiation. By adding the porphyrin decorated graphene oxide (PGO) as the nanoreinforcer and photothermal agent into carrageenan/polyacrylamide double network hydrogels (PDN), the compressive strength of the PDN was greatly improved by 104%. Under a short time of NIR laser irradiation, the PGO effectively converts light energy to thermal energy to heat the PDN hydrogels. The damaged carrageenan network was rebuilt, and a 90% compressive strength recovery was achieved. The PGO not only significantly improves the mechanical performance of PDN, but also restores the compressive property of PDN via a photothermal method. These tough hydrogels with superior photothermal recovery may work as promising substitutes for load-bearing tissues. Full article
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Article
Electrochemical Synergies of Heterostructured Fe2O3-MnO Catalyst for Oxygen Evolution Reaction in Alkaline Water Splitting
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(10), 1486; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101486 - 18 Oct 2019
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1811
Abstract
For efficient electrode development in an electrolysis system, Fe2O3, MnO, and heterojunction Fe2O3-MnO materials were synthesized via a simple sol–gel method. These particles were coated on a Ni-foam (NF) electrode, and the resulting material was [...] Read more.
For efficient electrode development in an electrolysis system, Fe2O3, MnO, and heterojunction Fe2O3-MnO materials were synthesized via a simple sol–gel method. These particles were coated on a Ni-foam (NF) electrode, and the resulting material was used as an electrode to be used during an oxygen evolution reaction (OER). A 1000-cycle OER test in a KOH alkaline electrolyte indicated that the heterojunction Fe2O3-MnO/NF electrode exhibited the most stable and highest OER activity: it exhibited a low overvoltage (n) of 370 mV and a small Tafel slope of 66 mV/dec. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that the excellent redox performance contributed to the synergy of Mn and Fe, which enhanced the OER performance of the Fe2O3-MnO/NF electrode. Furthermore, the effective redox reaction of Mn and Fe indicated that the structure maintained stability even under 1000 repeated OER cycles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructured Catalysts for Sustainable Applications)
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Article
Polyfluorene-Based Multicolor Fluorescent Nanoparticles Activated by Temperature for Bioimaging and Drug Delivery
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(10), 1485; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101485 - 18 Oct 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1461
Abstract
Multifunctional nanoparticles have been attracting growing attention in recent years because of their capability to integrate materials with different features in one entity, which leads them to be considered as the next generation of nanomedicine. In this work, we have taken advantage of [...] Read more.
Multifunctional nanoparticles have been attracting growing attention in recent years because of their capability to integrate materials with different features in one entity, which leads them to be considered as the next generation of nanomedicine. In this work, we have taken advantage of the interesting properties of conjugated polyelectrolytes to develop multicolor fluorescent nanoparticles with integrating imaging and therapeutic functionalities. With this end, thermosensitive liposomes were coated with three recently synthesized polyfluorenes: copoly-((9,9-bis(6′-N,N,N-trimethylammonium)hexyl)-2,7-(fluorene)-alt-1,4-(phenylene)) bromide (HTMA-PFP), copoly-((9,9-bis(6′-N,N,N-trimethylammonium)hexyl)-2,7-(fluorene)-alt-4,7-(2- (phenyl)benzo(d) (1,2,3) triazole)) bromide (HTMA-PFBT) and copoly-((9,9-bis(6′-N,N,N- trimethylammonium)hexyl)-2,7-(fluorene)-alt-1,4-(naphtho(2,3c)-1,2,5-thiadiazole)) bromide (HTMA-PFNT), in order to obtain blue, green and red fluorescent drug carriers, respectively. The stability, size and morphology of the nanoparticles, as well as their thermotropic behavior and photophysical properties, have been characterized by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Zeta Potential, transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis and fluorescence spectroscopy. In addition, the suitability of the nanostructures to carry and release their contents when triggered by hyperthermia has been explored by using carboxyfluorescein as a hydrophilic drug model. Finally, preliminary experiments with mammalian cells demonstrate the capability of the nanoparticles to mark and visualize cells with different colors, evidencing their potential use for imaging and therapeutic applications. Full article
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Article
Stability of Coinage Metals Interacting with C60
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(10), 1484; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101484 - 18 Oct 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 949
Abstract
Buckminsterfullerene (C60) has been advocated as a perfect candidate material for the encapsulation and adsorption of a variety of metals and the resultant metallofullerenes have been considered for the use in different scientific, technological and medical areas. Using spin-polarized density functional [...] Read more.
Buckminsterfullerene (C60) has been advocated as a perfect candidate material for the encapsulation and adsorption of a variety of metals and the resultant metallofullerenes have been considered for the use in different scientific, technological and medical areas. Using spin-polarized density functional theory together with dispersion correction, we examine the stability and electronic structures of endohedral and exohedral complexes formed between coinage metals (Cu, Ag and Au) and both non-defective and defective C60. Encapsulation is exoergic in both forms of C60 and their encapsulation energies are almost the same. Exohedral adsorption of all three metals is stronger than that of endohedral encapsulation in the non-defective C60. Structures and the stability of atoms interacting with an outer surface of a defective C60 are also discussed. As the atoms are stable both inside and outside the C60, the resultant complexes can be of interest in different scientific and medical fields. Furthermore, all complexes exhibit magnetic moments, inferring that they can be used as spintronic materials. Full article
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Article
Computational Modeling of Tensile Stress Effects on the Structure and Stability of Prototypical Covalent and Layered Materials
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(10), 1483; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101483 - 18 Oct 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1007
Abstract
Understanding the stability limit of crystalline materials under variable tensile stress conditions is of capital interest for technological applications. In this study, we present results from first-principles density functional theory calculations that quantitatively account for the response of selected covalent and layered materials [...] Read more.
Understanding the stability limit of crystalline materials under variable tensile stress conditions is of capital interest for technological applications. In this study, we present results from first-principles density functional theory calculations that quantitatively account for the response of selected covalent and layered materials to general stress conditions. In particular, we have evaluated the ideal strength along the main crystallographic directions of 3C and 2H polytypes of SiC, hexagonal ABA stacking of graphite and 2H-MoS 2 . Transverse superimposed stress on the tensile stress was taken into account in order to evaluate how the critical strength is affected by these multi-load conditions. In general, increasing transverse stress from negative to positive values leads to the expected decreasing of the critical strength. Few exceptions found in the compressive stress region correlate with the trends in the density of bonds along the directions with the unexpected behavior. In addition, we propose a modified spinodal equation of state able to accurately describe the calculated stress–strain curves. This analytical function is of general use and can also be applied to experimental data anticipating critical strengths and strain values, and for providing information on the energy stored in tensile stress processes. Full article
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Article
Effect of Functionalized Graphene Nanoplatelets on the Delamination-Buckling and Delamination Propagation Resistance of 3D Fiber-Metal Laminates Under Different Loading Rates
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(10), 1482; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101482 - 18 Oct 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 998
Abstract
This paper presents an investigation into the effect of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) as a means of improving the impact buckling performance and delamination propagation resistance of a recently developed 3D fiber-metal laminate (3D-FML). One of the highlights of the investigation is the examination [...] Read more.
This paper presents an investigation into the effect of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) as a means of improving the impact buckling performance and delamination propagation resistance of a recently developed 3D fiber-metal laminate (3D-FML). One of the highlights of the investigation is the examination of the performance of the GNP-reinforced resin at a sub-freezing temperature (−50 °C). 3D-FML beam specimens were subjected to axial impact of various intensities at room-temperature, while they were subjected to quasi-static axial compression load at the sub-freezing temperature. Moreover, the influence of two different surface preparation methods on the performance of the metallic/FRP interfaces of the hybrid system was also investigated in this study. Although the inclusion of the GNPs in the resin resulted in some gain in the buckling capacity of the 3D-FML, nevertheless, the results revealed that the lack of adequate chemical bond between the GNP-reinforced resin and the magnesium skins of the hybrid material system significantly limited the potential influence of the GNPs. Therefore, a cost-effective and practical alternative is presented that results in a significant improvement in the interfacial capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling and Experimental Characterization of Nanocomposite Materials)
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Review
Nanostructured Perovskite Solar Cells
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(10), 1481; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101481 - 18 Oct 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2624
Abstract
Over the past decade, lead halide perovskites have emerged as one of the leading photovoltaic materials due to their long carrier lifetimes, high absorption coefficients, high tolerance to defects, and facile processing methods. With a bandgap of ~1.6 eV, lead halide perovskite solar [...] Read more.
Over the past decade, lead halide perovskites have emerged as one of the leading photovoltaic materials due to their long carrier lifetimes, high absorption coefficients, high tolerance to defects, and facile processing methods. With a bandgap of ~1.6 eV, lead halide perovskite solar cells have achieved power conversion efficiencies in excess of 25%. Despite this, poor material stability along with lead contamination remains a significant barrier to commercialization. Recently, low-dimensional perovskites, where at least one of the structural dimensions is measured on the nanoscale, have demonstrated significantly higher stabilities, and although their power conversion efficiencies are slightly lower, these materials also open up the possibility of quantum-confinement effects such as carrier multiplication. Furthermore, both bulk perovskites and low-dimensional perovskites have been demonstrated to form hybrids with silicon nanocrystals, where numerous device architectures can be exploited to improve efficiency. In this review, we provide an overview of perovskite solar cells, and report the current progress in nanoscale perovskites, such as low-dimensional perovskites, perovskite quantum dots, and perovskite-nanocrystal hybrid solar cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Emerging Solar Cells)
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Communication
Purification of Fluorescently Derivatized N-Glycans by Magnetic Iron Nanoparticles
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(10), 1480; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101480 - 17 Oct 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1180
Abstract
A novel glycoanalytical approach was developed in this study for the purification of fluorescently derivatized N-glycans. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) modified iron-nanoparticles were synthetized by the combination of sonochemical treatment and combustion method. The prepared nanomaterials were applied for a systematic clean-up optimization to [...] Read more.
A novel glycoanalytical approach was developed in this study for the purification of fluorescently derivatized N-glycans. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) modified iron-nanoparticles were synthetized by the combination of sonochemical treatment and combustion method. The prepared nanomaterials were applied for a systematic clean-up optimization to maximize purification efficiency of 2-AA labelled glycans. PEG 1000 modified iron-oxalate was found to be the most effective for the selective enrichment of serum N-glycans providing high reproducibility. Different acetonitrile percentages for binding and washing steps were also tested to ensure the same relative peak areas compared to the unpurified sample. The generated novel clean-up strategy provides a potential route to use in-house synthetized magnetic nanoparticles for glycan sample preparation. Full article
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Article
Importance of Interface in the Coarse-Grained Model of CNT /Epoxy Nanocomposites
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(10), 1479; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101479 - 17 Oct 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1059
Abstract
Interface interactions play a crucial role in determining the thermomechanical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/polymer nanocomposites. They are, however, poorly treated in the current multi-scale coarse-grained (CG) models. To develop suitable CG models of CNTs/polymer nanocomposites, we demonstrate the importance of two aspects [...] Read more.
Interface interactions play a crucial role in determining the thermomechanical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/polymer nanocomposites. They are, however, poorly treated in the current multi-scale coarse-grained (CG) models. To develop suitable CG models of CNTs/polymer nanocomposites, we demonstrate the importance of two aspects for the first time, that is, preserving the interfacial cohesive energy and reproducing the interface load transfer behavior of all-atomistic (AA) systems. Our simulation results indicate that, for CNTs/polymer nanocomposites, the interface cohesive energy and the interface load transfer of CG models are generally inconsistent with their AA counterparts, revealing significant deviations in their predicted mechanical properties. Fortunately, such inconsistency can be “corrected” by phenomenologically adjusting the cohesive interaction strength parameter of the interface LJ potentials in conjunction with choosing a reasonable degree of coarse-graining of incorporated CNTs. We believe that the problem studied here is general for the development of the CG models of nanocomposites, and the proposed strategy used in present work may be applied to polymer nanocomposites reinforced by other nanofillers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling and Experimental Characterization of Nanocomposite Materials)
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Article
Soldering of Passive Components Using Sn Nanoparticle Reinforced Solder Paste: Influence on Microstructure and Joint Strength
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(10), 1478; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101478 - 17 Oct 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1262
Abstract
In this study, the effects of adding Sn nanopowder (particle size < 150 nm) to three solder pastes SAC3-X(H)F3+, SCAN-Ge071-XF3+, and water washable WW50-SAC3 are evaluated regarding microstructure, morphology, joint strength, and electrical resistance. The nanopowder was added at a rate of 10% [...] Read more.
In this study, the effects of adding Sn nanopowder (particle size < 150 nm) to three solder pastes SAC3-X(H)F3+, SCAN-Ge071-XF3+, and water washable WW50-SAC3 are evaluated regarding microstructure, morphology, joint strength, and electrical resistance. The nanopowder was added at a rate of 10% by weight and then mechanically mixed until homogenous solder paste was obtained. The results showed that the addition of Sn nanoparticles resulted in homogenous bond formation for SAC-3 and SCAN, while voids and bubbles formation slightly increased within the joint interface for the water washable solder paste. The SCAN + Sn nano reinforced solder paste showed increased variation of joint strength from 12.6 to 39.9 N, while the water washable + Sn nanopowder reinforced solder paste showed less variability in joint strength from 17.3 to 33.9 N. Both sets of solder paste with and without Sn nano reinforced solder paste showed a reliable quality joint under mechanical shock testing after six shocks in six milliseconds with an 87.1 ms pulse duration. The results showed that Sn nanoparticles resulted in a small resistance change, while RDC values (in mΩ) slightly decreased for SAC and increased for SCAN and further increases for water washable solder paste. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Nanostructure Stability: Nanocrystalline Materials)
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Article
A New Route for Low Pressure and Temperature CWAO: A PtRu/MoS2_Hyper-Crosslinked Nanocomposite
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(10), 1477; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101477 - 17 Oct 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 741
Abstract
PtRu/MoS2 nanoparticles (NPs) (PtRu alloy partially coated by one-layer MoS2 nanosheets) were prepared through a ‘wet chemistry’ approach. The obtained NPs were directly embedded, at 5 parts per hundred resin/rubber (phr) loading, in a poly (divinylbenzene-co-vinyl benzyl chloride) hyper-crosslinked (HCL) resin, [...] Read more.
PtRu/MoS2 nanoparticles (NPs) (PtRu alloy partially coated by one-layer MoS2 nanosheets) were prepared through a ‘wet chemistry’ approach. The obtained NPs were directly embedded, at 5 parts per hundred resin/rubber (phr) loading, in a poly (divinylbenzene-co-vinyl benzyl chloride) hyper-crosslinked (HCL) resin, synthesized via bulk polymerization of the resin precursors, followed by conventional FeCl3 post-crosslinking. The obtained HCL nanocomposites were characterized to evaluate the effect of the NPs. It shows a high degree of crosslinking, a good dispersion of NPs and a surface area up to 1870 ± 20 m2/g. The catalytic activity of the HCL nanocomposite on phenol wet air oxidation was tested at low air pressure (Pair = 0.3 MPa) and temperature (T = 95 °C), and at different phenol concentrations. At the lower phenol concentration, the nanocomposite gives a total organic carbon (TOC) conversion of 97.1%, with a mineralization degree of 96.8%. At higher phenol concentrations, a phenol removal of 99.9%, after 420 min, was achieved, indicating a quasi-complete depletion of phenol, with a TOC conversion of 86.5%, corresponding to a mineralization degree of 84.2%. Catalyst fouling was evaluated, showing good reusability of the obtained nanocomposite. Full article
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Article
Enhanced Protective Coatings Based on Nanoparticle fullerene C60 for Oil & Gas Pipeline Corrosion Mitigation
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(10), 1476; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101476 - 17 Oct 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1174
Abstract
Corrosion accounts for huge maintenance cost in the pipeline community. Promotion of protective coatings used for oil/gas pipeline corrosion control, in terms of high corrosion resistance as well as high damage tolerance, are still in high demand. This study was to explore the [...] Read more.
Corrosion accounts for huge maintenance cost in the pipeline community. Promotion of protective coatings used for oil/gas pipeline corrosion control, in terms of high corrosion resistance as well as high damage tolerance, are still in high demand. This study was to explore the inclusion of nanoparticle fullerene-C60 in protective coatings for oil/gas pipeline corrosion control and mitigation. Fullerene-C60/epoxy nanocomposite coatings were fabricated using a solvent-free dispersion method through high-speed disk (HSD) and ultrasonication. The morphology of fullerene-C60 particles was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The data analysis indicated that the nanoparticles were effectively dispersed in the matrix. The performance of the nanocomposites was investigated through their mechanical and electrochemical properties, including corrosion potential, tensile strength, strain at failure, adhesion to substrate, and durability performance. Dogbone shaped samples were fabricated to study the tensile properties of the nanocomposites, and improvement of strength, ultimate strain, and Young’s modulus were observed in the C60/epoxy specimens. The results demonstrated that the C60/epoxy composite coatings also had improvements in adhesion strength, suggesting that they could provide high damage tolerance of coatings for engineering applications. Moreover, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results generated from the accelerated durability test revealed that the developed fullerene-C60 loaded composite coatings exhibited significantly improved corrosion resistance. The nanocomposite with 0.5 and 1.0 wt.% of C60 particles behaved as an intact layer for corrosion protection, even after 200-h salt spray exposure, as compared to the control coating without nanofiller in which severe damage by over 50% reduction was observed. Full article
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