Previous Issue
Volume 13, September
 
 

J. Funct. Biomater., Volume 13, Issue 4 (December 2022) – 108 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Article
Positive Effects of UV-Photofunctionalization of Titanium Oxide Surfaces on the Survival and Differentiation of Osteogenic Precursor Cells—An In Vitro Study
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(4), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13040265 (registering DOI) - 25 Nov 2022
Viewed by 303
Abstract
Introduction: The UVC-irradiation (“UV-photofunctionalization”) of titanium dental implants has proved to be capable of removing carbon contamination and restoring the ability of titanium surfaces to attract cells involved in the process of osteointegration, thus significantly enhancing the biocompatibility of implants and favoring the [...] Read more.
Introduction: The UVC-irradiation (“UV-photofunctionalization”) of titanium dental implants has proved to be capable of removing carbon contamination and restoring the ability of titanium surfaces to attract cells involved in the process of osteointegration, thus significantly enhancing the biocompatibility of implants and favoring the post-operative healing process. To what extent the effect of UVC irradiation is dependent on the type or the topography of titanium used, is still not sufficiently established. Objective: The present study was aimed at analyzing the effects of UV-photofunctionalization on the TiO2 topography, as well as on the gene expression patterns and the biological activity of osteogenic cells, i.e., osteogenic precursors cultured in vitro in the presence of different titanium specimens. Methodology: The analysis of the surface roughness was performed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) on machined surface grade 2, and sand-blasted/acid-etched surface grades 2 and 4 titanium specimens. The expression of the genes related with the process of healing and osteogenesis was studied in the MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblastic murine cells, as well as in MSC murine stem cells, before and after exposure to differently treated TiO2 surfaces. Results: The AFM determinations showed that the surface topographies of titanium after the sand-blasting and acid-etching procedures, look very similar, independently of the grade of titanium. The UVC-irradiation of the TiO2 surface was found to induce an increase in the cell survival, attachment and proliferation, which was positively correlated with an increased expression of the osteogenesis-related genes Runx2 and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Conclusion: Overall, our findings expand and further support the current view that UV-photofunctionalization can indeed restore biocompatibility and osteointegration of TiO2 implants, and suggest that this at least in part occurs through a stimulation of the osteogenic differentiation of the precursor cells. Full article
Article
Why Is Tantalum Less Susceptible to Bacterial Infection?
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(4), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13040264 - 22 Nov 2022
Viewed by 138
Abstract
Periprosthetic infection is one of the trickiest clinical problems, which often leads to disastrous consequences. The emergence of tantalum and its derivatives provides novel ideas and effective methods to solve this problem and has attracted great attention. However, tantalum was reported to have [...] Read more.
Periprosthetic infection is one of the trickiest clinical problems, which often leads to disastrous consequences. The emergence of tantalum and its derivatives provides novel ideas and effective methods to solve this problem and has attracted great attention. However, tantalum was reported to have different anti-infective effects in vivo and in vitro, and the inherent antibacterial capability of tantalum is still controversial, which may restrict its development as an antibacterial material to some extent. In this study, the polished tantalum was selected as the experimental object, the implant-related tibia osteomyelitis model was first established to observe whether it has an anti-infective effect in vivo compared to titanium, and the early studies found that the tantalum had a lower infectious state in the implant-related tibia osteomyelitis model in vivo than titanium. However, further in vitro studies found that the polished tantalum was not superior to the titanium against bacterial adhesion and antibacterial efficacy. In addition, we focus on the state of interaction between cells, bacteria and materials to restore the internal environment as realistically as possible. We found that the adhesion of fibroblasts to tantalum was faster and better than that of titanium. Moreover, what is more, interesting is that, in the early period, bacteria were more likely to adhere to cells that had already attached to the surface of tantalum than to the bare surface of it, and over time, the cells eventually fell off the biomaterials and took away more bacteria in tantalum, making it possible for tantalum to reduce the probability of infection in the body through this mechanism. Moreover, these results also explained the phenomenon of the “race for the surface” from a completely different perspective. This study provides a new idea for further exploring the relationship between bacteria and host tissue cells on the implant surface and a meaningful clue for optimizing the preparation of antibacterial implants in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Functional Biomaterials in China)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Mechanical Properties of Ti-Nb-Cu Alloys for Dental Machining Applications
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(4), 263; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13040263 - 22 Nov 2022
Viewed by 161
Abstract
Titanium has excellent biocompatibility and good corrosion resistance and is extensively used in dental implants and denture bases. However, pure titanium lacks the strength for use in dental prostheses that require relatively high strength. We developed 15 different types of Ti-Nb-Cu alloys and [...] Read more.
Titanium has excellent biocompatibility and good corrosion resistance and is extensively used in dental implants and denture bases. However, pure titanium lacks the strength for use in dental prostheses that require relatively high strength. We developed 15 different types of Ti-Nb-Cu alloys and investigated their alloy phases and mechanical properties, including tensile and yield strength, elongation after fracture, and Vickers hardness. The alloy phases of Ti-8%Nb-2%Cu and Ti-13%Nb-2%Cu were α + β, while those of Ti-5%Nb-5%Cu and Ti-10%Nb-5%Cu were α + Ti2Cu. The tensile strength and hardness of these alloys were significantly higher than those of titanium; however, their elongation was less. In particular, the yield strength of these alloys was more than twice that of titanium. These differences in mechanical properties are attributable to solid–solution strengthening and precipitation strengthening. Other compositions with an alloy phase of α + β + Ti2Cu or β + Ti2Cu had high hardness but not high strength. These results suggest that the Ti-8%Nb-2%Cu, Ti-5%Nb-5%Cu, Ti-13%Nb-2%Cu, and Ti-10%Nb-5%Cu alloys can be applied to dental prostheses, which are subject to very high forces from accessories such as long-span bridges, clasps, implant-retained superstructures, and narrow-diameter implants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State of the Art in Dental Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A Development of New Material for 4D Printing and the Material Properties Comparison between the Conventional and Stereolithography Polymerised NVCL Hydrogels
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(4), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13040262 - 22 Nov 2022
Viewed by 164
Abstract
The term 4D printing refers to the idea that the shape or properties of a printed object can be changed when an external stimulus is applied. In this contribution, a temperature-responsive polymer Poly (N-vinyl caprolactam) (PNVCL), which is normally prepared via radical free [...] Read more.
The term 4D printing refers to the idea that the shape or properties of a printed object can be changed when an external stimulus is applied. In this contribution, a temperature-responsive polymer Poly (N-vinyl caprolactam) (PNVCL), which is normally prepared via radical free polymerization, was used to justify the 4D printing concept. As a result, by using a Stereolithography (SLA) 3D printer, 4D prints were successfully prepared. These prints were able to demonstrate intelligent and reversible expansion/shrinkage behaviour as the temperature increases and decreases. Additionally, in order to examine the differences in chemical structure, thermal properties, mechanical properties, and swelling behaviours of the photopolymerised and printed parts, a series of characterisation tests, including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), goniometry, tensile test, gel fraction measurement and pulsatile swelling study were performed on this study. In conclusion, the differences between polymerisation methods are significant; despite their chemical structures and thermal properties being similar, there were significant differences with regard to tensile properties, swellability and wettability of samples. The implications of conducting this study are remarkable, not only in providing a new way of preparing NVCL, but also in demonstrating the possibility of using 4D printed NVCL for practical applications. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Biodegradable Mg-Sc-Sr Alloy Improves Osteogenesis and Angiogenesis to Accelerate Bone Defect Restoration
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(4), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13040261 - 22 Nov 2022
Viewed by 185
Abstract
Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys are considered to be biodegradable metallic biomaterials for potential orthopedic implants. While the osteogenic properties of Mg alloys have been widely studied, few reports focused on developing a bifunctional Mg implant with osteogenic and angiogenic properties. Herein, a [...] Read more.
Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys are considered to be biodegradable metallic biomaterials for potential orthopedic implants. While the osteogenic properties of Mg alloys have been widely studied, few reports focused on developing a bifunctional Mg implant with osteogenic and angiogenic properties. Herein, a Mg-Sc-Sr alloy was developed, and this alloy’s angiogenesis and osteogenesis effects were evaluated in vitro for the first time. X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and metallography images were used to evaluate the microstructure of the developed Mg-Sc-Sr alloy. Human umbilical vein/vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used to evaluate the angiogenic character of the prepared Mg-Sc-Sr alloy. A mix of human bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hBM-MSCs) and HUVEC cell cultures were used to assess the osteogenesis-stimulating effect of Mg-Sc-Sr alloy through alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Von Kossa staining. Higher ALP activity and the number of calcified nodules (27% increase) were obtained for the Mg-Sc-Sr-treated groups compared to Mg-treated groups. In addition, higher VEGF expression (45.5% increase), tube length (80.8% increase), and number of meshes (37.9% increase) were observed. The Mg-Sc-Sr alloy showed significantly higher angiogenesis and osteogenic differentiation than pure Mg and the control group, suggesting such a composition as a promising candidate in bone implants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Bone Biomaterials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Green Synthesis of Platinum Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(4), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13040260 - 21 Nov 2022
Viewed by 236
Abstract
The diverse biological properties of platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) make them ideal for use in the development of new tools in therapy, diagnostics, and other biomedical purposes. “Green” PtNPs synthesis is of great interest as it is eco-friendly, less energy-consuming and minimizes the amount [...] Read more.
The diverse biological properties of platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) make them ideal for use in the development of new tools in therapy, diagnostics, and other biomedical purposes. “Green” PtNPs synthesis is of great interest as it is eco-friendly, less energy-consuming and minimizes the amount of toxic by-products. This review is devoted to the biosynthesis properties of platinum nanoparticles based on living organisms (bacteria, fungi, algae, and plants) use. The participation of various biological compounds in PtNPs synthesis is highlighted. The biological activities of “green” platinum nanoparticles (antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant, etc.), the proposed mechanisms of influence on target cells and the potential for their further biomedical application are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Biosynthesis of Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Effect of Cooling and Annealing Conditions on the Microstructure, Mechanical and Superelastic Behavior of a Rotary Forged Ti–18Zr–15Nb (at. %) Bar Stock for Spinal Implants
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(4), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13040259 - 21 Nov 2022
Viewed by 222
Abstract
In this work, the microstructure, phase state, texture, superelastic and mechanical properties of a Ti–18Zr–15Nb (at. %) shape memory alloy subjected to a combined thermomechanical treatment, including hot rotary forging with either air cooling or water quenching and post-deformation annealing are studied. It [...] Read more.
In this work, the microstructure, phase state, texture, superelastic and mechanical properties of a Ti–18Zr–15Nb (at. %) shape memory alloy subjected to a combined thermomechanical treatment, including hot rotary forging with either air cooling or water quenching and post-deformation annealing are studied. It was revealed that the main structural component of the deformed and annealed alloy is BCC β-phase. With an increase in the forging temperature from 600 to 700 °C, the average grain size increases from 5.4 to 17.8 µm for the air-cooled specimens and from 3.4 to 14.7 µm for the water-quenched specimens. Annealing at 525 °C after forging at 700 °C with water quenching leads to the formation of a mixed statically and dynamically polygonized substructure of β-phase. In this state, the alloy demonstrates the best combination of functional properties in this study: a Young’s modulus of ~33 GPa, an ultimate tensile strength of ~600 MPa and a superelastic recovery strain of ~3.4%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Biomaterials for Medical Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Multifunctional Medical Grade Resin with Enhanced Mechanical and Antibacterial Properties: The Effect of Copper Nano-Inclusions in Vat Polymerization (VPP) Additive Manufacturing
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(4), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13040258 - 21 Nov 2022
Viewed by 281
Abstract
Vat photopolymerization (VPP) is an additive manufacturing process commonly used in medical applications. This work aims, for the first time in the literature, to extend and enhance the performance of a commercial medical-grade resin for the VPP process, with the development of nanocomposites, [...] Read more.
Vat photopolymerization (VPP) is an additive manufacturing process commonly used in medical applications. This work aims, for the first time in the literature, to extend and enhance the performance of a commercial medical-grade resin for the VPP process, with the development of nanocomposites, using Copper (Cu) nanoparticles as the additive at two different concentrations. The addition of the Cu nanoparticles was expected to enhance the mechanical properties of the resin and to enable biocidal properties on the nanocomposites since Cu is known for its antibacterial performance. The effect of the Cu concentration was investigated. The nanocomposites were prepared with high-shear stirring. Specimens were 3D printed following international standards for mechanical testing. Their thermal and spectroscopic response was also investigated. The morphological characteristics were examined. The antibacterial performance was evaluated with an agar well diffusion screening process. The experimental results were analyzed with statistical modeling tools with two control parameters (three levels each) and eleven response parameters. Cu enhanced the mechanical properties in all cases studied. 0.5 wt.% Cu nanocomposite showed the highest improvement (approximately 11% in tensile and 10% in flexural strength). The antibacterial performance was sufficient against S. aureus and marginal against E. coli. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Sinus Mucosal Damage Triggered by Synthetic or Xenogeneic Bone Substitutes: A Histological Analysis in Rabbits
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(4), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13040257 - 19 Nov 2022
Viewed by 311
Abstract
Background: It has been shown in rabbit models that the sinus mucosa in contact with graft particles might experience a progressive thinning and perforations. The phenomenon depends on the graft used. Hence, the aim of the present study was to compare the damaging [...] Read more.
Background: It has been shown in rabbit models that the sinus mucosa in contact with graft particles might experience a progressive thinning and perforations. The phenomenon depends on the graft used. Hence, the aim of the present study was to compare the damaging effects of a synthetic of a xenogeneic graft. Methods: Forty New Zealand rabbits received a bilateral sinus elevation. Both sinuses of twenty rabbits were grafted with a biphasic 60% hydroxyapatite and 40% β-tricalcium phosphate while the other twenty received a deproteinized bovine bone mineral graft. Thinned sites (<40 µm) and perforations on the mucosa in contact with graft particles were evaluated after 2 and 10 weeks (ten animals each period). The width of the pseudostratified epithelium was also measured as control. Results: After 2 weeks of healing, 61 thinned sites were detected in the Synthetic group and 49 in the Xenogeneic group. After 10 weeks, the number of thinned mucosae increased to 79 sites in the Synthetic group (p = 0.222 between periods), and to 114 sites in the Xenogeneic group (p = 0.030 between groups; p = 0.001 between periods). Perforations were few in the 2-week period, two in two sinuses out of 20 in the Synthetic group, and four in two sinuses out of 20 in the Xenogeneic group (p = 0.721). In the 10-week period, the perforations increased to eight in the Synthetic group, distributed in six sinuses out of 20, and to sixteen in the Xenogeneic group, distributed in 11 sinuses out of 20 (p = 0.082). The pseudostratified epithelium presented a reduced width at the thinned sites. Conclusions: The contact with synthetic or xenogeneic grafts will induce thinning and possible perforations of the sinus mucosa. This effect will increase over time, and it is stronger at the xenogeneic than the synthetic graft. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bone Regeneration and Repair Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A Comparison of Wear Patterns on Retrieved and Simulator-Tested Total Knee Replacements
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(4), 256; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13040256 - 19 Nov 2022
Viewed by 167
Abstract
Aseptic implant loosening is the most common reason for revision surgery after total knee replacement. This is associated with adverse biological reactions to wear debris from the articulating implant components. To predict the amount of wear debris generated in situ, standard wear testing [...] Read more.
Aseptic implant loosening is the most common reason for revision surgery after total knee replacement. This is associated with adverse biological reactions to wear debris from the articulating implant components. To predict the amount of wear debris generated in situ, standard wear testing of total knee replacement (TKR) is carried out before its clinical use. However, wear data reported on retrievals of total knee replacement (TKR) revealed significant discrepancies compared with standard wear simulator studies. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare the wear patterns on identical posterior-cruciate-retaining TKR designs by analyzing retrieved and experimentally tested implants. The identification and classification of wear patterns were performed using 21 retrieved ultra-high-molecular-weight-polyethylene (UHMW-PE) inserts and four sets of inserts of identical design and material tested in a knee wear simulator. These four sets had undergone different worst-case conditions and a standard test in a wear simulator according to ISO 14243-1. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations of the polyethylene inserts were performed, including the determination of seven modes of wear that correspond to specific wear patterns, the calculation of wear areas, and the classification of the damage over the whole articulating area. Retrieved and standard wear simulator-tested UHMW-PE inserts showed significant differences in wear area and patterns. The total wear areas and the damage score were significantly larger on the retrievals (52.3% versus 23.9%, 32.7 versus 22.7). Furthermore, the range of wear patterns found on the retrievals was not reproducible in the simulator-tested inserts. However, good correspondence was found with the simulator-tested polyethylene inserts under worst-case conditions (third body wear), i.e., deep wear areas could be replicated according to the in vivo situation compared with other wear test scenarios. Based on the findings presented here, standard simulator testing can be used to directly compare different TKR designs but is limited in the prediction of their in situ wear. Preclinical wear testing may be adjusted by worst-case conditions to improve the prediction of in situ performance of total knee implants in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribology for Biomedical Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Comparison of In Vitro Approaches to Assess the Antibacterial Effects of Nanomaterials
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(4), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13040255 - 19 Nov 2022
Viewed by 250
Abstract
The antibacterial properties of nanomaterials (NMs) can be exploited in a range of consumer products (e.g., wound dressings, food packaging, textiles, medicines). There is also interest in the exploitation of NMs as treatments for infectious diseases to help combat antibiotic resistance. Whilst the [...] Read more.
The antibacterial properties of nanomaterials (NMs) can be exploited in a range of consumer products (e.g., wound dressings, food packaging, textiles, medicines). There is also interest in the exploitation of NMs as treatments for infectious diseases to help combat antibiotic resistance. Whilst the antibacterial activity of NMs has been assessed in vitro and in vivo in numerous studies, the methodology used is very varied. Indeed, while numerous approaches are available to assess the antibacterial effect of NMs in vitro, they have not yet been systematically assessed for their suitability and sensitivity for testing NMs. It is therefore timely to consider what assays should be prioritised to screen the antibacterial properties of NMs. The majority of existing in vitro studies have focused on investigating the antibacterial effects exhibited by silver (Ag) NMs and have employed a limited range of assays. We therefore compared the antibacterial effects of copper oxide (CuO) NMs to Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis at various concentrations (12.5–200 µg/mL) using a battery of tests (well and disc diffusion, plate counts—time-kill method, optical density measurement—OD, Alamar Blue and live/dead viability assays, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction). CuO NMs were most toxic to B. subtilis and E. coli, while P. aeruginosa was the least sensitive strain. All assays employed detected the antibacterial activity of CuO NMs; however, they varied in their sensitivity, time, cost, technical difficulty and requirement for specialized equipment. In the future, we suggest that a combination of approaches is used to provide a robust assessment of the antibacterial activity of NMs. In particular, we recommend that the time-kill and OD assays are prioritised due to their greater sensitivity. We also suggest that standard operating protocols are developed so that the antibacterial activity of NMs can be assessed using a harmonised approach. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Crystallographic and Physicochemical Analysis of Bovine and Human Teeth Using X-ray Diffraction and Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(4), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13040254 - 19 Nov 2022
Viewed by 171
Abstract
Dental research often uses bovine teeth as a substitute for human teeth. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in the crystalline nanostructures of enamel and dentin between bovine and human teeth, using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance [...] Read more.
Dental research often uses bovine teeth as a substitute for human teeth. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in the crystalline nanostructures of enamel and dentin between bovine and human teeth, using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The crystallite size (crystallinity) and microstrains were analyzed using XRD with the Rietveld refinement technique and the Halder–Wagner method. The 31P and 1H NMR chemical environments were analyzed by two-dimensional (2D) 1H-31P heteronuclear-correlation (HETCOR) magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy. Enamel had a greater crystallite size and fewer microstrains than dentin for both bovine and human teeth. When compared between the species, the bovine apatite had a smaller crystallite size with more microstrains than the human apatite for both dentin and enamel. The 2D HETCOR spectra demonstrated that a water-rich layer and inorganic HPO4 ions were abundant in dentin; meanwhile, the hydroxyl group in the lattice site was more dominant in enamel. A greater intensity of the hydroxyl group was detected in human than in bovine for both dentin and enamel. For 31P projections, bovine dentin and bovine enamel have wider linewidths than human dentin and human enamel, respectively. There are differences in the crystallite profile between human and bovine. The results of dental research should be interpreted with caution when bovine teeth are substituted for human teeth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Materials for Dental Restorations)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Dynamic Responsive Inguinal Scaffold Activates Myogenic Growth Factors Finalizing the Regeneration of the Herniated Groin
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(4), 253; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13040253 - 18 Nov 2022
Viewed by 235
Abstract
Background: Postoperative chronic pain caused by fixation and/or fibrotic incorporation of hernia meshes are the main concerns in inguinal herniorrhaphy. As inguinal hernia is a degenerative disease, logically the treatment should aim at stopping degeneration and activating regeneration. Unfortunately, in conventional prosthetic herniorrhaphy [...] Read more.
Background: Postoperative chronic pain caused by fixation and/or fibrotic incorporation of hernia meshes are the main concerns in inguinal herniorrhaphy. As inguinal hernia is a degenerative disease, logically the treatment should aim at stopping degeneration and activating regeneration. Unfortunately, in conventional prosthetic herniorrhaphy no relationship exists between pathogenesis and treatment. To overcome these incongruences, a 3D dynamic responsive multilamellar scaffold has been developed for fixation-free inguinal hernia repair. Made of polypropylene like conventional flat meshes, the dynamic behavior of the scaffold allows for the regeneration of all typical inguinal components: connective tissue, vessels, nerves, and myocytes. This investigation aims to demonstrate that, moving in tune with the groin, the 3D scaffold attracts myogenic growth factors activating the development of mature myocytes and, thus, re-establishing the herniated inguinal barrier. Methods: Biopsy samples excised from the 3D scaffold at different postoperative stages were stained with H&E and Azan–Mallory; immunohistochemistry for NGF and NGFR p75 was performed to verify the degree of involvement of muscular growth factors in the neomyogenesis. Results: Histological evidence of progressive muscle development and immunohistochemical proof of NFG and NFGRp75 contribution in neomyogenesis within the 3D scaffold was documented and statistically validated. Conclusion: The investigation appears to confirm that a 3D polypropylene scaffold designed to confer dynamic responsivity, unlike the fibrotic scar plate of static meshes, attracts myogenic growth factors turning the biological response into tissue regeneration. Newly developed muscles allow the scaffold to restore the integrity of the inguinal barrier. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Functional Biomaterials in Italy)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review
3D Bioprinting of Smart Oxygen-Releasing Cartilage Scaffolds
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(4), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13040252 - 17 Nov 2022
Viewed by 300
Abstract
Three-dimensional bioprinting is a powerful technique for manufacturing improved engineered tissues. Three-dimensional bioprinted hydrogels have significantly advanced the medical field to repair cartilage tissue, allowing for such constructs to be loaded with different components, such as cells, nanoparticles, and/or drugs. Cartilage, as an [...] Read more.
Three-dimensional bioprinting is a powerful technique for manufacturing improved engineered tissues. Three-dimensional bioprinted hydrogels have significantly advanced the medical field to repair cartilage tissue, allowing for such constructs to be loaded with different components, such as cells, nanoparticles, and/or drugs. Cartilage, as an avascular tissue, presents extreme difficulty in self-repair when it has been damaged. In this way, hydrogels with optimal chemical and physical properties have been researched to respond to external stimuli and release various bioactive agents to further promote a desired tissue response. For instance, methacryloyl gelatin (GelMA) is a type of modified hydrogel that allows for the encapsulation of cells, as well as oxygen-releasing nanoparticles that, in the presence of an aqueous medium and through controlled porosity and swelling, allow for internal and external environmental exchanges. This review explores the 3D bioprinting of hydrogels, with a particular focus on GelMA hydrogels, to repair cartilage tissue. Recent advances and future perspectives are described. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Obturator Manufacturing for Oronasal Fistula after Cleft Palate Repair: A Review from Handicraft to the Application of Digital Techniques
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(4), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13040251 - 17 Nov 2022
Viewed by 258
Abstract
An oronasal fistula (ONF) is an abnormal structure between the oral and nasal cavities, which is a common complication of cleft palate repair due to the failure of wound healing. When some patients with ONF are unsuitable for secondary surgical repair, the obturator [...] Read more.
An oronasal fistula (ONF) is an abnormal structure between the oral and nasal cavities, which is a common complication of cleft palate repair due to the failure of wound healing. When some patients with ONF are unsuitable for secondary surgical repair, the obturator treatment becomes a potential method. The objectives of the obturator treatment should be summarized as filling the ONF comfortably and cosmetically restoring the dentition with partial function. The anatomy of patients with cleft palate is complex, which may lead to a more complex structure of the ONF. Thus, the manufacturing process of the obturator for these patients is more difficult. For performing the design and fabrication process rapidly and precisely, digital techniques can help, but limitations still exist. In this review, literature searches were conducted through Medline via PubMed, Wiley Online Library, Science Direct, and Web of Science, and 122 articles were selected. The purpose of this review was to introduce the development of the obturator for treating patients with ONF after cleft palate repair, from the initial achievement of the obstruction of the ONF to later problems such as fixation, velopharyngeal insufficiency, and infection, as well as the application of digital technologies in obturator manufacturing. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Strontium Carbonate and Strontium-Substituted Calcium Carbonate Nanoparticles Form Protective Deposits on Dentin Surface and Enhance Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Mineralization
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(4), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13040250 - 17 Nov 2022
Viewed by 304
Abstract
Strontium acetate is applied for dental hypersensitivity treatment; however, the use of strontium carbonates for this purpose has not been described. The use of Sr-carbonate nanoparticles takes advantage of both the benefits of strontium on dentin mineralization and the abrasive properties of carbonates. [...] Read more.
Strontium acetate is applied for dental hypersensitivity treatment; however, the use of strontium carbonates for this purpose has not been described. The use of Sr-carbonate nanoparticles takes advantage of both the benefits of strontium on dentin mineralization and the abrasive properties of carbonates. Here in, we aimed to synthesize strontium carbonate and strontium-substituted calcium carbonate nanoparticles and test them as potential compounds in active dentifrices for treating dental hypersensitivity. For this, SrCO3, Sr0.5Ca0.5CO3, and CaCO3 nanoparticles were precipitated using Na2CO3, SrCl2, and/or CaCl2 as precursors. Their morphology and crystallinity were evaluated by electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction, respectively. The nanoparticles were added to a poly (vinyl alcohol) gel and used to brush dentin surfaces isolated from human third molars. Dentin chemical composition before and after brushing was investigated by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray dispersive energy spectroscopy. Dentin tubule morphology, obliteration, and resistance of the coatings to acid attack were investigated by SEM and EDS. The cytotoxicity and ability of the particles to trigger the mineralization of hDPSCs in vitro were studied. Dentin brushed with the nanoparticles was coated by a mineral layer that was also able to penetrate the tubules, while CaCO3 remained as individual particles on the surface. FTIR bands related to carbonate groups were intensified after brushing with either SrCO3 or Sr0.5Ca0.5CO3. The shift of the phosphate-related FTIR band to a lower wavenumber indicated that strontium replaced calcium on the dentin structure after treatment. The coating promoted by SrCO3 or Sr0.5Ca0.5CO3 resisted the acid attack, while calcium and phosphorus were removed from the top of the dentin surface. The nanoparticles were not toxic to hDPSCs and elicited mineralization of the cells, as revealed by increased mineral nodule formation and enhanced expression of COL1, ALP, and RUNX2. Adding Sr0.5Ca0.5CO3 as an active ingredient in dentifrices formulations may be commercially advantageous since this compound combines the well-known abrasive properties of calcium carbonate with the mineralization ability of strontium, while the final cost remains between the cost of CaCO3 and SrCO3. The novel Sr0.5Ca0.5CO3 nanoparticles might emerge as an alternative for the treatment of dental hypersensitivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bone Regeneration and Repair Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Collagen as a Biomaterial for Skin and Corneal Wound Healing
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(4), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13040249 - 16 Nov 2022
Viewed by 338
Abstract
The cornea and the skin are two organs that form the outer barrier of the human body. When either is injured (e.g., from surgery, physical trauma, or chemical burns), wound healing is initiated to restore integrity. Many cells are activated during wound healing. [...] Read more.
The cornea and the skin are two organs that form the outer barrier of the human body. When either is injured (e.g., from surgery, physical trauma, or chemical burns), wound healing is initiated to restore integrity. Many cells are activated during wound healing. In particular, fibroblasts that are stimulated often transition into repair fibroblasts or myofibroblasts that synthesize extracellular matrix (ECM) components into the wound area. Control of wound ECM deposition is critical, as a disorganized ECM can block restoration of function. One of the most abundant structural proteins in the mammalian ECM is collagen. Collagen type I is the main component in connective tissues. It can be readily obtained and purified, and short analogs have also been developed for tissue engineering applications, including modulating the wound healing response. This review discusses the effect of several current collagen implants on the stimulation of corneal and skin wound healing. These range from collagen sponges and hydrogels to films and membranes. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review
Current Development in Biomaterials—Hydroxyapatite and Bioglass for Applications in Biomedical Field: A Review
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(4), 248; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13040248 - 16 Nov 2022
Viewed by 323
Abstract
Inorganic biomaterials, including different types of metals and ceramics are widely used in various fields due to their biocompatibility, bioactivity, and bioresorbable capacity. In recent years, biomaterials have been used in biomedical and biological applications. Calcium phosphate (CaPs) compounds are gaining [...] Read more.
Inorganic biomaterials, including different types of metals and ceramics are widely used in various fields due to their biocompatibility, bioactivity, and bioresorbable capacity. In recent years, biomaterials have been used in biomedical and biological applications. Calcium phosphate (CaPs) compounds are gaining importance in the field of biomaterials used as a standalone material or in more complex structures, especially for bone substitutes and drug delivery systems. The use of multiple dopants into the structure of CaPs compounds can significantly improve their in vivo and in vitro activity. Among the general information included in the Introduction section, in the first section of this review paper, the authors provided a background on the development of hydroxyapatite, methods of synthesis, and its applications. The advantages of using different ions and co-ions for substitution into the hydroxyapatite lattice and their influence on physicochemical, antibacterial, and biological properties of hydroxyapatite are also presented in this section of the review paper. Larry Hench’s 45S5 Bioglass®, commercially named 45S5, was the first bioactive glass that revealed a chemical bond with bone, highlighting the potential of this biomaterial to be widely used in biomedicine for bone regeneration. The second section of this article is focused on the development and current products based on 45S5 Bioglass®, covering the historical evolution, importance of the sintering method, hybrid bioglass composites, and applications. To overcome the limitations of the original biomaterials, studies were performed to combine hydroxyapatite and 45S5 Bioglass® into new composites used for their high bioactivity and improved properties. This particular type of combined hydroxyapatite/bioglass biomaterial is discussed in the last section of this review paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocompatibility of Functional Biomaterials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Effect of Silicon Carbide Coating on Osteoblast Mineralization of Anodized Titanium Surfaces
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(4), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13040247 - 16 Nov 2022
Viewed by 285
Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the titanium nanotube diameter and the effect of silicon carbide (SiC) coating on the proliferation and mineralization of pre-osteoblasts on titanium nanostructured surfaces. Anodized titanium sheets with nanotube diameters of 50 and [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the titanium nanotube diameter and the effect of silicon carbide (SiC) coating on the proliferation and mineralization of pre-osteoblasts on titanium nanostructured surfaces. Anodized titanium sheets with nanotube diameters of 50 and 100 nm were used. The following four groups were tested in the study: (1) non-coated 50 nm nanotubes; (2) SiC-coated 50 nm titanium nanotubes; (3) non-coated 100 nm nanotubes and (4) SiC-coated 100 nm nanotubes. The biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of pre-osteoblasts were evaluated using a CellTiter-BlueCell Viability assay after 1, 2, and 3 days. After 3 days, cells attached to the surface were observed by SEM. Pre-osteoblast mineralization was determined using Alizarin-Red staining solution after 21 days of cultivation. Data were analyzed by a Kruskal–Wallis test at a p-value of 0.05. The results evidenced biocompatibility and non-cytotoxicity of both 50 and 100 nm diameter coated and non-coated surfaces after 1, 2 and 3 days. The statistical analysis indicates a statistically significant higher cell growth at 3 days (p < 0.05). SEM images after 3 days demonstrated flattened-shaped cells without any noticeable difference in the phenotypes between different diameters or surface treatments. After 21 days of induced osteogenic differentiation, the statistical analysis indicates significantly higher osteoblast calcification on coated groups of both diameters when compared with non-coated groups (p < 0.05). Based on these results, we can conclude that the titanium nanotube diameter did not play any role on cell viability or mineralization of pre-osteoblasts on SiC-coated or non-coated titanium nanotube sheets. The SiC coating demonstrated biocompatibility and non-cytotoxicity and contributed to an increase in osteoblast mineralization on titanium nanostructured surfaces when compared to non-coated groups. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Inhibition of Demineralization of Dentin by Fluoride-Containing Hydrogel Desensitizers: An In Vitro Study
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(4), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13040246 - 16 Nov 2022
Viewed by 244
Abstract
Several desensitizers routinely used clinically for dentin hypersensitivity are expected to inhibit demineralization. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of sealing materials in inhibiting demineralization and increasing fluorine (F) uptake by acid-treated root surfaces. Five noncarious extracted human teeth were used to [...] Read more.
Several desensitizers routinely used clinically for dentin hypersensitivity are expected to inhibit demineralization. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of sealing materials in inhibiting demineralization and increasing fluorine (F) uptake by acid-treated root surfaces. Five noncarious extracted human teeth were used to produce specimens. Three different fluoride-containing materials, namely “MS Coat F” (MS), “MS Coat Hys Block Gel” (HS), and CTX2 Varnish (FV), were used herein. Each material was applied to the demineralized root surface. Single sections were obtained from each specimen. All surfaces of each specimen, except the polished surface, were covered with wax and immersed in an automatic pH cycling system for 2 weeks. Fluorine and calcium distributions in the carious lesions of each specimen were evaluated using proton-induced gamma emission (PIGE) and X-ray (PIXE) techniques, respectively. Dentin demineralization was analyzed using transverse microradiography (TMR) before and after pH cycling. µPIXE/PIGE analysis demonstrated that all sample groups showed increased fluoride uptake on the root surface. TMR analysis revealed that both HS and FV showed significantly lower integrated mineral loss values than the control group. All three samples demonstrated a tendency towards increased fluoride uptake from fluoride-containing hypersensitivity desensitizers and a demineralization inhibition effect on root dentin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State of the Art in Dental Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Review on Biocompatibility and Prospect Biomedical Applications of Novel Functional Metallic Glasses
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(4), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13040245 - 16 Nov 2022
Viewed by 335
Abstract
The continuous development of novel materials for biomedical applications is resulting in an increasingly better prognosis for patients. The application of more advanced materials relates to fewer complications and a desirable higher percentage of successful treatments. New, innovative materials being considered for biomedical [...] Read more.
The continuous development of novel materials for biomedical applications is resulting in an increasingly better prognosis for patients. The application of more advanced materials relates to fewer complications and a desirable higher percentage of successful treatments. New, innovative materials being considered for biomedical applications are metallic alloys with an amorphous internal structure called metallic glasses. They are currently in a dynamic phase of development both in terms of formulating new chemical compositions and testing their properties in terms of intended biocompatibility. This review article intends to synthesize the latest research results in the field of biocompatible metallic glasses to create a more coherent picture of these materials. It summarizes and discusses the most recent findings in the areas of mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, in vitro cellular studies, antibacterial properties, and in vivo animal studies. Results are collected mainly for the most popular metallic glasses manufactured as thin films, coatings, and in bulk form. Considered materials include alloys based on zirconium and titanium, as well as new promising ones based on magnesium, tantalum, and palladium. From the properties of the examined metallic glasses, possible areas of application and further research directions to fill existing gaps are proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocompatibility of Functional Biomaterials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Editorial
Medical Application of Functional Biomaterials—The Future Is Now
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(4), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13040244 - 16 Nov 2022
Viewed by 280
Abstract
We live in unprecedented times [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Application of Functional Biomaterials)
Review
Regulating Macrophages through Immunomodulatory Biomaterials Is a Promising Strategy for Promoting Tendon-Bone Healing
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(4), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13040243 - 15 Nov 2022
Viewed by 313
Abstract
The tendon-to-bone interface is a special structure connecting the tendon and bone and is crucial for mechanical load transfer between dissimilar tissues. After an injury, fibrous scar tissues replace the native tendon-to-bone interface, creating a weak spot that needs to endure extra loading, [...] Read more.
The tendon-to-bone interface is a special structure connecting the tendon and bone and is crucial for mechanical load transfer between dissimilar tissues. After an injury, fibrous scar tissues replace the native tendon-to-bone interface, creating a weak spot that needs to endure extra loading, significantly decreasing the mechanical properties of the motor system. Macrophages play a critical role in tendon-bone healing and can be divided into various phenotypes, according to their inducing stimuli and function. During the early stages of tendon-bone healing, M1 macrophages are predominant, while during the later stages, M2 macrophages replace the M1 macrophages. The two macrophage phenotypes play a significant, yet distinct, role in tendon-bone healing. Growing evidence shows that regulating the macrophage phenotypes is able to promote tendon-bone healing. This review aims to summarize the impact of different macrophages on tendon-bone healing and the current immunomodulatory biomaterials for regulating macrophages, which are used to promote tendon-bone healing. Although macrophages are a promising target for tendon-bone healing, the challenges and limitations of macrophages in tendon-bone healing research are discussed, along with directions for further research. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Antifungal Activity of Biosynthesized Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs) against Aspergilli Causing Aspergillosis: Ultrastructure Study
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(4), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13040242 - 15 Nov 2022
Viewed by 284
Abstract
Currently, nanoparticles and nanomaterials are widely used for biomedical applications. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were successfully biosynthesized using a cell-free extract (CFE) of Bacillus thuringiensis MAE 6 through a green and ecofriendly method. The size of the biosynthesized AgNPs was [...] Read more.
Currently, nanoparticles and nanomaterials are widely used for biomedical applications. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were successfully biosynthesized using a cell-free extract (CFE) of Bacillus thuringiensis MAE 6 through a green and ecofriendly method. The size of the biosynthesized AgNPs was 32.7 nm, and their crystalline nature was confirmed by XRD, according to characterization results. A surface plasmon resonance spectrum of AgNPs was obtained at 420 nm. Nanoparticles were further characterized using DLS and FTIR analyses, which provided information on their size, stability, and functional groups. AgNPs revealed less cytotoxicity against normal Vero cell line [IC50 = 155 μg/mL]. Moreover, the biosynthesized AgNPs exhibited promising antifungal activity against four most common Aspergillus, including Aspergillus niger, A. terreus, A. flavus, and A. fumigatus at concentrations of 500 μg/mL where inhibition zones were 16, 20, 26, and 19 mm, respectively. In addition, MICs of AgNPs against A. niger, A. terreus, A. flavus, and A. fumigatus were 125, 62.5, 15.62, and 62.5 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, the ultrastructural study confirmed the antifungal effect of AgNPs, where the cell wall’s integrity and homogeneity were lost; the cell membrane had separated from the cell wall and had intruded into the cytoplasm. In conclusion, the biosynthesized AgNPs using a CFE of B. thuringiensis can be used as a promising antifungal agent against Aspergillus species causing Aspergillosis. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Hydrothermal Synthesis of Fluorapatite Coatings over Titanium Implants for Enhanced Osseointegration—An In Vivo Study in the Rabbit
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(4), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13040241 - 14 Nov 2022
Viewed by 249
Abstract
This work aims at the development and characterization of fluorapatite coatings, innovatively prepared by the hydrothermal method, aiming for enhanced osseointegration of titanium implants. Fluoride-containing coatings were prepared and characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy—attenuated total reflectance, and X-ray [...] Read more.
This work aims at the development and characterization of fluorapatite coatings, innovatively prepared by the hydrothermal method, aiming for enhanced osseointegration of titanium implants. Fluoride-containing coatings were prepared and characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy—attenuated total reflectance, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The biological response was characterized by microtomographic evaluation and histomorphometric analysis upon orthotopic implantation in a translational rabbit experimental model. Physic-chemical analysis revealed the inclusion of fluoride in the apatite lattice with fluorapatite formation, associated with the presence of citrate species. The in vivo biological assessment of coated implants revealed an enhanced bone formation process—with increased bone-to-implant contact and bone volume. The attained enhancement of the osteogenic process may be attributable to the conjoined modulatory activity of selected fluoride and citrate levels within the produced coatings. In this regard, the production of fluorapatite coatings with citrate, through the hydrothermal method, entails a promising approach for enhanced osseointegration in implant dentistry and orthopedic applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bone Regeneration and Repair Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Preparation and Use of Decellularized Extracellular Matrix for Tissue Engineering
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(4), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13040240 - 14 Nov 2022
Viewed by 315
Abstract
The multidisciplinary fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have the potential to revolutionize the practise of medicine through the abilities to repair, regenerate, or replace tissues and organs with functional engineered constructs. To this end, tissue engineering combines scaffolding materials with cells [...] Read more.
The multidisciplinary fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have the potential to revolutionize the practise of medicine through the abilities to repair, regenerate, or replace tissues and organs with functional engineered constructs. To this end, tissue engineering combines scaffolding materials with cells and biologically active molecules into constructs with the appropriate structures and properties for tissue/organ regeneration, where scaffolding materials and biomolecules are the keys to mimic the native extracellular matrix (ECM). For this, one emerging way is to decellularize the native ECM into the materials suitable for, directly or in combination with other materials, creating functional constructs. Over the past decade, decellularized ECM (or dECM) has greatly facilitated the advance of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, while being challenged in many ways. This article reviews the recent development of dECM for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, with a focus on the preparation of dECM along with its influence on cell culture, the modification of dECM for use as a scaffolding material, and the novel techniques and emerging trends in processing dECM into functional constructs. We highlight the success of dECM and constructs in the in vitro, in vivo, and clinical applications and further identify the key issues and challenges involved, along with a discussion of future research directions. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Fracture and Fatigue of Dental Implants Fixtures and Abutments with a Novel Internal Connection Design: An In Vitro Pilot Study Comparing Three Different Dental Implant Systems
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(4), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13040239 - 14 Nov 2022
Viewed by 244
Abstract
The aim of this study was to compare the mechanical behaviors of three dental implant fixtures with different abutment connection designs. Three implant systems were studied: the control (BLX implant), test group 1 (TORX++ implant), and test group 2 (IU implant). Three samples [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to compare the mechanical behaviors of three dental implant fixtures with different abutment connection designs. Three implant systems were studied: the control (BLX implant), test group 1 (TORX++ implant), and test group 2 (IU implant). Three samples from each group were subjected to static compression to fracture tests to determine the maximum fracture load, and twelve samples were exposed to fatigue tests that measured how many cycles the implants could endure before deformation or fracture. Detailed images of the implant–abutment assemblies were obtained using micro-computed tomography imaging, and fractured or deformed areas were observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The mean maximum breaking loads of 578.45 ± 42.46 N, 793.26 ± 57.43 N, and 862.30 ± 74.25 N were obtained for the BLX, TORX++, and IU implants, respectively. All samples in the three groups withstood 5 × 106 cycles at 50% of the nominal peak value, and different fracture points were observed. All abutment connection designs showed suitable mechanical properties for intraoral use. Microscopic differences in the fracture patterns may be due to the differences in the fixture design or abutment connection, and mechanical complications could be prevented by lowering the overload reaching the implant or preventing peri-implantitis. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Mineralization of Various 3D-Printed PCL Composites
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(4), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13040238 - 11 Nov 2022
Viewed by 247
Abstract
In this project, different calcification methods for collagen and collagen coatings were compared in terms of their applicability for 3D printing and production of collagen-coated scaffolds. For this purpose, scaffolds were printed from polycaprolactone PCL using the EnvisionTec 3D Bioplotter and then coated [...] Read more.
In this project, different calcification methods for collagen and collagen coatings were compared in terms of their applicability for 3D printing and production of collagen-coated scaffolds. For this purpose, scaffolds were printed from polycaprolactone PCL using the EnvisionTec 3D Bioplotter and then coated with collagen. Four different coating methods were then applied: hydroxyapatite (HA) powder directly in the collagen coating, incubation in 10× SBF, coating with alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and coating with poly-L-aspartic acid. The results were compared by ESEM, µCT, TEM, and EDX. HA directly in the collagen solution resulted in a pH change and thus an increase in viscosity, leading to clumping on the scaffolds. As a function of incubation time in 10× SBF as well as in ALP, HA layer thickness increased, while no coating on the collagen layer was apparently observed with poly-L-aspartic acid. Only ultrathin sections and TEM with SuperEDX detected nano crystalline HA in the collagen layer. Exclusively the incubation in poly-L-aspartic acid led to HA crystals within the collagen coating compared to all other methods where the HA layers formed in different forms only at the collagen layer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradable Polymers and Textiles)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Escherichia coli Biofilm Formation, Motion and Protein Patterns on Hyaluronic Acid and Polydimethylsiloxane Depend on Surface Stiffness
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(4), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13040237 - 11 Nov 2022
Viewed by 435
Abstract
The surface stiffness of the microenvironment is a mechanical signal regulating biofilm growth without the risks associated with the use of bioactive agents. However, the mechanisms determining the expansion or prevention of biofilm growth on soft and stiff substrates are largely unknown. To [...] Read more.
The surface stiffness of the microenvironment is a mechanical signal regulating biofilm growth without the risks associated with the use of bioactive agents. However, the mechanisms determining the expansion or prevention of biofilm growth on soft and stiff substrates are largely unknown. To answer this question, we used PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane, 9–574 kPa) and HA (hyaluronic acid gels, 44 Pa–2 kPa) differing in their hydration. We showed that the softest HA inhibited Escherichia coli biofilm growth, while the stiffest PDMS activated it. The bacterial mechanical environment significantly regulated the MscS mechanosensitive channel in higher abundance on the least colonized HA-44Pa, while Type-1 pili (FimA) showed regulation in higher abundance on the most colonized PDMS-9kPa. Type-1 pili regulated the free motion (the capacity of bacteria to move far from their initial position) necessary for biofilm growth independent of the substrate surface stiffness. In contrast, the total length travelled by the bacteria (diffusion coefficient) varied positively with the surface stiffness but not with the biofilm growth. The softest, hydrated HA, the least colonized surface, revealed the least diffusive and the least free-moving bacteria. Finally, this shows that customizing the surface elasticity and hydration, together, is an efficient means of affecting the bacteria’s mobility and attachment to the surface and thus designing biomedical surfaces to prevent biofilm growth. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Hemodynamic Analysis of the Geometric Features of Side Holes Based on GDK Catheter
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(4), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13040236 - 11 Nov 2022
Viewed by 212
Abstract
Hemodialysis is an important means to maintain life in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Approximately 76.8% of patients who begin hemodialysis do so through catheters, which play vital roles in the delivery of hemodialysis to patients. During the past decade, the materials, [...] Read more.
Hemodialysis is an important means to maintain life in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Approximately 76.8% of patients who begin hemodialysis do so through catheters, which play vital roles in the delivery of hemodialysis to patients. During the past decade, the materials, structures, and surface-coating technologies of catheters have constantly been evolving to ameliorate catheter-related problems, such as recirculation, thrombosis, catheter-related infections, and malfunction. In this study, based on the commercial GDK catheter, six catheter models (GDK, GDK1, GDK2, GDK3, GDK4, and GDK5) with different lumen diameters and different geometric features of side holes were established, and computational flow dynamics (CFD) were used to measure flow rate, shear stress, residence time (RT), and platelet lysis index (PLI). These six catheters were then printed with polycarbonate PC using 3D printing technology to verify recirculation rates. The results indicated that: (1) the catheter with a 5.5 mm outer diameter had the smallest average shear stress in the arterial lumen and the smallest proportion of areas with shear stress > 10 pa. With increasing catheter diameter, the shear stress in the tip volume became lower, the average RT increased, and the PLI decreased due to larger changes in shear stress; (2) the catheters with oval-shaped side holes had smaller shear stress levels than those with circular-shaped holes, indicating that the oval design was more effective; (3) the catheter with parallel dual side holes had uniformly distributed flow around side holes and exhibited lower recirculation rates in both forward and reverse connections, while linear multi-side holes had higher shear stress levels due to the large differences in flow around side holes. The selection of the material and the optimization of the side holes of catheters have significant impacts on hemodynamic performances and reduce the probability of thrombosis, thus improving the efficiency of dialysis. This study would provide some guidance for optimizing catheter structures and help toward the commercialization of more efficient HD catheters. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Back to TopTop